ServSafe™ Exam Prep & Study Guide AtTheInstitute.com
11. Cleaning & Sanitizing AtTheInstitute.com
Section Goals• Know how and when to • Describe how to clean and sanitize properly store cleaning surfaces. tools and equipment.• List the different • Describe the necessary methods of sanitizing steps in developing an and how to make sure effective cleaning they are effective. program.• Know the procedures for washing items in a dishwasher and three- compartment sink.
Definitions• Food Contact Surface – Any surface that touches food, such as knives, pots, and cutting boards.• Clean – Remove food or dirt from a surface.• Sanitize – Reduce pathogens on a surface to safe levels.• Water Hardness – The amount of minerals found in water.
Definitions (continued)• pH – In chemistry, the acidity or basicity of a substance. A pH of 7 is considered neutral. Lesser numbers are more acidic, higher numbers more basic.• OSHA – The Occupational Safety & Health Administration. A US government agency that issues and enforces rules concerning workplace safety.• MSDS – Material Safety Data Sheet. A document that describes (among other things) the safe use and handling, hazards, necessary personal protective equipment, and first aid procedures associated with a chemical.
How to Clean & SanitizeAll surfaces must be cleaned and rinsed. This includes walls, shelves, and garbage containers. However any surface that touches food, like pots, pans, plates, knives and cutting boards must be cleaned and sanitized. To clean and sanitize, follow these steps:• Clean the surface.• Rinse the surface.• Sanitize the surface.• Allow the surface to air-dry.
When to Clean & Sanitize• All food contact surfaces must be cleaned at sanitized at these times: – After they have been used. – Before foodhandlers start working with a different type of food. – Any time a foodhandler is interrupted during a task and the items being used may have been contaminated. – After four hours if in constant use.
CleanersCleaners are chemicals that remove food, dirt, rust, stains, mineral & other deposits. Follow these guidelines when handling cleaners.• Follow manufacturer’s instructions• Never combine cleaners• Don’t substitute one cleaner for another unless its intended use is the same
Types of Cleaners• Detergents General Purpose: remove fresh dirt from surfaces, equipment and utensils. Heavy-Duty: remove wax, aged or dried dirt and baked on debris. Dishwasher detergent is an example.• Degreasers: dissolve grease (even baked-on grease) from items like grill back-splashes and oven doors• Delimers (aka Acid Cleaners): remove mineral scale from dishwashers and steam tables.• Abrasive Cleaners: scouring agents that help remove hard to remove dirt. Caution: abrasives can scratch surfaces.
Sanitizing• Heat Sanitizing: required water temperature is 171 ⁰ F at 30 seconds contact time.• Chemical Sanitizing: may be soaked, sprayed or wiped-on. Follow manufacturer’s instructions.
Chemical Sanitizers & EffectivenessThe effectiveness of chemical sanitizers may be affected by: – Concentration: measured in parts per million (ppm). Use a test kit when making sanitizing solutions to ensure proper concentration. Also food bits and leftover detergent can reduce the effectiveness of your sanitizing solution. Change the solution if it looks dirty or soapy. – Temperature: follow the manufacturer’s instructions – Contact time: the solution must be in contact with a surface for a minimum amount of time in order to be effective. Follow the manufacturer’s instructions. – Water Hardness & pH: The minerals in and acidity/alkalinity of your water affects sanitizer effectiveness.
Types of Chemical Sanitizers• Chlorine (like bleach)• Iodine (like Iodophor)• Quats (Quarternary Ammonium) (like Stearamine® Sanitabs)
Machine Dishwashing• High-Temperature Machines: required final rinse temperature of 180 ⁰ F. For stationary- rack, single temperature machines: 165 ⁰ F.• Chemical-Sanitizing Machines: Follow manufacturer’s instructions for proper use and required water temperature.
Dishwasher Machine Operation• Keep the machine clean• Rinse, scrape or soak items before washing• Load racks properly (avoid over-loading)• Inspect items after washing and re-wash items as needed• Air-dry all items, NEVER towel dry.• Check water temperature & pressure and follow manufacturer’s recommendations for dishwasher settings
Manual Dishwashing (3-compartment Sink)Make sure the sinks and work surfaces have been cleaned and sanitized before use. You need:• An area for rinsing away food or scraping it into a trash can.• A drain board to hold dirty items.• A drain board to hold clean items.• A thermometer to measure water temperature.• A clock with a second hand to time sanitizer contact time.
