These were cut by rivers and streams that used to flow on the surface but have since disappeared underground. They may have formed when the water table was at the surface or when the ground was frozen during colder climatic conditions.
The solution along joints and bedding planes leads to the formation of caves and underground features . Dissolved limestone may be deposited in the form of finger like stalactites which hang from the roofs of caves. Stubby stalagmites are built up where the drips fall on the cave floor . Pillars form when stalactites and stalagmites join together.