ServSafe™ Exam Prep & Study Guide          AtTheInstitute.com
5. The Flow of Food: An Introduction           AtTheInstitute.com
The Flow of FoodThe path food takes through your operation. This  may include:     •   Purchasing     •   Receiving     • ...
Section Goals• Be able to list the      • List the types of  strategies for             thermometers (and  preventing cros...
Definitions• Flow of Food – The path food takes through your  operation from purchasing all the way through to service.• T...
Cross-Contamination• Pathogens can move around easily in your  operation. They can spread from unwashed  hands or food to ...
How to Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat    Foods Away From Each OtherUse Separate Equipment• Use one set of equipment for one type ...
How to Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat    Foods Away From Each OtherClean & Sanitize• Clean and sanitize all work surfaces,  equip...
How to Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat    Foods Away From Each OtherPrep Foods At Different Times• If you need to use the same equ...
How to Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat    Foods Away From Each OtherBuying Prepared (Convenience) Foods• Buy food items that requi...
Time-Temperature Abuse• Many foodborne illnesses happen because food has  been time & temperature abused. That is, when it...
Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseMonitoring• Learn which food items should have their  temperature checked, how often and ...
Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseTools• Ensure that employees have the right  thermometers available and the training to  ...
Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseRecording• Have foodhandlers record temperatures as a  normal part of their duties. Make ...
Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseTime & Temperature Control Procedures• Have procedures that limit the time food  spends i...
Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseCorrective Actions• Make sure foodhandlers know what to do  when temperature standards ar...
Monitoring Time & TemperatureTo keep food safe you must limit the time it spends  in The Temperature Danger Zone. The two ...
Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers    Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers can      check temperatures from 0° - 220° F.      When...
Thermocouples & Thermistors       Thermocouples & thermistors         check temperatures         electronically using vari...
Thermocouple Probes      Immersion Probes      • Use these to check the        temperature of liquids like        soups, s...
Thermocouple Probes      Surface Probes      • Use these to check the        temperature of cooking        equipment such ...
Thermocouple Probes      Penetration Probes      • Use these to check the        internal temperature of        foods. Thi...
Thermocouple Probes      Air Probes      • Use these to check the        temperature inside        coolers and ovens.
Infrared (Laser) Thermometers        Infrared Thermometers measure the           surface temperature of items.           B...
Time-Temperature Indicators (TTI)          Time-Temperature Indicator (TTI)            tags are sometimes placed          ...
Calibrating ThermometersThermometers can lose their accuracy when  bumped or dropped or when they go through  extreme temp...
Ice-Point Method for Calibrating              Thermometers•   Fill a large container with crushed ice. Add cold    tap wat...
Boiling-Point Method for Calibrating               Thermometers•   Bring tap water to a boil in a deep pot/pan.•   Put the...
Additional Thermometer GuidelinesEmployees must be properly trained on how to use and care for the  types of thermometers ...
ServSafe Essentials    ISBN: 0135026520      http://nraef.orghttp://www.servsafe.com
JNA Institute of Culinary Arts           215.468.8800      http://culinaryarts.edu
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  • Hello and welcome to AtTheInstitute.com’s online preparatory course for the National Restaurant AssociationServSafe Manager Certification Exam.
  • This will be chapter or section five of the course: The Flow of Food: An Introduction
  • Before we begin we should talk about what “flow of food” means. The flow of food is the path food takes through the operation. It is everything that happens to that food.And may include some or all of these steps:PurchasingReceivingStoringThawingPreparationCookingHoldingCoolingReheatingAnd Serving
  • Our goals for this section will be:Be able to list the strategies for preventing cross contamination.Be able to list the strategies that aid in preventing time and temperature abuse.List the types of thermometers (and probe attachments) available to aid in preventing time and temperature abuse.List the methods and steps for thermometer calibration and general thermometer care.
