01 chapter one

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  • Hello and welcome to AtTheInstitute.com’s online preparatory course for the National Restaurant AssociationServSafe Manager Certification Exam.
  • For the next several hours we will be covering the key principles and knowledge you’ll need to keep food safe in a foodservice operation and to successfully complete the required certification examination.The course will be divided into fourteen sections or chapters so that you can review the material at your convenience.Each section will begin with an outline of the learning goals for that section followed by some definitions necessary in understanding the material that will be covered.At the end of each section you will be given a chance to complete review questions to help you assess what you have learned and (if necessary) what areas you might need to spend more time reviewing.
  • We’ll begin with Providing Safe Food.Preventing foodborne illness is one of your most important tasks as a foodservice manager. This section will introduce you to the following basics for keeping food safe in an operation:
  • This first section will cover the following key knowledge.We’ll learn to Recognize the importance of food safety.We’ll Be able to describe the high-risk populations.We’ll Understand and be able to enumerate how food becomes unsafe.We’ll Define the term “foodborne illness outbreak”.And we will understand and list the important foodborne illness prevention measures.
  • Here are some definitions you’ll need to know in order to complete this section. They are:Foodborne illness – A foodborne illness is an illness carried by or transmitted through foods.A Foodborne illness outbreak – is when two or more people getthe same illness after eating the same food.The CDC –(The Center for Disease Control & Prevention): is agovernmental agency charged with protecting health and promoting quality of life through the prevention and control of disease.[next --]
  • Contamination – is the presence of a harmful substance in food.A Micro-organism is a living organism too small to be seen without a microscope.Pathogens – are disease-causing micro-organisms.And Ready-to-eat food – is any food that will be eaten without further preparation, washing, or cooking.
  • Certain groups of people are at increased risk of contracting foodborne illness. We call these “high-risk populations”. High-risk populations do not have immune systems capable of adequately defending against foodborne illness; resulting in more serious complications.
  • These groups include:Elderly People – People’s immune systems weaken with age.Infants & Preschool-age children – Very young children have not yet developed strong immune systems.Pregnant Women – Women’s immune systems are compromised during pregnancy.And Other Populations with weakened immune systems – such as people with cancer or people undergoing chemotherapy, people with HIV/AIDS, and transplant recipients.
  • To prevent foodborne illness, you must recognize the hazards that make food unsafe. Unsafe food is usually the result of contamination (the presence of harmful substances in food). These hazards are divided into three categories. 1. Biological Hazards – Pathogens are the greatest threat to food safety. The pathogens include: viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi.2. Chemical Hazards – Foodservice chemicals and toxic metals can contaminate food.And 3. Physical Hazards – Foreign objects like dirt, hair, bandages, metal shavings (from can-openers) and broken glass are physical hazards. Also, naturally occurring objects like fruit pits and bones in fish filets are considered physical hazards.
  • The CDC (Centers For Disease Control & Prevention) has identified the five most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness: We will need to know these factors. They are:Purchasing food from unsafe sources.Failing to cook food adequately.Holding food at incorrect temperatures.Using contaminated equipment.And Practicing poor personal hygiene.
  • Except for “purchasing food from unsafe sources”, each cause we listed is related to one of three main factors. They are:Time-Temperature AbuseCross-ContaminationOr Poor Personal Hygiene
  • Food has been time-temperature abused when it has stayed too long at temperaturesthat promote the growth of pathogens. This range of temperatures is called the temperature danger zone and is from 41 degrees to 135 degrees Fahrenheit. Time-temperature abuse can happen in several ways:Food is held or stored at incorrect temperatures.Food is not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens.Or Food is not cooled the right way.
  • Cross-contamination is also a great concern. Pathogens can be easily transferred from one surface to another.When contaminated ingredients touch, drip into, or are added to food that receives no further cooking.When ready-to-eat food touches contaminated surfaces, equipment, or kitchen towels.Or when afoodhandler touches contaminated food and then touches ready-to-eat food
  • Foodhandlers themselves can contaminate food through their behaviors and actions:They might fail to wash hands correctly (especially after using the restroom).Or come to work sick.The might Cough or sneeze on food.And touching or scratching a wound and then touching food can spread pathogens too.
  • Now that you know how food becomes unsafe, you can help prevent foodborne illness by:Controlling time & temperature.Preventing cross-contamination.Practicing good personal hygiene.And Purchasing food from approved, reputable suppliers.
  • As a manager it is your job to understand food safety practices, train your employees in following these practices and most importantly monitoring your employees to make sure they are following those practices.
  • All of the information provided can be found in The National Restaurant Association’s, ServSafe Essentials, 5th Edition with 2009 FDA Food Code Updates.For more information check them out online at www.servsafe.com.
  • Please take this opportunity to complete the review questions for this section before continuing on to section Two of the course.For AtTheInstitute.com, this is [your name]. You can leave us feedback by email at feedback@AtTheInstitute.com.
  • 01 chapter one

