• Share
  • Email
  • Embed
  • Like
  • Save
  • Private Content
07 chapter seven
 

07 chapter seven

on

  • 1,706 views

 

Statistics

Views

Total Views
1,706
Views on SlideShare
1,556
Embed Views
150

Actions

Likes
0
Downloads
45
Comments
0

4 Embeds 150

http://www.attheinstitute.com 74
http://www.oncoursesystems.com 62
http://attheinstitute.com 13
https://blackboard9.wccnet.edu 1

Accessibility

Categories

Upload Details

Uploaded via as Microsoft PowerPoint

Usage Rights

© All Rights Reserved

Report content

Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
  • Full Name Full Name Comment goes here.
    Are you sure you want to
    Your message goes here
    Processing…
Post Comment
Edit your comment
  • Hello and welcome to AtTheInstitute.com’s online preparatory course for the National Restaurant AssociationServSafe Manager Certification Exam.
  • And we’re nearly half way through the course now.We’ll be covering Section 7 in our food safety odyssey: Preparation
  • As usual, we’ll outline the learning objectives for this section before we begin.In this section we will seek to understand and explain the safe prep practices for various food types.Learn what a variance is and when we might need one.Memorize the safe minimum cooking temperatures for a wide variety of TCS foods.Understand and explain he methods for safely thawing foods.Explain the options and procedures for safely cooling a variety of foods.Know the procedure for reheating food that will be hot-held for service.List the requirements regarding Consumer Advisory.And outline the procedures for the safe handling of foods cooked in microwave ovens.
  • Our definitions for this section include:Variance – A variance is a document issued by a regulatory authority granting an operation permission to waive a particular requirement.Brining – (similar to marinating.) brining is immersing a food product in a liquid containing salt and other flavorings. Ham is one example of a brined product.Pooling – (as in pooled eggs) Pooling means to combine any number of the same item. When eggs are pooled a number of eggs are removed from their shells and combined in one container. Pooling increases the risk of foodborne illness.
  • Some general preparation practices we need to follow include:Making sure equipment like workstations, cutting boards, and utensils are cleaned and sanitized. (This helps prevent Cross-Contamination.)Removing from the cooler only as much food as can be prepared in a short period of time. (This helps prevent Time-Temperature abuse.)AndReturning prepared food to the cooler or cooking it as quickly as possible. (and again, this helps prevent Time-Temperature abuse.)
  • There are just four correct procedures for thawing frozen food. They are:1) Thaw food in the refrigerator at 41 degrees or lower.2) Submerge the food item under running, potable (meaning drinkable) water at 70 degrees or lower.3) Thaw foods in a microwave. However, it must immediately be cooked!4) Thaw the food as part of the cooking process. This works well for smaller items and for items designed to go from freezer to cooking equipment to table.
  • When prepping produce, follow these guidelines:Protect produce from cross contamination. Ensure that produce does not touch surfaces exposed to raw meat, fish or poultry.Prior to prepping , wash produce thoroughly under running water.The water should be a little warmer than the produce.Pay special attention to leafy greens like spinach. Remove outer leaves and pull apart to rinse the greens thoroughly.
  • When soaking or storing produce in water or an ice water slurry, do not mix multiple items batches or cases.In some cases, produce may be sanitized in water containing ozone. Check with your county or state health department.Always refrigerate cut melons, sliced tomatoes and fresh cut leafy greens. Consider holding other produce under refrigeration also.If your operation serves mainly a high-risk population, do not serve raw seed sprouts.
  • Batters made with eggs and milk run the risk of time-temperature abuse and cross-contamination. Follow these guidelines:Prep batters and breading in small batches. Store what you do not need under refrigeration at 41 degrees or lower.Create a plan to discard unused batter or breading after a set amount of time.Do not use the same batter or breading for different kinds of food where one of those foods is a common allergen.