  • As always, more definitions to help you understand this section. We have the afore-mentioned Flow of Food – That is the path food takes through your operation from purchasing all the way through to service.Thermocouple or Thermistor – Thermocouples and thermistors are electronic (digital) thermometers. They’re are generally faster and more accurate than standard,bimetallic, stemmed thermometers, though more costly.Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer – Are common, inexpensive foodservice thermometers.To calibrate – (speaking of thermometers) means to adjust a thermometer to make it more accurate.And monitor – In this context, monitor means to measure time & temperature to ensure safety.
  • Cross-contamination can happen at almost any point in the flow of food. When you know how and when it happens, it is fairly easy to prevent. The most basic way is to keep raw and ready-to-eat foods separate for one another. Remember, pathogens can move around easily in your operation. They can spread from unwashed hands (or food) to equipment, utensils, prep areas and other foods.
  • To Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat Foods Away From Each Other:Use Separate Equipment - Use one set of equipment for one type of food. For instance: yellow “poultry-only” cutting boards, red “meat-only” cutting boards. Blue boards for seafood and green for produce. This gives employees a simple color coded system to follow to keep foods separate.
  • A second option is to clean & sanitize. Clean and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment and utensils between tasks. Use correct (properly mixed) sanitizers and make sure to: Wash …then Rinse …then Sanitize.
  • A third option is to Prep Foods At Different TimesIf you need to use the same equipment, utensils and area to prep different types of food that might cross-contaminate, prep them at different times. For instance you might prepare salad greens at a table, (then wash, rinse, and sanitize) and then cut (or fabricate) raw poultry afterwards.
  • Lastly, where the first three methods are not practical you can buy prepared foods – that is food items that require little or no preparation. Pre-fabricated (pre-cut) and cryovac-packaged steaks, pre-cut and grilled, frozen chicken breasts or washed and chopped scallions are examples.
  • Many foodborne illnesses happen because food has been time & temperature abused. That is, when TCS food has been allowed to remain at temperatures of 41° - 135° F. This is called “The Temperature Danger Zone” because pathogens grow in this range. But pathogens grow even faster at temperatures between 70° and 125° F. You may wish to think of this as a sort of “super-danger” zone. Remember:Food is being Time & Temperature Abused when it is:Cooked to the wrong (too low) temperatureHeld at the wrong temperatureOr cooled or reheated incorrectly
  • To help combat Time-Temperature abuse:MonitorLearn which food items should have their temperature checked, how often and by whom. Then assign those duties to foodhandlers as necessary.
  • The next way to combat Time-Temperature abuse is:Having the right tools:Ensure that employees have the right thermometers available and the training to use them effectively. Use timers or clocks in prep areas to check how long food is in The Temperature Danger Zone.
  • Our third way to combat Time-Temperature abuse is:RecordingHave foodhandlers record temperatures as a normal part of their duties. Make sure temperatures are being written down at the time they are taken
  • The fourth way to combat Time-Temperature abuse is:Provide Time & Temperature Control ProceduresHave procedures that limit the time food spends in The Temperature Danger Zone. This might include a policy for removing only a small amount of a product from refrigeration at one time or standardized recipes with built-in control procedures.
  • And lastly, have:Corrective ActionsMake sure foodhandlers know what to do when temperature standards are not met. For instance, when soup, being held on a steam table falls below 135°F. after two hours, it needs to be reheated to the correct temperature.
  • To keep food safe you must limit the time it spends in The Temperature Danger Zone. The two most important tools used for this are clocks/timers and thermometers. There are three common types of thermometers we use in foodservice: Bimetallic Stemmed ThermometersThermocouplesThermistorsNOTE: For our purposes Thermocouples and Thermistors are interchangeable so that in fact we will choose either Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers OR Thermocouples/Thermistors or some combination of the three.
  • Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers can check temperatures from 0° - 220° F. When buying this type of thermometer for your operation, follow these guidelines: Make sure there is a Calibration Nut or Method of Calibration to ensure accuracyIt should have Easy to Read MarkingsMake sure there is a dimple on the stem that marks the end of the sensing area.And ensure that the thermometer isguaranteed accurate to within ±2 degrees Fahrenheit.
