Why do some disasters kill more people than others?


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Why do some disasters kill more people than others?

  1. 1. Sophie Wright <ul><li>Why do some natural disasters kill more people than others? </li></ul>MEDC LEDC Urban area Rural area Magnitude Time of day Emergency services
  2. 2. Why do some natural disasters kill more people than others? Kobe 1995
  3. 3. Urban or Rural! <ul><li>A Rural area is an area of sparse population e.g. the countryside. This means that when a natural disaster occurs like for example an earthquake or volcano there are less people which could get killed or injured during or after the disaster strikes! </li></ul><ul><li>Urban areas are much more densely populated e.g.in towns and cities and so there is a greater number of people present which will be under the effects of the disaster, meaning there is a greater chance of more people being killed or injured. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Urban or Rural! <ul><li>Continuing with the ‘Urban or Rural’ theme: </li></ul><ul><li>In rural areas there aren't many high rise buildings; meaning that they cannot fall during an earthquake, trapping and squashing people under all the rubble and debris. This factor then cannot contribute to the number of deaths – less deaths. </li></ul><ul><li>In urban areas especially big cities there are many high rise buildings which hold many people: work places or living accommodation. This is a big cause of the number of deaths as it is difficult for people to escape once they are trapped or stuck inside the collapsing building. Also when the buildings collapse they could land on other people passing by. </li></ul>
  5. 5. LEDCs or MEDCs <ul><li>Earthquakes tend to have a greater impact in less economically developed countries. </li></ul><ul><li>This is because the buildings are often of poor design mainly because they don’t have the money to improve them. </li></ul><ul><li>Example – Iran :December 2003 </li></ul><ul><li>Houses built from mud brick which collapsed straight away – disintegrated leaving no air pocket for people who were trapped to breathe. </li></ul>
  6. 6. LEDCs or MEDCs <ul><li>In more economically developed countries the buildings are often designed to withstand tremors and may have seismic isolators or deep foundations planted to help prevent the buildings collapsing. MEDCs have the money to do this. This helps to prevent as many deaths caused. </li></ul><ul><li>MEDC – Kobe 1995 </li></ul><ul><li>Kobe is an MEDC, it suffered the consequences of an earthquake measuring 7.2 on the Richter scale and only lasted 20 seconds! However as it is a MEDC it had the money to splash out and install instruments to monitor earthquake movements and passed laws to make buildings and transport structures more earthquake proof after the disaster in 1995. </li></ul>
  7. 7. LEDCs or MEDCs <ul><li>In MEDC the emergency services are well trained in responding to a tectonic hazard. They have all the knowledge and equipment to carry out successful, quick transactions saving lives and rescuing people from the rubble and debris. </li></ul><ul><li>LEDCs often have to rely on aid from MEDCs to assist in responding to earthquakes. They lack in disaster response plans. This gives LEDCs a great disadvantage as whilst they wait for help people are dying and nothing much can be done as not many people have knowledge of what to do or correct equipment to respond to the injured successfully. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Epicentre <ul><li>The closer the epicentre the stronger the Earthquake. The more energy is released making the earthquake measure more on the Richter scale. The higher the number on the Richter scale the more disastrous the earthquake is as it is stronger. </li></ul>…3 4 5 6 7… 10 x bigger 100 x bigger Generally the higher the magnitude of an earthquake the more people are killed.
  9. 9. At night it is more difficult to rescue people because of the lack of light, however less people are on the streets or in public buildings reducing the chances of buildings falling on passing people and people getting trapped in public buildings. Time of day
  10. 10. Volcanoes <ul><li>Depending on the type of volcano and the lava it emits depends on how powerful and violent the eruption is and how many people would be killed or injured from the flow of ash and lava. </li></ul><ul><li>A composite cone volcano emits acid lava which has a high silica content and is a very violent eruption. Whereas shield volcanoes emit basic lava which has a low silica content and this is only a gentle eruption. </li></ul><ul><li>However basic lava is very runny and so spreads out over a large area before cooling. </li></ul><ul><li>Also if like in the Mount St. Helens eruption a huge cloud of hot ash and dust accumulates and travels long distances this effects the peoples health living nearby. </li></ul>