  • When prepping eggs and egg mixtures, follow these guidelines: Handle pooled eggs with care. Pooled eggs are eggs that are cracked open and combined in a container They should be kept refrigerated at 41 degrees or lower.Consider using pasteurized eggs for dishes that will not be fully cooked liked custards and Caesar dressing.If you mainly serve a high-risk population, use only pasteurized eggs. Regular shell eggs may be used if the item being prepared will be fully cooked – like a blueberry muffin.
  • Chicken, tuna, egg, pasta and potato salad have all been involved in foodborne illness outbreaks. These salads are usually not cooked after preparation. This means that you do not have the opportunity to get rid of pathogens like Hepatitis A that may have contaminated the food. Therefore you should take some extra steps to ensure the safety of these foods:Make sure leftover TCS foods that will be used to make salads have been handled correctly. This includes time-temperature control and protecting the food from cross contamination.Throw out any leftover food held at 41 degrees or lower after seven days. Always check use-by dates before serving salads containing TCS foods.
  • When packaging fresh fruit or vegetable juice onsite for later sale/service, you must treat the juice (pasteurize) according to an approved HACCP plan:If you do not treat the juice in this manner, you must label it as specified by Federal regulations. A sample is provided below:“WARRNING: This product has not been pasteurized and, therefore, may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems.”
  • Ice has many uses in the operation. Follow these guidelines to avoid contaminating ice:Only make ice from water that is safe to drink.Never use ice as an ingredient if it was used to keep food coldStore ice scoops outside of the ice machine in a clean, protected location.Never hold or carry ice in containers that have held raw meat, seafood or poultry – or chemicals.Never use a glass or bare hands to scoop ice.
  • You need a variance ( permission to waive a food safety rule) from your local regulatory authority if you plan to prepare food in any of the following ways.Smoking food as a method of preservation (but not to enhance flavor only)Using food additives or adding components like vinegar to preserve or alter food so that it no longer requires time-temperature control.Curing foodCustom processing animals. For example dressing deer shot by a hunter.Packaging food using MAP, ROP or Sous Vide methods. Clostridium and Listeria are risks for food packaged this way.Sprouting seeds or beansOffering live mollusks (clams, scallops, mussels, cockles or oysters) from a display tank.
  • The only way to reduce pathogens in food to safe levels is to cook the food to its minimum internal temperature. These temperatures are different for each food. Once this temperature has been reached, you must hold the food at this temperature for a specific amount of time.While cooking does destroy pathogens, it does not destroy toxins that may have been produced.NOTE that when a customer requests a food be cooked to a lower temperature, the restaurant must inform the customer of the potential risk of foodborne illness.When preparing foods for those in a high-risk population, you may not undercook foods.
  • The following foods must be cooked to 165 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):Poultry – including whole or ground chicken, turkey or duck.Stuffing made with TCS ingredientsStuffed meat, seafood, poultry or pastaDishes made with previously cooked, TCS foods (Such as a Quesadilla made with previously cooked meat.)
  • The following foods must be cooked to 155 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):Ground meats like beef, pork and lambInjected meats - including brined meats like ham or flavor injected meatsMechanically tenderized meatsGround, chopped or minced seafoodEggs that will be hot-held for service (as on a breakfast buffet for example.)
  • The following foods must be cooked to 145 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):Seafood – including fish, shellfish and crustaceansSteaks/ chops of pork, beef, veal or lamb Eggs that will be served immediately (to order)