  • Thermocouples & thermistors check temperatures electronically using various attachment probes and display the temperature digitally. They are useful for thin or thick foods because the sensing area is only at the tip of the probe.
  • Types of probes include:Immersion ProbesUse these to check the temperature of liquids like soups, sauces and fryer oil..
  • Surface ProbesUse these to check the temperature of cooking equipment such as griddle tops.
  • Penetration ProbesUse these to check the internal temperature of foods. This type of probe is especially useful for thin foods like fish fillets and burgers.
  • And Air ProbesUse these to check the temperature inside coolers and ovens.
  • Another kind of thermometer is theInfrared ThermometerInfrared Thermometers measure the surface temperature of items. Because there is no contact between the thermometer and the food or item, this type of thermometer minimizes cross-contamination risks. Follow these guidelines:Hold the thermometer close to the food or item being measuredRemove any barriers between the food/item and the thermometer such as packagingAnd Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use.
  • You may also see TTI’sTime-Temperature Indicator (TTI) tags are sometimes placed inside delivery vehicles and on food packaging. A color change on the tag can tell you if the food has been time & temperature abused.
  • Thermometers can lose their accuracy when bumped or dropped or when they go through extreme temperature changes. When this happens, thermometers need to be calibrated (that is, adjusted) so that they remain accurate. Thermometers may be calibrated by either the:Ice-Point Method (32° F.) orThe Boiling-Point Method (212° F.)
  • To calibrate a thermometer using the ice-point method:Fill a large container with crushed ice. Add cold tap water until the container is full. Stir the mixture well.Put the thermometer stem (sensing area) into the ice-water. Wait at least 30 seconds or until the indicator/readout stops moving.Do not let the probe touch the sides of the container.Adjust the thermometer so that it reads 32° F.This is done by turning a calibration nut or following the manufacturer’s instructions for calibration.
  • To calibrate a thermometer using the boiling-point method:Bring tap water to a boil in a deep pot/pan. Put the thermometer stem (sensing area) into the boiling water. Wait at least 30 seconds or until the indicator/readout stops moving.Do not let the probe touch the sides of the pot/pan.Adjust the thermometer so that it reads 212° F.This is done by turning a calibration nut or following the manufacturer’s instructions for calibration.NOTE: The Boiling-point temperature may vary depending upon your elevation relative to sea-level. Adjust accordingly.
  • Employees must be properly trained on how to use and care for the types of thermometers they will be using. This includes: Proper Cleaning & Sanitizing – Thermometers must be washed, rinsed, sanitized, and air-dried to be safe for food contact.Calibration – Thermometers should be calibrated at the start of each shift, prior to the day’s first delivery, when dropped or bumped, or when they go through extreme temperature changes.Accuracy – Some thermometers cannot be calibrated. (Oven & Cooler thermometers) These thermometers should be checked by comparing temperatures to a calibrated thermocouple and replaced if needed.Glass Thermometers – Never use glass thermometers to check food temperatures..Checking Temperatures – When checking temperatures insert the probe into the thickest part of the food. (Also take another reading in a different spot as these temperatures may differ.) It can take 15 – 30 seconds to get an accurate reading depending upon the type and quality of thermometer used.
  • All of the information provided can be found in The National Restaurant Association’s, ServSafe Essentials, 5th Edition with 2009 FDA Food Code Updates.For more information go to their site. www.servsafe.com.
  • Your next step is to tackle the review questions for this section before continuing on to section Six of the course.For AtTheInstitute.com, this is [your name]. Leave us any feedback you might have regarding this course by email at feedback@AtTheInstitute.com.Thank You.
  • 05 chapter five

    1. 1. ServSafe™ Exam Prep & Study Guide AtTheInstitute.com
    2. 2. 5. The Flow of Food: An Introduction AtTheInstitute.com
    3. 3. The Flow of FoodThe path food takes through your operation. This may include: • Purchasing • Receiving • Storing • Thawing • Preparation • Cooking • Holding • Cooling • Reheating • Serving
    4. 4. Section Goals• Be able to list the • List the types of strategies for thermometers (and preventing cross probe attachments) contamination. available to aid in• Be able to list the preventing time and strategies that aid in temperature abuse. preventing time and • List the steps for temperature abuse. thermometer calibration and general thermometer care.
