Intro Between 1860-1914, Western expansion and colonialism spread throughout the rest of the world as Great Britain, Spain, Holland, France, Germany, Russia and the U.S. all competed for markets and raw materials for their expanding economies. The industrialization of the late 19th century increased the power of Europeans and North Americans over nature and over the peoples of other continents. By the end of the 19th century, virtually all of the peoples of Asia and Africa were under colonial rule.
Cont… We will look at how and why it happened, the results and consequences, as well as the reaction from the conquered peoples of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. “Technological advances explain both the motives and the outcome of the New Imperialism”
Imperialism What is Imperialism? Imperialism is the extension of a nation’s power over other lands. (Ex, Crusades, Britain’s colonies in America, and even our own territorial expansion) This “new” form of imperialism began as nations now sought nothing less than total control over other territories.
The New Imperialism In the late 19th century (1880’s), a new phase of Western expansion and an intense scramble for new territory began. European nations began to view Asia and Africa as a source of much needed raw materials (coal, iron, and copper) AND a new market to send their manufactured goods. Early European imperialism was in the form of small colonies, trading posts, and missionary work, but that was beginning to change.
The New Imperialism Why? Motives for Imperialism 1. Economic 2. Political 3. Cultural “White man’s burden” Social Darwinism/ Racism
1. Economic Reasons Western industrial nations were looking for both raw materials (natural resources) to run their factories and markets to sell their manufactured goods.
2. Political Power Symbol: European nations were involved in heated rivalries and competing for power. Think of the Triple Alliance and Triple Entente from Chapter 20 Status Symbol: Owning colonies was a status symbol. It showed your strength as a nation as well as a symbol of prestige. Similar to why countries want nuclear weapons today
3. Cultural Social Darwinism: believed that in the struggle between nations, only the strongest would survive. Racists believed that particular races were superior or inferior. “A community of men is as subject as a community of ants or as a herd of buffaloes… It serves no purpose to protest at what some term their cruelty and their bloodthirstiness. . . Mankind as a whole, like the individual man, advances through pain and suffering. The path of progress is strewn with the wreck of nations; traces are everywhere to be seen of the [slaughtered remains] of inferior races…Yet these dead peoples are, in very truth, the steppingstones on which mankind has arisen to the higher intellectual and deeper emotional life of today.”
“White man’s burden” What is a “burden”? Think Frodo and the ring… Some argued that European’s had a moral obligation or a duty to civilize and help the primitive people of Africa and Asia. They called this responsibility the “white man’s burden” Part of this responsibility was to bring the Christian message to the indigenous peoples of Asia and Africa as well as “western” forms of government (democracy) and economic systems (capitalism).
Colonial Takeover in SE Asia• By the early 20th century virtually the entire region of Southeast Asia was under Western control.
Colonial Takeover - Britain In 1819 Great Britain founded a colony at the tip of the Malay Peninsula called Singapore. This was a major stopping point for the new steamship traffic going to and from China. Britain also advanced into the kingdom of Burma. They wanted to protect their possessions in India and gain a land route between India and China. Britain soon established control over the entire country.
Colonial Takeover - France France nervously watched Britain’s advance into SE Asia. France was able to colonize Vietnam by forcing them to accept French protection, therefore making them a French protectorate. Protectorate - a political unit that depends on another government for protection.
Colonial Takeover – The U.S. In 1898, the United States defeated the Spanish fleet in Manila Bay, allowing the Americans to colonize the Philippines. The U.S. believed it had a moral obligation to “civilize other parts of the world.” But the U.S. had other motives as well. It looked at the Philippines as a stepping stone to the rich trade markets of China . It was also trying to prevent the Japanese from gaining control of the area.
American Intervention in Latin America• As Americans invested in Latin America (sugar and tobacco plantations), they demanded that these investments be protected. American military forces intervened in Cuba, Mexico, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Colombia, Haiti, and the Dominican Republic.• In some instances, U.S. military forces stayed for decades, as in Haiti and Nicaragua, leading to Latin American resentment of North American intervention.• Panama Canal - The U.S joins the party (pg 730)
Europe and Latin America After 1865, Europeans avoided territorial expansion in Latin America for 4 reasons. 1. They were overextended in Europe 2. There was no need. Economic /trade cooperation. 3. Proven resistance 4. The U.S. Claimed to defend the entire Western Hemisphere against all outside intervention.