  • The following foods must be cooked to 145 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):Seafood – including fish, shellfish and crustaceansSteaks/ chops of pork, beef, veal or lamb Eggs that will be served immediately (to order)
  • The following foods must be cooked to 145 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):Seafood – including fish, shellfish and crustaceansSteaks/ chops of pork, beef, veal or lamb Eggs that will be served immediately (to order)
  • Meat, seafood, eggs and poultry cooked in a microwave oven, must be cooked to 165 degrees F. for 15 seconds. In addition, you must also:Cover the food to keep it from drying out.Rotate or stir the food, half-way through the cooking process.Let the food sit, covered for at least two minutes after cooking.Check the temperature of the food in at least two places to make sure the food is cooked through.
  • Some operations cook food during preparation and then finish cooking it just before service. Follow these guidelines:Do not cook the food longer than 60 minutes during the initial cooking.Cool the food immediately after cooking.Freeze or refrigerate (at 41 degrees or lower) the food after cooling.Heat the food to at least 165 degrees F. for 15 seconds for service.Cool the food if it will not be served immediately or hot-held for service.
  • Your local regulatory authority may want you to have a written plan for Partially-cooked food will be handled. These procedures should describe:How the requirements will be measured and documented.What corrective actions will be taken if requirements are not met.How food items will be marked to indicate that they require further cooking to ensure their safety.How these foods will be separated from ready-to-eat foods during storage.
  • You must cook TCS foods to their minimum internal temperatures listed in this chapter. – unless a customer requests otherwise. There are two requirements for consumer advisory:1.) Disclosure: If your menu includes TCS items that are served raw or undercooked, you must note it on the menu next to these items.And 2.) Reminder: You must advise customers that raw or undercooked food increases their risk of foodborne illness. This may be indicated on the menu, in brochures, on signs or on table tents.
  • Operations that serve high-risk populations like hospitals, nursing homes or daycare centers may not serve certain items. NEVER serve the following:Raw seeds or sproutsUndercooked eggs, meat or seafood.
  • As mentioned previously, pathogens grow well between 41 and 135 degrees F. And they grow very readily between 70 and 125 degrees F. When cooling food you need it to pass through this second (more dangerous) danger zone quickly. Therefore you must:First, cool food from 135 degrees to 70 degrees F. within two hours.Then, cool food from 70 degrees down to 41 degrees or lower in an additional four hours.This process is known as Two-Stage Cooling.
  • Certain factors affect how quickly foods cool. Those factors include:The thickness and density of the food. (Denser foods cool more slowly than less dense foods.)The size and type of storage container. Stainless steel transfer heat away from food faster than plastic. Shallow pans cool more quickly than deep pans.Remember to never place hot food into coolers to cool. It will not cool the food within the required time limits.
  • Before cooling food you should reduce its size. This will allow it to cool faster. Cut large foods into smaller pieces or pour liquids into smaller metal containers: Cool the food by:Utilizing an ice bathAttaching an ice paddle to a mixer. (Ice paddles are available at restaurant supply stores.)Use a Blast Chiller or Tumble-chiller when available.Or Adding ice as an ingredient in place of water.
  • Food that will be hot held for service must be reheated to 165° F. for 15 seconds, within two hours. *Remember that this applies only to food that will be hot-held. Food that will be reheated and immediately served may be reheated to any temperature.
  • All of the information provided can be found in The National Restaurant Association’s, ServSafe Essentials, 5th Edition with 2009 FDA Food Code Updates.For more information check them out online at www.servsafe.com.
  • Please take this opportunity to complete the review questions for this section before continuing on to section eight of the course.Feel free to send us comments and feedback. You can email us at “feedback@AtTheInstitute.com”.For AtTheInstitute.com, I’m [your name].