    5. 5. Definitions• Flow of Food – The path food takes through your operation from purchasing all the way through to service.• Thermocouple / Thermistor – An electronic (digital) thermometer. Thermocouples are generally faster and more accurate than bimetallic stemmed thermometers, though more costly.• Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometer – An common, inexpensive foodservice thermometer.• Calibrate – (Thermometer) To adjust a thermometer to make it more accurate.• Monitor – In food service operations – To measure time & temperature to ensure safety.
    6. 6. Cross-Contamination• Pathogens can move around easily in your operation. They can spread from unwashed hands or food to equipment, utensils, prep areas and foods.• Cross-contamination can happen at almost any point in the flow of food.• The most basic way to prevent cross- contamination is to keep raw and ready-to-eat foods away from each other.
    7. 7. How to Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat Foods Away From Each OtherUse Separate Equipment• Use one set of equipment for one type of food. For instance: yellow “poultry-only” cutting boards, red “meat-only” cutting boards. Blue boards for seafood and green for produce. This gives employees a simple color coded system to follow to keep foods separate.
    8. 8. How to Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat Foods Away From Each OtherClean & Sanitize• Clean and sanitize all work surfaces, equipment and utensils between tasks. Use correct (properly mixed) sanitizers and make sure to: Wash …then Rinse …then Sanitize.
    9. 9. How to Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat Foods Away From Each OtherPrep Foods At Different Times• If you need to use the same equipment, utensils and area to prep different types of food that might cross-contaminate, prep them at different times. For instance you might prepare salad greens at a table, (then wash, rinse, and sanitize) and then cut (or fabricate) raw poultry afterwards.
    10. 10. How to Keep Raw & Ready-To-Eat Foods Away From Each OtherBuying Prepared (Convenience) Foods• Buy food items that require little or no preparation. Pre-fabricated (pre-cut) and cryovac-packaged steaks or washed and chopped scallions are examples.
    11. 11. Time-Temperature Abuse• Many foodborne illnesses happen because food has been time & temperature abused. That is, when it’s been allowed to remain at temperatures of 41° - 135° F. This is called “The Temperature Danger Zone” because pathogens grow in this range. But they grow even faster at temperatures of 70° - 125° F. You may wish to think of this as a “super-danger” zone.• Food is being Time & Temperature Abused when: • Cooked to the wrong (too low) temperature • Held at the wrong temperature • Cooled or reheated incorrectly
    12. 12. Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseMonitoring• Learn which food items should have their temperature checked, how often and by whom. Then assign duties to foodhandlers in each area.
    13. 13. Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseTools• Ensure that employees have the right thermometers available and the training to use them effectively. Use times in prep areas to check how long food is in The Temperature Danger Zone.
    14. 14. Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseRecording• Have foodhandlers record temperatures as a normal part of their duties. Make sure temperatures are being written down at the time they are taken.
    15. 15. Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseTime & Temperature Control Procedures• Have procedures that limit the time food spends in The Temperature Danger Zone. This might include a policy for removing only a small amount of a product from refrigeration at one time or standardized recipes with built- in control procedures.
    16. 16. Avoiding Time & Temperature AbuseCorrective Actions• Make sure foodhandlers know what to do when temperature standards are not met. For instance, when soup, being held on a steam table falls below 135°F. after two hours, it needs to be reheated to the correct temperature.
    17. 17. Monitoring Time & TemperatureTo keep food safe you must limit the time it spends in The Temperature Danger Zone. The two most important tools used for this are clocks/timers and thermometers. There are three common types of thermometers we use in foodservice: • Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers • Thermocouples • Thermistors NOTE: For our purposes Thermocouples and Thermistors are interchangeable so that in fact we will choose either Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers OR Thermocouples/Thermistors.