    1. 1. ServSafe™ Exam Prep & Study Guide AtTheInstitute.com
    2. 2. ServSafe™ Exam Prep & Study Guide 14 Sections Covering key principles & knowledge of Food Safety
    3. 3. 1. Providing Safe Food AtTheInstitute.com
    4. 4. Section Goals• Recognize the • Understand and list the importance of food important foodborne safety. illness prevention• Be able to describe measures. high-risk populations. • Define the term• Understand and be able “foodborne illness to enumerate how food outbreak”. becomes unsafe.
    5. 5. Definitions• Foodborne illness – an illness carried by or transmitted through foods.• Foodborne illness outbreak – two or more people getting the same illness after eating the same food.• CDC –The Center for Disease Control & Prevention: an U.S. governmental agency charged with protecting health and promoting quality of life through the prevention and control of disease.
    6. 6. Definitions (continued)• Contamination – The presence of a harmful substance in food.• Micro-organism – A living organism too small to be seen without a microscope.• Pathogen – A disease-causing micro-organism.• Ready-to-eat food – Food that can/will be eaten without further prep, washing, or cooking.
    7. 7. High-Risk PopulationsCertain groups of people are at increased risk ofcontracting foodborne illness. We call these “high-risk populations”. High-risk populations do not haveimmune systems capable of adequately defendingagainst foodborne illness; resulting in more seriouscomplications.
    8. 8. High-Risk Populations• Elderly People – • Pregnant Women – People’s immune Women’s immune systems weaken with systems are age. compromised during• Infants & Preschool-age pregnancy. children – Very young • Other Populations – children have not yet People with cancer or developed strong undergoing immune systems. chemotherapy, people with HIV/AIDS, transplant recipients.
    9. 9. Hazards to Food SafetyTo prevent foodborne illness, you must recognize the hazards that make food unsafe. Unsafe food is usually the result of contamination (the presence of harmful substances in food). These hazards are divided into three categories.• 1. Biological Hazards – Pathogens are the greatest threat to food safety. They include: viruses, bacteria, parasites, and fungi.• 2. Chemical Hazards – Foodservice chemicals and toxic metals can contaminate food.• 3. Physical Hazards – Foreign objects like dirt, hair, bandages, metal shavings (from can-openers) and broken glass. Also, naturally occurring objects like fruit pits and bones in fish filets are considered physical hazards.
    10. 10. How Food Becomes Unsafe• The CDC (Centers For Disease Control & Prevention) has identified the five most common risk factors that cause foodborne illness: – Purchasing food from unsafe sources. – Failing to cook food adequately. – Holding food at incorrect temperatures. – Using contaminated equipment. – Practicing poor personal hygiene.
    11. 11. How Food Becomes Unsafe (continued) Except for “purchasing food from unsafe sources”, each cause listed is related to three main factors. They are:• Time & Temperature Abuse• Cross-Contamination• Poor Personal Hygiene
    12. 12. Time & Temperature Abuse• Food has been time & temperature abused when it has stayed too long at temperatures that promote the growth of pathogens. This can happen in several ways: – Food is held or stored at incorrect temperatures. – Food is not cooked or reheated enough to kill pathogens. – Food is not cooled the right way.
    13. 13. Cross-contamination• Pathogens can be easily transferred from one surface to another. – Contaminated ingredients touch, drip into, or are added to food that receives no further cooking. – Ready-to-eat food touches contaminated surfaces, equipment, or kitchen towels. – A foodhandler touches contaminated food and then touches ready-to-eat food
    14. 14. Poor Personal Hygiene• Foodhandlers can contaminate food through their actions. – Failure to wash hands correctly (especially after using the restroom). – Coming to work sick. – Coughing or sneezing on food. – Touching or scratching a wound and then touching food.
    15. 15. Important Prevention Measures• Controlling time & temperature.• Preventing cross-contamination.• Practicing good personal hygiene.• Purchasing food from approved, reputable suppliers.
    16. 16. Foodservice Managers Must:• Understand food safety practices.• Train employees to follow these practices.• Monitor employees to ensure compliance.
    17. 17. ServSafe Essentials ISBN: 0135026520 http://nraef.orghttp://www.servsafe.com
    18. 18. AtTheInstitute.comfeedback@AtTheInstitute.com

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