07 chapter seven 07 chapter seven Presentation Transcript

  • ServSafe™ Exam Prep & Study Guide AtTheInstitute.com
  • 7. The Flow of Food: Preparation AtTheInstitute.com
  • Section Goals• Understand and explain • Explain the options and the safe prep practices for procedures for safely various food types. cooling a variety of foods.• Know what a variance is • Know the procedure for and when you might need reheating food that will one. be hot-held for service.• Know the safe minimum • List the requirements cooking temperatures for regarding Consumer foods. Advisories.• Understand and explain • Explain the safe handling he methods for safely of foods cooked in thawing foods. microwave ovens.
  • Definitions• Variance – A document issued by a regulatory authority granting an operation permission to waive a particular requirement.• Brining – (similar to marinating.) Immersing a food product in a liquid containing salt and other flavorings. Ham is one example of a brined product.• Pooling – (as in pooled eggs) To combine any number of the same item. When eggs are pooled a number of eggs are removed from the shell and combined in one container. Pooling increases the risk of foodborne illness.
  • General Preparation Practices • Equipment: Make sure workstations, cutting boards, and utensils are cleaned and sanitized. (Helps prevent Cross-Contamination.) • Quantity: Remove from the cooler only as much food as you can prep in a short period of time. (Helps prevent Time-Temperature abuse.) • Storage: Return prepared food to the cooler or cook as quickly as possible. (Helps prevent Time-Temperature abuse.)
  • ThawingYou must thaw TCS in one of these four ways: • Thaw food in the refrigerator at 41 degrees or lower. • Submerge food under running, potable water at 70 degrees or lower. • Thaw food in a microwave. It must immediately be cooked! • Thaw the food as part of the cooking process.
  • Prepping Specific Foods: ProduceWhen prepping produce, follow these guidelines:• Protect produce from cross contamination. Ensure that produce does not touch surfaces exposed to raw meat, fish or poultry.• Prior to prepping , wash produce thoroughly under running water. – The water should be a little warmer than the produce. – Pay special attention to leafy greens like spinach. Remove outer leaves and pull apart to rinse the greens thoroughly.
  • Prepping Specific Foods: Produce (cont’d)• When soaking or storing produce in water or an ice water slurry, do not mix multiple items batches or cases.• In some cases, produce may be sanitized in water containing ozone. Check with your county or state health department.• Always refrigerate cut melons, sliced tomatoes and fresh cut leafy greens. Consider holding other produce under refrigeration too.• If your operation serves mainly a high-risk population, do not serve raw seed sprouts.
  • Prepping Specific Foods: Batters & BreadingBatters made with eggs and milk run the risk of time-temperature abuse and cross- contamination. Follow these guidelines:• Prep batters and breading in small batches. Store what you do not need under refrigeration at 41 degrees or lower.• Create a plan to discard unused batter or breading after a set amount of time.• Do not use the same batter or breading for different kinds of food where one of those foods is a common allergen.
  • Prepping Specific Foods: : Eggs & Egg MixturesWhen prepping eggs and egg mixtures, follow these guidelines:• Handle pooled eggs with care. Keep them refrigerated at 41 degrees or lower.• Consider using pasteurized eggs for dishes that will not be fully cooked liked custards and Caesar dressing.• If you mainly serve a high-risk population, use only pasteurized eggs. Regular shell eggs may be used if the item being prepared will be fully cooked – like a blueberry muffin.
  • Prepping Specific Foods: Salads Containing TCS FoodsIt is important to follow these guidelines:• Make sure leftover TCS foods that will be used to make salads have been handled correctly.• Throw out any leftover food held at 41 degrees or lower after seven days. Always check use-by dates before serving salads containing TCS foods.
  • Prepping Specific Foods: Juice Packaged On-SiteWhen packaging fresh fruit or vegetable juice onsite for later sale/service, you must treat the juice (pasteurize) according to an approved HACCP plan: – If you do not treat the juice in this manner, you must label it as specified by Federal regulations. A sample is provided below: “WARRNING: This product has not been pasteurized and, therefore, may contain harmful bacteria that can cause serious illness in children, the elderly, and persons with weakened immune systems.”
  • Preparing Specific Foods: IceIce has many uses in the operation. Follow these guidelines to avoid contaminating ice:• Only make ice from water that is safe to drink.• Never use ice as an ingredient if it was used to keep food cold• Store ice scoops outside of the ice machine in a clean, protected location.• Never hold or carry ice in containers that have held raw meat, seafood or poultry – or chemicals.• Never use a glass or bare hands to scoop ice.
  • Practices That Require a VarianceYou need a variance if you plan to prepare food in any of the following ways.• Smoking food as a method of preservation• Using food additives or adding components like vinegar to preserve or alter food so that it no longer requires time-temperature control.• Curing food• Custom processing animals.• Packaging food using MAP, ROP or Sous Vide methods.• Sprouting seeds or beans• Offering live mollusks from a display tank.
  • Cooking FoodsThe only way to reduce pathogens in food to safe levels is to cook the food to its minimum internal temperature.While cooking does destroy pathogens, it does not destroy toxins that may have been produced.When preparing foods for those in a high-risk population, you may not undercook foods.