Colonial Regimes European countries controlled the governments and economies of their new colonies in Southeast Asia and Africa. Their chief goal was to exploit the natural resources of the land and open up new markets for their own manufactured goods. Western powers governed over their new colonies either by: direct rule or indirect rule.
Indirect Rule This system allowed the local political rulers to maintain their positions of authority and status. Benefits of indirect rule: More accepted by local people Faster access to regions natural resources Less foreign officials = less expensive Less effects on local culture Risks of indirect rule: Not as strong and less intimidating. This led to more resistance and revolts.
Direct Rule Countries that ruled directly removed all local rulers from power and replaced them with new officials brought over from the mother country. This system was used whenever local peoples resisted colonial rule. To justify their conquests, Western powers spoke about bringing the blessings of advanced technologies, economies, and religions.
Colonial Regimes The colonial powers did not want their colonies to develop their own industries so they stressed the exporting of raw materials. Consequences: Peasants were forced to work on plantations and mines owned by the colonial powers for very low wages and conditions were very dangerous and unhealthy. Environmental problems Loss of culture. However, colonial governments did bring some benefits: New fast and efficient transportation. (Highways, railroads, and steamships) Modern and global economic systems were introduced. Irrigation technology, new agriculture.
Resistance to Colonial Rule Many native people were quite unhappy with being governed by Western powers and began to resistance. Early resistance movements failed as they were quickly overcome by Western powers. Around the turn of the century (1900), a new kind of resistance began to emerge. This new form of resistance was based on the force of nationalism and led by a new local class of intellectuals that were educated by Western standards in Western-style schools. They protested against Western arrogance and failure to observe local customs and eventually began to demand their independence.
The Scramble for Africa• Before 1880, Europeans controlled little of Africa but between 1880 and 1890, intense rivalries among themselves placed virtually all of Africa under European rule.• The motives for European Imperialism remained the same as the ones we looked at for Asia. 1. Economic 2. Political 3. Cultural “White man’s burden” Social Darwinism/ Racism• This race for new colonization became known as the “Scramble for Africa”
West Africa• The growing European presence in West Africa led to increasing tensions with African governments as Africans began to lose their independence .• In 1874 Great Britain annexed the west coastal states as the Gold Coast and made Nigeria a protectorate.• African governments in West Africa began to lose their independence.
West Africa West Africa was very active in the slave trade as it coveted the weapons and textiles imported from Britain, but once slavery was abolished, another export from Africa was needed. Raw materials, such as peanuts, timber, palm oil, rubber and eventually diamonds were sought after by Europeans and became their new export. Encouraged by this growing trade market, European governments began to push for more permanent settlements in Africa.
North Africa Increased trade by steamship led to a desire for faster water routes. A desire to connect the Red Sea to the Mediterranean Sea would be important as it shortened the route from Britain to it’s valuable Indian colonies. This led the French to finance the building of the Suez Canal, which Britain considered the “lifeline to India” and Egypt became a British protectorate in 1914. Backfired on Egypt
Central and East Africa• Germany was under pressure to gain colonies by the German people, but most areas had already been claimed.• In 1884, the European powers met at the Berlin Conference to settle conflicting claims. No African delegates were present at the conference.
South Africa• European powers quickly came to dominate the region of South Africa.• In South Africa, the British and Dutch fought for control of the region.• The Boers, or Afrikaners, were descendents of Dutch settlers who had lived in South Africa since the 1600s.• The Boers detested British rule and moved from the coastal areas in a journey known as the Great Trek. They placed the indigenous peoples in reservations.
South Africa• The Boers frequently battled the Zulu people, and the skilled leader Shaka established a powerful Zulu Empire. The British finally conquered the Zulu in the late 1800s.• The British put 120,000 Boer women and children in detention camps where nearly 20,000 of them died of starvation. The Boers surrendered, and the Independent Union of South Africa was established in 1910.• The IUSA would be a self-governing nation within the British Empire.
Effects of Imperialism in Africa By 1914, Europe had divided up nearly all of Africa. Native people who dared to resist were simply devastated by the superior military force of the Europeans.• Lower class Africans worked on plantations or factories owned by foreigners.• Africans of all classes faced condescending relationships with Europeans. “boy”• Schools, churches, and other social institutions were segregated.
Rise of African Nationalism• Africans educated in Western-style schools began to understand and become frustrated that the Europeans were not practicing what they were preaching.• Europeans talked of democracy, equality, and freedom but did not apply these ideals to Africans.• Although educated Africans respected some of the superior aspects of Western dominance, they hated colonial rule.• This resentment turned to action and native Africans began to develop political parties and seek an end to foreign rule.
