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Ch. 26 - "The New Power Balance"
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  • 1. The New Power Balance (1850-1900) Chapter 26
  • 2.  From the 17th century to mid 19th century Europeans had come to regard their continent as the only great powers and the center of the universe. The rest of the world was either ignored or used. The world economy, international politics, even cultural and social issues revolved around a handful of countries, the “great powers” that believed they controlled the destiny of the world…and they did just that. However, in defense of Western imperialism and the force of nationalism, some countries began to not only strengthen, but go on the offensive and join the ranks of the great powers.Intro
  • 3. The Second Industrial Revolution
  • 4.  While the first Industrial Revolution gave rise to textiles, railroads, iron, and coal, the second Industrial Revolution introduced steel, electricity, chemicals, and petroleum. Why would each be important? These new technologies revolutionized everyday life and transformed the world economy. By 1890, Germany and the U.S. surpass Britain as the worlds leading industrial powers.The Second Industrial Revolution
  • 5.  Steel  Both strong and malleable – cheap. Electricity Light bulbs, electric motors, street cars. Petroleum Internal combustion engine Chemicals Dynamite, chlorine, and synthetic dyes New Technologies
  • 6.  The technological and economic changes of the late 19th century sparked major social changes in the industrialized nations. ◦ Huge population booms and urbanization. The population of Europe doubled from 1850-1914. Faster growth than any other period. During that same time, population in the U.S. grew from 25 million to almost 100 million. Push-pull factors of migration (Irish potato famine)Population
  • 7.  During this time, cities grew to unprecedented size. ◦ London: 2.7 million to 6.6 million ◦ New York: 64,000 to 3.4 million This mass migration to the cities from rural areas is called urbanization. Why the sudden movement to the cities? 1.Convenience 2.Improved living conditions 3.Improved working conditionsUrbanization
  • 8. 1. Convenience  Jobs - factories were in the cities 2. Improved living conditions  Improved sanitation. Before, streets were full of garbage and sewage.  Less disease, low death rates.  Electricity. (Cleaner, less pollution)  Safer: police and fire protection 3. Improved working conditions  Labor unions - insuranceWhy the sudden movement to thecities?
  • 9.  Typical male vs. female relationship ◦ Males: working outside the home, relaxing in men’s clubs ◦ Females: raise children, run household Second I.R. opened the door to new jobs for women. ◦ Shortage of male workers ◦ Demand for low paying jobs (secretaries, teachers)Women and Victorian Age
  • 10. • The transition to an industrialized society was hard on the workers, who often worked dangerous jobs for poor wages and lived in crowded slums.• Some reformers of the capitalist society wanted a better environment for the working class. More radical reformers wanted to abolish capitalism in favor of socialism.• Many socialist ideas were based on the theory of the German Karl Marx.The Working Class
  • 11.  The Communist Manifesto outlined Karl Marx’s beliefs that industrial capitalism was to blame for the problems besetting society. Marx believed that there has always been two classes in the world. The oppressed (working class) he called the proletariat and the oppressor (property owner) or bourgeoisie. Marx believed that it was only a matter of time before the oppressed rose up against the oppressor.Karl Marx
  • 12.  The most influential idea of the 19th century was nationalism, a feeling of national identity. Language was usually the critical element in creating this feeling, but could be anything that political rulers could use to unite the people of a nation. (Imperialism) Propaganda became more popular as leaders used nationalism to justify changes.Nationalism
  • 13.  Japan
  • 14. In the Second Industrial Revolution there was greater use of steel, chemicals, petroleum, and electricity.• Electricity was a new form of energy that gave way to many new inventions.• In the created the light bulb, and homes, businesses, and factories used the affordable resource for convenience and productivity.The Second Industrial Revolution
  • 15.  First, substitution of steel for iron. 2nd, building lighter, smaller and faster machines and engines, as well as railways, ships and weapons (because of steel) 3rd, electricity was now a major new form of energy – converting into other forms of energy such as heat, light and motionChanges
  • 16.  Alexander Graham Bell, inventor of the telephone, and radio pioneer Guglielmo Marconi sparked a revolution in communications. The internal-combustion engine revolutionized transportation with the automobile, while the airplane made its appearance as well.The Revolution of communication
  • 17. • Prices for produced goods decreased as a result of lower production and transportation costs. The assembly line allowed for more efficient mass production of goods.• In Europe, nations in the north and west had a higher standard of living for their citizens, while the southeastern regions of Europe remained largely agricultural and rural, with lower standards of living.The Second Industrial Revolution