  • Cooking Requirements for Specific Foods: 165 degrees F.The following foods must be cooked to 165 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):• Poultry – including whole or ground chicken, turkey or duck.• Stuffing made with TCS ingredients• Stuffed meat, seafood, poultry or pasta• Dishes made with previously cooked, TCS foods
  • Cooking Requirements for Specific Foods: 155 degrees F.The following foods must be cooked to 155 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):• Ground meats like beef, pork and lamb• Injected meats - including brined meats like ham or flavor injected meats• Mechanically tenderized meats• Ground, chopped or minced seafood• Eggs that will be hot-held for service
  • Cooking Requirements for Specific Foods: 145 degrees F.The following foods must be cooked to 145 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):• Seafood – including fish, shellfish and crustaceans• Steaks/ chops of pork, beef, veal or lamb• Eggs that will be served immediately (to order)
  • Cooking Requirements for Specific Foods: 145 degrees F. (for 4 minutes)The following foods must be cooked to 135 degrees F. (for 4 minutes):• Roasts of pork, beef, veal or lamb
  • Cooking Requirements for Specific Foods: 135 degrees F.The following foods must be cooked to 135 degrees F. (for 15 seconds):• Commercially processed, ready to eat food that will be hot-held for service.• Fruits, veggies, grains and legumes that will be hot-held for service.
  • Cooking TCS Foods in the MicrowaveMeat, seafood, eggs and poultry cooked in a microwave oven, must be cooked to 165 degrees F. for 15 seconds. In addition, you must:• Cover the food to keep it from drying out.• Rotate or stir it half-way through the cooking process.• Let the food sit, covered for at least two minutes after cooking.• Check the temperature of the food in at least two places.
  • Partial Cooking (Par-cooking)Some operations cook food during preparation and then finish cooking it just before service. Follow these guidelines:1. Do not cook the food longer than 60 minutes during initial cooking.2. Cool the food immediately after cooking.3. Freeze or refrigerate the food after cooling.4. Heat the food to at least 165 degrees F. for 15 seconds for service.5. Cool the food if it will not be served immediately or held hot.
  • Partial Cooking : Additional ConcernsYour local regulatory authority may want you to have a written plan for Partially-cooked food will be handled. These procedures should describe:• How the requirements will be measured and documented.• What corrective actions will be taken if requirements are not met.• How food items will be marked to indicate that they require further cooking to ensure their safety.• How these foods will be separated from ready-to-eat foods during storage.
  • Consumer AdvisoryYou must cook TCS foods to their minimum internal temperatures listed in this chapter. – unless a customer requests otherwise. There are two requirements for consumer advisory:• Disclosure: If your menu includes TCS items that are served raw or undercooked, you must note it on the menu next to these items.• Reminder: You must advise customers that raw or undercooked food increases their risk of foodborne illness. This may be indicated on the menu, in brochures, signs or table tents. The FDA Advises against serving raw or undercooked meat, poultry, seafood or eggs to children.
  • Operations That Serve High-Risk PopulationsOperations that serve high-risk populations like hospitals, nursing homes or daycare centers may not serve certain items. NEVER serve the following:• Raw seeds or sprouts• Undercooked eggs, meat or seafood.
  • Cooling FoodsAs mentioned previously, pathogens grow well between 41 and 135 degrees F. And they grow very readily between 70 and 125 degrees F. When cooling food you need it to pass through this second (more dangerous) danger zone quickly. Therefore:• First cool food from 135 degrees to 70 degrees F. within two hours.• Then cool food from 70 degrees down to 41 degrees or lower in an additional four hours. This process is known as Two-Stage Cooling.
  • Two-Stage Cooling (cont’d)Rules for two-stage cooling:• If food has not reached 70 degrees F. within two hours, it must be reheated and cooled again or discarded.• If food is cooled from 135 down to 70 degrees in less than the required two hours, you may use the remaining time to cool it down to 41 degrees. However, the total cooling time still may not exceed six hours.
  • Factors That Affect CoolingCertain factors affect how quickly foods cool. Those factors include:• The thickness and density of the food. (Denser foods cool more slowly than less dense foods.)• The size and type of storage container. Stainless steel transfer heat away from food faster than plastic. Shallow pans cool more quickly than deep pans.
  • How To Cool FoodBefore cooling food you should reduce its size. This will allow it to cool faster. Cut large foods into smaller pieces or pour liquids into smaller metal containers: Cool the food by:• Utilizing an ice bath• Attaching an ice paddle to a mixer. (Ice paddles are available at restaurant supply stores.)• Use a Blast Chiller or Tumble-chiller when available.• Add ice as an ingredient in place of water.
  • Reheating Food For Hot HoldingFood that will be hot held for service must be reheated to 165° F. for 15 seconds, within two hours.*Remember that this applies only to food that will be hot-held. Food that will be reheated and immediately served may be reheated to any temperature.
  • ServSafe Essentials ISBN: 0135026520 http://nraef.orghttp://www.servsafe.com
  • AtTheInstitute.comfeedback@AtTheInstitute.com