The Sepoy Mutiny Mistrust and cultural differences between the British and Indians led to violent conflict. As the power of the Moguls declined, a commercial company, the British East India Company, was given the right to become actively involved in India’s political and military affairs. To rule India, the British East India Company hired its own soldiers
The Sepoy Mutiny In 1857, a growing distrust of the British and rumor that the rifle cartridges were greased with cow and pig fat led to a rebellion of the Indian sepoys. Atrocities were terrible on both sides as evidenced at Kanpur, where Indians massacred 200 defenseless women and children.
The Sepoy Mutiny Within a year, the British and Indians loyal to Britain suppressed the rebellion. As a result of the mutiny, the British Parliament transferred powers of the East India Company directly to the British government. Queen Victoria took the title Empress of India in 1876.
British Colonial Rule• The British brought order and stability to India, but they also hurt India’s economy and degraded the Indian people.• To aid in directly ruling India, the British appointed an official known as a viceroy.– Colonization brought order and stability to India.– An efficient government bureaucracy was established.
British Colonial Rule• A new school system was set up using the English language.– Roads and railroads were built.– A telegraph system and a postal service were introduced.
British Colonial Rule • Negative Effects of British Colonization – British economic pursuits brought poverty and hardship to Indians. – Access to resources and local industries were destroyed. – Local tax collectors increased taxes and forced peasants to become tenants.
British Colonial Rule Farmers were encouraged to switch from food production to cotton production, limiting the food supply for the growing population. British rule was very degrading and insensitive to Indian culture.
Indian Nationalists• The British presence in India led to an Indian independence movement.• The first Indian nationalists were upper-class and English-educated, and came from urban areas such as Madras (Chennai), Calcutta (Kolkata), and Bombay (Mumbai).• Although most preferred reform to revolution, the slow pace of change convinced many that they would have to rely on themselves for change.
Indian Nationalists In 1885, a small group of Indians met in Bombay and formed the Indian National Congress (INC). The goal of the INC was a share in the governing process. In 1915, a young Hindu named Mohandas Gandhi used his experiences in British South Africa to become a leader in the Indian movement for independence.
Indian Nationalists Gandhi utilized a non-violent method of resistance to attain his goals of improving the lives of the poor and gaining independence for India.
Colonial Indian Culture• British rule sparked renewed interest among Indians in their own culture and history.• One facet of British colonialism was a cultural awakening in India.• The British opened a college in Calcutta and a local publishing house. Soon books became more available to the population of India.• Indian novelists and poets began writing historical romances and epics.
Colonial Indian Culture• Newspapers, written in regional Indian languages, provided an effective means of conveying nationalist ideals to lower-middle-class Indians.The most influential Indian author was Rabindranath Tagore, who was a successful writer, poet, social reformer, educator, singer, painter, spiritual leader, and spokesman for the moral concerns of his age.
Colonial Indian Culture Tagore won the Nobel Prize in Literature in 1913 and put music to a poem that became Indian nationalism’s first anthem.
Nationalistideas in Latin America were• Revolutionary Revolts sparked by the successes of revolutions in North America.• In Latin American society, peninsulares controlled the political and economic systems of the colonies.• Creoles resented peninsulares and favored the revolutionary ideals of equality.• A slave revolt in Hispaniola led to the formation of Haiti in 1804.
Nationalist Revolts• In Mexico, a priest named Miguel Hidalgo roused the local Native Americans and mestizos to free themselves of Spanish control.• In 1821, Mexico declared its independence and became a republic in 1823.• Two men, known as the “Liberators of South America,” were heavily influenced by events in Europe and set South America on the path of freedom.
Nationalist Revolts• José de San Martín of Argentina fought the Spaniards and liberated Argentina in 1810 before crossing the Andes Mountains and liberating Chile in 1817.• Simón Bolívar, who had liberated Venezuela, arrived in Peru and helped San Martín’s forces liberate Peru in 1824.• In 1822, the prince regent of Brazil declared independence from Portugal.
Nationalist Revolts In 1823, the Central American states declared their independence and eventually became the states of Guatemala, El Salvador, Honduras, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua. By the end of 1824, Peru, Uruguay, Paraguay, Colombia, Venezuela, Argentina, Bolivia, and Chile had all gained independence from Spain.