How to Clean & Sanitize using a 3-Compartment Sink1. Rinse, scrape or soak items before washing2. Clean items in first sink in a detergent solution at least 110 ⁰ F. Use a brush, cloth or nylon scrubber to loosen dirt.3. Rinse items in second sink (immerse or spray) to remove all traces of food and detergent.4. Sanitize items in the third sink. DO NOT rinse after sanitizing5. Air-dry all items, NEVER towel dry.
Storing Tableware & EquipmentOnce cleaned and sanitized, items must be stored in such a way that protects them from contamination.• Store items at least six inches off the floor.• Clean and sanitize storage shelves and drawers.• Store glasses and cups upside-down on a cleaned, sanitized shelf or rack.• Clean and sanitize all trays and carts used to transport tableware and utensils.• Keep food contact surfaces of any stationary equipment covered when not in use.
Cleaning In The OperationKeeping your operation clean means choosing and correctly using tools and supplies. You also must store these items after using them to prevent contamination and handle hazardous chemicals with care to ensure safety.Regular cleaning prevents the build-up of dirt, dust, debris and residue. Nonfood-contact surfaces like walls, doors, ceilings, and restrooms must be cleaned regularly.For all your cleaning efforts to come together, you need a Master Cleaning Schedule and a commitment to training and supervising employees following this schedule.
Choosing The Right Cleaning ToolsYour staff needs many tools to keep the operation clean. They also must know how to properly use and store these items.• Keep cleaning tools clean between uses.• Use separate tools for different tasks. For instance keep one set of tools for food contact and one for nonfood contact surfaces. Consider color coding for ease.• Always use a separate set of tools for cleaning restrooms.
Types of Cleaning Tools• Brushes: Loosen dirt better than towels because they allow you to apply more pressure. Make sure that you replace worn brushes.• Scouring Pads: Nylon pads are preferred as metal pads can break apart causing bits of metal pad to end up in food.• Mops & Brooms: Keep both light and heavy-duty mops and brooms on hand. Have separate mops, buckets and wringers for front and back-of-house.• Towels: Never use towels meant for cleaning food spills for any other purpose. Store towels in sanitizing solution between uses. Keep towels that come in contact with raw meat, fish, or poultry separate from other cleaning towels.
Storing Cleaning Tools & SuppliesNever clean tools, mops and brooms in handwashing, dish, or prep sinks. Never empty buckets into urinals or toilets. Store cleaning tools and chemicals away from food and prep areas. Storage areas should have the following:• Good lighting so employees can read chemical labels.• Hooks for hanging mops, brooms and other cleaning tools.• Utility sink for filling buckets and cleaning tools.• Floor drain for dumping dirty water
Storing Cleaning Tools & Supplies (cont’d)• Hang mops and brooms on hooks to dry.• Clean and rinse buckets. Allow to air dry and store with other tools.• Air dry towels overnight.
Using Foodservice ChemicalsMany chemicals used in the operation can be hazardous, especially if handled the wrong way.• Only use chemicals approved for use in foodservice operations.• Store chemicals in their original containers, away from food and equipment used to prepare food.• When transferring chemicals to smaller containers such as spray-bottles, label the container.• Dispose of chemicals in accordance to local laws and manufacturer’s instructions.
MSDSThe Occupational Safety & Health Administration (OSHA) requires that manufacturers provide Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) for their chemicals. An MSDS contains the information on:• Safe Use & handling.• Physical, health, fire and reactivity hazards.• Precautions.• Appropriate personal protective equipment (PPE) to wear when using the chemical.• First Aid info.• Manufacturer’s name, address, and phone number.• Hazardous ingredients and identity information.• Preparation date of the MSDS. Keep MSDS sheets in such a way that allows for easy access by staff.
Developing an Effective Cleaning ProgramTo develop an effective cleaning program for your operation, you’ll need to focus on three things:1. Creating a Master Cleaning Schedule.2. Training Employees to follow the Master Cleaning Schedule.3. Monitoring the program to make sure it works.
Creating The Master Cleaning ScheduleA Master Cleaning Schedule should have the following information:• What should be cleaned.• Who should clean it.• When it should be cleaned.• How it should be cleaned
Training Employees to Follow The Master Cleaning ScheduleFollow these guidelines:• Introduce the program and stress its importance.• Train employees to perform the required cleaning tasks.• Motivate the staff using various incentives.
Monitoring The Cleaning ProgramOnce you have a cleaning program, make sure its working.• Supervise daily cleaning routines.• Check that tasks are completed properly.• Change the Master Cleaning Schedule to adjust to changes in the menu, procedures or equipment in the operation.• Ask staff for input.