This has developed to try to limit the
negative impacts of our holiday on
the environment and also the lives of
• Minimise damage to local culture
• Help social justice
• Protect wildlife
• To be ‘environmentally friendly’
• Help to generate income and employment to local
• Protect the well being of the local people
• Limit and control the number of tourists in the area
• Promote conservation
• Minimise damage to the environment
Since 1990, tourism in Zimbabwe has grown by 20%. This has brought
considerable economic benefits here
• 1.3 million visited Zimbabwe in 1996, spending almost £120 million
• Of course tourism provides employment for locals, in Zimbabwe tourism
provided 60 000 jobs for people.
Zimbabwe has avoided mass tourism there and only catered for small
groups on interest holidays. These eco-tourists include:
• Wildlife enthusiasts
Zimbabwe has spectacular wildlife. Game reserves, National parks and
other wildlife reserves cover more than 10% of the country.
In National parks such as Hwange and Mana Pools have many of Africa’s
largest mammals such as
Other major tourist attractions includes Victoria Falls and Lake Kariba. Also
the Great Zimbabwe ruins and the capital, Harare with its museums and art
Tourists require accommodation, electricity, clean water, roads and airports.
Zimbabwe has one of the best developed infrastructures in Africa.
• In Harare and Bulawayo there are top-class hotels, mainly owned by
international chains such as Holiday Inn.
• Accommodation in national parks ranges from luxury lodges to chalets and
• Compared to other LEDCs Zimbabwe has adequate road networks and in
Harare there is an international airport.
Without managing resources for tourism, the resources that tourism depends
on are easily degraded. Zimbabwe aims to develop eco tourism protecting
large areas of the country such as national parks and game reserves.
However, like a lot there are problems with the growth of eco-tourism.
• Subsistence farmers living around the edge of game reserves and national
parks often come into conflict with wild animals which often destroy crops
• These farmers are poor and with a rapid population growth land is in short
• The farmers also grow crops inside conservation areas and allow animals to
graze there, this destroys wildlife habitats.
• Wild animals threaten the livelihood of local people.
Some tourist developments in parts of Zimbabwe are causing concern.
Victoria Falls is becoming increasingly commercialised, bungee
jumping, micro-light aircraft flights and the sale of cheap trinkets are giving
the Falls a poor image.
The government has developed policies giving local people an interest in
conserving wildlife. In 1984, the Zimbabwe government introduced
CAMPFIRE, this stands for Communal Areas Management Programme For
Indigenous Resources scheme.
Money from game hunting fees – tourists pay up to £4600 to shoot an elephant
and by selling meat and hides, this brings money to the local community bringing
And local communities are given money for any crop losses that are caused by
Thanks to CAMPFIRE the attitude of wildlife to the locals has changed as the
wildlife brings them income and this gives them an interest in protecting it.
The problem at Victoria Falls highlights the dilemma facing countries
wishing to develop tourism. Countries wonder whether they should
promote eco-tourism or mass-market tourism. Zimbabwe chose Eco-
tourism because they argue it is not the volume but the amount the
Recent political problems are likely to have reduced the amount of tourists