  • 18.  By 1900, a true world economy was occurring. Europe dominated this global economy by the beginning of the twentieth century.The Second Industrial Revolution
  • 19.  Industrialization gave some a higher standard of living, but struggling workers turned to trade unions or socialism to improve their lives.The Working Class
  • 20. • In many European nations, working-class leaders formed socialist parties based on Marx’s ideas, but were divided on their goals.• Pure Marxists wanted revolution to defeat capitalism, while revisionists argued that political gains were the key to change.• To improve their conditions, workers organized into unions for better working conditions and used strikes as their bargaining tool.The Working Class
  • 21. The New UrbanEnvironment or TheEmergency of Mass Society 20.2
  • 22.  As workers migrated to cities, local governments had to solve urgent public health problems; and their solutions allowed cities to grow even more.The New Urban Environment
  • 23. • As more people moved to cities in search of economic opportunities, European society became more urban.• Reformers were able to urge local governments to improve conditions in cities.• Improved housing, water, and sewage systems led to a safer living environment.The New Urban Environment
  • 24.  Improved living conditions enabled people to live in close quarters, and cities such as London and Frankfurt were able to accommodate large populations.The New Urban Environment
  • 25.  European society comprised three broad social classes—upper, middle, and lower.Social Structure
  • 26.  The Elite Class: - Made up of wealthy bankers, industrialists, and merchants, this minority became leaders in the government and military.Social Structure
  • 27. • The Middle Class:– The middle class consisted of a variety of groups.– A lower-middle class consisted of small shopkeepers, traders, and prosperous farmers.– White-collar workers, including traveling salespeople, bookkeepers, and secretaries, were between the lower-middle class and the lower class.– Although incomes varied, the goals, values, and lifestyle opportunities were similar among middle- class Europeans.Social Structure
  • 28. • The Working Class:– The majority of Europeans were considered the working class of society and included landholding peasants, laborers, and domestic servants.– Improved working environments facilitated more buying power and better social conditions.Social Structure
  • 29.  Attitudes toward women changed as they moved into white-collar jobs, received more education, and began campaigning for the right to vote.Women’s Experiences
  • 30. • During the Second Industrial Revolution, women began to enter the labor force because of a lack of male workers. These positions were generally filled by lower-class women.• In the 1800s, marriage was the only career available to most women, although advances in economic conditions led to a decline in birthrates.• For women in middle-class families, activities centered on the family became common by 1850.Women’s Experiences
  • 31. • Besides raising their families, lower-class women worked to earn additional money.• Modern feminism began during the Enlightenment, and, during the nineteenth century, women argued for the rights to divorce and to own property.• In the medical field, women such as Amalie Sieveking, Florence Nightingale, and Clara Barton transformed nursing into a professional occupation.Women’s Experiences
  • 32.  In the 1840s and 1850s, women began to demand political rights and believed that suffrage was key to improving their overall position. In 1903 Emmeline Pankhurst founded the Women’s Social and Political Union in Britain and used unusual publicity stunts to draw attention to her cause.Women’s Experiences
  • 33. As a result of industrialization, the levels of educationrose. People’s lives became more clearly divided intoperiods of work and leisureEducation and Leisure
  • 34. • Between 1870 and 1914, Western nations began to finance a system of primary education for children ages 6 to 12.• Education was considered important for a viable labor force and better-educated voters.• The immediate result of public education was a jump in literacy.Education and Leisure
  • 35.  Higher literacy rates led to the development of mass media. Newspapers were both informative and entertaining, and a literate populace purchased millions of copies per day. New types of leisure were available to Europeans and Americans. People went to amusement parks, and dance halls, and organized team sports.Education and Leisure
  • 36.  Leisure time was now clearly defined as separate from work. Leisure time was also more passive in nature, and people paid to attend leisure activities.Education and Leisure
  • 37. Western Europe andPolitical Democracy 20.3
  • 38. Western Europe & Democracy• By the late 19th century (late 1800s), progress had been made toward establishing constitutions, parliaments, and individual liberties in the major European states. Political democracy was spreading in Western Europe and the United States, as universal male suffrage laws were passed.
  • 39. The United States Aftermath of the Civil War ◦ In the United States, the Civil War had destroyed the Southern way of life. ◦ One-fifth of the adult male population had been killed and 4 million slaves were freed by the passing of the 13th Amendment to the Constitution in 1865.