    18. 18. Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers Bimetallic Stemmed Thermometers can check temperatures from 0° - 220° F. When buying this type of thermometer for your operation, follow these guidelines: • Make sure there is a Calibration Nut or Method of Calibration to ensure accuracy • It should have Easy to Read Markings • Make sure there is a dimple on the stem that marks the end of the sensing area. • The thermometer must be guaranteed accurate to within ±2 degrees F.
    19. 19. Thermocouples & Thermistors Thermocouples & thermistors check temperatures electronically using various attachment probes and display the temperature digitally. They are useful for thin or thick foods because the sensing area is only at the tip of the probe.
    20. 20. Thermocouple Probes Immersion Probes • Use these to check the temperature of liquids like soups, sauces and fryer oil..
    21. 21. Thermocouple Probes Surface Probes • Use these to check the temperature of cooking equipment such as griddle tops.
    22. 22. Thermocouple Probes Penetration Probes • Use these to check the internal temperature of foods. This type of probe is especially useful for thin foods like fish fillets and burgers.
    23. 23. Thermocouple Probes Air Probes • Use these to check the temperature inside coolers and ovens.
    24. 24. Infrared (Laser) Thermometers Infrared Thermometers measure the surface temperature of items. Because there is no contact between the thermometer and the food or item, this type of thermometer minimizes cross-contamination risks. Follow these guidelines: • Hold the thermometer close to the food or item being measured • Remove any barriers between the food/item and the thermometer such as packaging • Always follow the manufacturer’s instructions for use.
    25. 25. Time-Temperature Indicators (TTI) Time-Temperature Indicator (TTI) tags are sometimes placed inside delivery vehicles and on food packaging. A color change on the tag can tell you if the food has been time & temperature abused.
    26. 26. Calibrating ThermometersThermometers can lose their accuracy when bumped or dropped or when they go through extreme temperature changes. When this happens, thermometers need to be calibrated (adjusted) so that they remain accurate.• Thermometers may be calibrated by either of these methods: • Ice-Point Method (32° F.) • Boiling-Point Method (212° F.)
    27. 27. Ice-Point Method for Calibrating Thermometers• Fill a large container with crushed ice. Add cold tap water until the container is full. Stir the mixture well.• Put the thermometer stem (sensing area) into the ice-water. Wait at least 30 seconds or until the indicator/readout stops moving. Do not let the probe touch the sides of the container.• Adjust the thermometer so that it reads 32° F. This is done by turning a calibration nut or following the manufacturer’s instructions for calibration.
    28. 28. Boiling-Point Method for Calibrating Thermometers• Bring tap water to a boil in a deep pot/pan.• Put the thermometer stem (sensing area) into the boiling water. Wait at least 30 seconds or until the indicator/readout stops moving. Do not let the probe touch the sides of the pot/pan.• Adjust the thermometer so that it reads 212° F. This is done by turning a calibration nut or following the manufacturer’s instructions for calibration. NOTE: Boiling-point temperature may vary depending upon your elevation relative to sea-level. Adjust accordingly.
    29. 29. Additional Thermometer GuidelinesEmployees must be properly trained on how to use and care for the types of thermometers they will be using. This includes: • Cleaning & Sanitizing – Thermometers must be washed, rinsed, sanitized, and air-dried to be safe for food contact. • Calibration – Thermometers should be calibrated at the start of each shift, prior to the day’s first delivery, when dropped or bumped, or when they go through extreme temperature changes. • Accuracy – Some thermometers cannot be calibrated. (Oven & Cooler thermometers) These thermometers should be checked by comparing temperatures to a calibrated thermocouple and replaced if needed. • Glass Thermometers – Never use glass thermometers to check food temperatures.. • Checking Temperatures – When checking temperatures insert the probe into the thickest part of the food. (Also take another reading in a different spot as these temperatures may differ.) It can take 15 – 30 seconds to get an accurate reading depending upon the type and quality of thermometer used.
    30. 30. ServSafe Essentials ISBN: 0135026520 http://nraef.orghttp://www.servsafe.com
    31. 31. JNA Institute of Culinary Arts 215.468.8800 http://culinaryarts.edu

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