Nationalist Revolts Latin American independence movements faced a major threat from European powers who favored the use of soldiers to restore Spanish control in Latin America. American president James Monroe issued the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 warning against European intervention in Latin America, and guaranteeing Latin American independence.
Nationalist Revolts The British also favored Latin American independence and used their navy to deter any European invasion of Central and South America.
Nation Building• After they became independent, Latin American nations faced a staggering range of problems.• Most of the new nations of Latin America established republican forms of government, but soon caudillos gained power.• Supported by the landed elite, the caudillos used military power to rule. Some modernized the new national states by building schools, roads, and canals.
Nation Building In Mexico, Antonio López de Santa Anna ruled Mexico from 1833 to 1855. Santa Anna misused state funds, halted reforms, and created chaos. American settlers in the Texas region revolted against Santa Anna’s dictatorial rule and won independence from Mexico in 1836.
Nation Building In 1845, Mexico was forced to give up nearly one-half of its land following defeat to the United States in the Mexican War. Following Santa Anna, Benito Juárez came to power. He brought liberal reforms to Mexico, including limiting the power of the military and religious tolerance.
Nation Building Although Latin American nations were politically independent, they were still economically dependent on the United States and Great Britain. Britain dominated trade with the Latin American nations, and the United States became the primary source of loans and investment money.
Nation Building• Latin American economies were dependent on cash crops, and national economies were often reliant on a single cash crop.• A fundamental problem of all the new Latin American nations was the domination of society by the landed elites.• Landowners generally controlled the political and economic systems of the nation, and their devotion to cash crops left little tillable land for farming food products.
Change in Latin America• Many Latin American governments patterned their new constitutions after the United States Constitution.• The United States began to intervene in Latin America by making Cuba a protectorate and annexing Puerto Rico in 1898. In 1903, President Roosevelt supported a rebellion that allowed Panama to separate from Colombia in return for the right to build the Panama Canal.
Change in Latin America• In Mexico, the conservative government of Porfirio Díaz (1877–1911) was ousted by the liberal landowner, Francisco Madero.• In northern Mexico, Pancho Villa’s armed bandits swept the countryside.• Emiliano Zapata called for land reform, and began to redistribute the land to the masses but refused to work with Madero.
Change in Latin America Between 1910 and 1920, the Mexican Revolution caused great damage to the Mexican economy. In 1917, a new constitution was accepted. Mexico would be led by a president, land reform would be enacted, and foreign investment would be limited.
Change in Latin America The prosperity of trade after 1870 led to an emerging middle class comprised of teachers, lawyers, doctors, merchants, and businesspeople. The middle-class Latin Americans became a stabilizing force in the region, and once given the right to vote, often sided with the landed elite.
Imperialism - Review The imperialistic power of the 19th century conquered weaker countries and carved up the lands they seized. Their actions had a lasting effect on the world, especially the countries that had been conquered. There were four themes covered in this chapter: Movement Change Reaction Nationalism
Movement Imperialistic nations set up colonies and protectorates Christian missionaries preach in Africa and Asia Cecil Rhodes makes a fortune in South America
Change Ferdinand de Lesseps completes the Suez Canal in 1869 King Leopold II of Belgium colonizes the Congo Basin The United States gains new territory after the Spanish-American War The Panama Canal opens in 1914
Reaction The British East India Company controlled India Africans set up independent republics
Nationalism The United States creates the Monroe Doctrine in 1823 In May 1857, the sepoys rebel against British commanders Africans fight the British in the Boer War from 1899 to 1902
22 Central and East Africa• European powers competed for colonies in Central Africa and East Africa.• Central Africa was an uncharted, tropical region. British explorer David Livingstone wanted to find a river that would open Central Africa to European commerce and Christianity.• In the 1870s, Henry Stanley continued the work of Livingstone and mapped the Congo River region.
23 Central and East Africa• King Leopold of Belgium claimed the Congo region, and established a Belgium presence in Central Africa.• In East Africa, Britain and Germany fought over territory in East Africa.• Britain sought to connect its colonies in South Africa and Egypt.
South Africa British policy in South Africa was largely influenced by Cecil Rhodes, a proponent of British expansion. Rhodes founded diamond and gold companies, but his interaction with the Dutch led to the Boer War. From 1899 to 1902, the British and the Boers fought the Boer War. The Boers successfully fought the British using guerilla war tactics.
South Africa The British put 120,000 Boer women and children in detention camps where nearly 20,000 of them died of starvation. The Dutch surrendered, and the Independent Union of South Africa was established in 1910.