  • 40. U.S. Economy Between 1860 and 1914, the United States switched from an agrarian (farm- based) economy to an industrial economy Massive migrations to U.S. influenced economy. ◦ 11 million Europeans migrated to the United States between 1870-1900.  Push-Pull factors of migration ◦ Some came to escape conditions of Europe (Push) ◦ Others came for job opportunities (Pull)
  • 41. International Rivalries Germany emerged as the most powerful state in Europe and threatened the balance of power. France was determined to re-balance power and threatened an anti-German alliance. However, Germany acted first and created a defensive alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy known as the Triple Alliance. France would later form an alliance with Great Britain and Russia known as the Triple Entente. These aggressive foreign policies divided Europe into two hostile alliance systems.
  • 42. • Great Britain:– A two-party parliamentary system emerged as the Liberal and Conservative parties vied for political power.– The Liberals voted for social reforms, such as unemployment benefits and pensions.Western Europe and PoliticalDemocracy
  • 43. • France:– In 1875 the Third Republic in France gained a republican constitution.– The new government was established with a president and a legislature made up of two houses.Western Europe and PoliticalDemocracy
  • 44.  Italy: - Italy had emerged by 1870 as a united national state, but the disparity of wealth and widespread government corruption led to a weak, centralized political system.Western Europe and PoliticalDemocracy
  • 45.  Although Germany, Austria-Hungary, and later Russia instituted elections and parliaments, real power remained in the hands of emperors and elites.Central and Eastern Europe: TheOld Order
  • 46.  In Germany, the government established by Otto von Bismarck set up a two- house legislature. Although the Reichstag was elected by male voters, the emperor still maintained political power by controlling the military and foreign policy.Central and Eastern Europe: TheOld Order
  • 47. • By the reign of William II (1888 to 1918), Germany was the strongest military and industrial power in Europe. Conservative forces thwarted the rise of democracy in Germany.• In the Austro-Hungarian Empire, the emperor Francis Joseph largely ignored the Austrian parliament and governed by imperial decree. Ethnic problems threatened the stability of Austria.Central and Eastern Europe: TheOld Order
  • 48.  In Hungary, the parliamentary system worked, although it was dominated by the nation’s landholding class. Nicholas II became the czar of Russia in 1894, and was committed to autocratic rule of the large nation.Central and Eastern Europe: TheOld Order
  • 49. • Russia was becoming an industrialized nation, and the rising working class demanded more political power. In 1905 the bloody breakup of a peaceful demonstration in St. Petersburg left hundreds dead.• Czar Nicholas relented and permitted the establishment of the Duma, although he had limited the power of the legislative body by 1907.Central and Eastern Europe: TheOld Order
  • 50.  In the United States, the Second Industrial Revolution produced wealth that was more concentrated than it was in Europe.The United States
  • 51. • The populations of urban centers soared, and by 1900, three American cities had over 1 million inhabitants.• Around the turn of the century, America became imperialistic and acquired territories abroad.• American forces deposed Queen Liliuokalani in Hawaii and acquired territories from the vanquished Spanish in the Spanish-American War.The United States
  • 52. • To prevent France from limiting its power, Germany entered into a defensive alliance with Austria-Hungary and Italy by 1882. This coalition was known as the Triple Alliance.• In 1890 Emperor William II fired Bismarck and took control of Germany’s foreign policy. In 1894 William II ended the treaty Germany had with Russia.• By 1907, France, Great Britain, and Russia had drawn into an alliance known as the Triple Entente.International Rivalries
  • 53. • The two opposing alliances of the Triple Alliance and the Triple Entente had become more divided and less willing to compromise at the beginning of the twentieth century.• As the Ottoman Empire began to lose power, the provinces of Greece, Serbia, Romania, and Montenegro in the Balkans began to gain their freedom. Austria and Russia vied for influence in the region.International Rivalries
  • 54. • In 1908 Austria-Hungary annexed the Slavic territories of Bosnia and Herzegovina. This outraged Serbia, which wanted to establish a Slavic kingdom.• Serbia and its ally Russia prepared for war against Austria-Hungary. Germany demanded that Russia accept the Austrian annexation or face war; Russia, weakened by war with Japan, backed down.• By the beginning of 1914, the crisis in the Balkans threatened the security of Europe.International Rivalries
  • 55. The Culture of Modernity 20.4
  • 56. Toward the Modern Consciousness People continued to believe in the values that had been put forth by the Scientific Revolution and Enlightenment. Reason, science, and progress continued to be important words to Europeans. A couple of new theories developed:
  • 57. New Theories Albert Einstein – Theory of relativity eventually led to a new Atomic Age. Sigmund Freud – psychoanalysis – coined the terms unconscious and repressed. ◦ Freud believed some feeling were repressed from a person’s conscious awareness, but these hidden feelings continued to influence behavior, however, because they were a part of the unconscious.
