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Fungi World
 

Fungi World

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  • Introduction to Mycology...very interesting
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    Fungi World Fungi World Presentation Transcript

    •  
      • Nutritional mode
      • Structural organization
      • Growth
      • Reproduction
      • EUKARYOTIC
      • Heterotrophic:
        • saprobes
        • parasites
        • symbiotic
        • Decomposers
      • most are multicellular
      • CW: CHITIN
    •  
      • extracellular digestion
        • secrete enzymes
      • STRUCTURES:
        • hyphae
          • cell wall made of chitin
          • septa/cross walls
            • incomplete or perforated
        • Mycelium
      • reproduce asexually
        • spores
        • hyphae fragmentation
      • reproduce sexually
        • spores (sporangiophores)
        • Hyphae (- and +)
    •  
    •  
      • ↑ genetic diversity
      • Spores and hyphae
      • SYNGAMY
        • Plasmogamy
        • karyogamy
    •  
    •  
      • BASED on:
        • modes of reproduction
        • basic structure
      • PHYLUM Oomycota(FUNGUS-LIKE)
      • PHYLUM Zygomycota
      • PHYLUM Ascomycota
      • PHYLUM Basidiomycota
      • PHYLUM Deuteromycota
      • oomycetes/water molds and downy mildews
      • finely branched
      • single-celled filaments
      • cell wall not chitin
      • protist-like fungi
      • diploid stage is dominant
      • Coenocytic/ aseptate
    •  
    •  
      • e.g. water molds (saprobes or parasites of fish)
    •  
    •  
    •  
      • Zygomycetes /conjugation fungi
      • zygosporangia
      • 1,050 spp.
      • Saprobic
      • Parasitic
      • many are important symbionts of vascular plants
      • hyphae aseptate
      • asexual reproduction: spore formation
      • sexual reproduction: conjugation
          • (+/- mating strains)
      • zygospore
      • e.g. molds: Rhizopus (black bread mold)
    •  
      • Rhizoids
      • Stolons
      • Sporangiophores
      • spores
    •  
    •  
    •  
    •  
      • ascomycetes/sac fungi
      • largest group of fungi (30,000 spp.)
      • produces two kinds of spores:
        • sexual spores  ascospores (inside the ascus)
        • asexual spores  conidia (naked)
    •  
    • conidia ASCUS
    •  
      • STRUCTURES:
        • asci
        • ascocarp
      • hyphae septate
        • multinucleate (perforated)
      • most saprobic
      • some pathogens of plants (Dutch elm disease, chestnut blight, ergot)
    •  
    • ASCUS
      • e.g. yeasts (unicellular) cup fungi
      • powdery mildews
      • blue and green molds
      • Ophiostoma ulmi (causes Dutch elm disease)
      • Microsphaera (powdery mildew)
    •  
    • truffles MORELS Tubifer melanosporum
    •  
      • basidiomycetes/club fungi
      • 25,000 spp.
      • sexual reproduction  basidiospores formed on club-shaped basidia
      • some produce asexual spores  conidia
      • hyphae septate
      • fruiting body  basidiocarp
      • diverse in shape/structure
      • e.g. mushrooms
      • Toadstools
      • puffballs
      • bracket fungi/shelf fungi ( Ganoderma )
      • coral fungi ( Clavulina )
      • earthstar ( Geastrum )
      • stinkhorns
      • rusts (parasites of wheat, barley, oats & other crop plants)
      • smuts (attack corn, wheat, oats, barley and rye)
      • stalk and cap
      • annulus
      • gills
    •  
    • Primary mycelia Secondary
      • imperfect fungi
      • sexual reproductive phase
      • e.g. Penicillium (produces the antibiotic penicillin)
      • ringworm
      • athletes foot
    •