  • 58. Social Darwinism and Racism In the early 20th century, some scientific theories were applied inappropriately to achieve desired results. For example, Darwin’s theories were applied to human society in a racial way. These ideas are known as Social Dawinism. In their pursuit of national greatness, extreme nationalists often insisted that nations too are engaged in a “struggle for existence” where only the strongest survive.
  • 59. Anti-Semitism and Zionism Anti-Semitism - hostility toward Jews. During the late 19th century, Germany and Austria-Hungary’s new political parties used anti-Semitism to win votes of people who felt threatened by the changes of the times. Persecutions and pogroms (organized mass acres) were widespread. Many Jews decided to leave and migrated to the U.S. and Palestine in a Jewish national movement known as Zionism.
  • 60. The Culture of Modernity In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, many writers and artists rebelled against the traditional literary and artistic styles that had dominated European cultural life since the Renaissance. This movement became known as Modernism.
  • 61. Painting - Impressionism By the late 19th century, artists were seeking new forms of expression to reflect their changing views of the world. By the beginning of the 20th century, the belief that the goal of art was to represent reality had lost much of its meaning. Impressionism ◦ Monet ◦ Van Gogh
  • 62. • Between 1870 and 1914, many writers and artists produced works known as modernism.• The naturalist writers addressed social problems such as alcoholism, women in society, and urban slums.• Symbolist writers produced work that functioned for its own sake, and did not attempt to criticize or understand society.The Culture of Modernity
  • 63. • In France, artists such as Claude Monet embraced a painting style known as impressionism. Impressionists rejected indoor studios and went into nature, where they captured the interplay of light, sky, and water.• Vincent van Gogh and Paul Cezanne used color and structure to express mood in a form known as postimpressionism. These artists wanted to represent reality, not mirror it, as did the camera, which had been invented in 1888.The Culture of Modernity
  • 64.  The Spaniard Pablo Picasso painted in a new style, using geometric designs to re- create reality. This modern style of art is called cubism. Modernism influenced architecture as well, and skilled builders Louis H. Sullivan and Frank Lloyd Wright created buildings that were clean-lined and functional.The Culture of Modernity
  • 65.  In music, the ‘modern’ sounds of Stravinsky’s The Rite of Spring caused a near-riot by Parisians, who were upset by the new sounds and rhythms of the performance.The Culture of Modernity
  • 66.  Scientific discoveries in this period had a profound impact on how people saw themselves and their world.Uncertainty Grows
  • 67. • At the end of the nineteenth century, Marie Curie challenged the accepted view that the universe existed independent of its observers, with her discovery that the element radium gave off energy.• The German-born scientist Albert Einstein provided a new view of the universe with his theory of relativity, which stated that space and time are not absolute, but are relative to the observer.Uncertainty Grows
  • 68.  A doctor from Vienna named Sigmund Freud asserted that human behavior was strongly determined by past experiences and internal urges. Freud used a method known as psychoanalysis, in which he and a patient probed deeply into the patient’s memory for healing purposes.Uncertainty Grows
  • 69.  In the late 1800s, extreme nationalism was reflected in the movements of Social Darwinism and anti-Semitism.Extreme Nationalism
  • 70.  In the 1800s, many Europeans became fiercely nationalistic. They used Social Darwinism to justify the strength and wealth of nations. In Europe, anti-Semitism had been around for centuries, but became more intense during the late 1800s. So as to win voters, political groups blamed Jews for many problems.Extreme Nationalism
  • 71.  The worst treatment of Jews occurred in Russia, where persecutions and pogroms were widespread. A Jewish nationalist movement called Zionism helped many Jews to emigrate from Europe to the United States and Palestine.Extreme Nationalism
  • 72.  Quiz In the 2nd Industrial Revolution, _____, _____, _____, and _____ le the way to new industrial frontiers. h