Seeing the Forest and the TreesPresentation Transcript
Seeing the Forestand theTreesA brief overviewNevin DawsonForest Stewardship EducatorWye Research and Education Center
Outline The Trees ID Physiology and ID Tree ID outdoors Tree ID indoors The Forest Forest Ecology Forest Stewardship Forest Threats and Management: EAB case study Invasive Plants
Tree ID Different species have different appearance Different species have different needs Different species have different response tomanagement Different species have different growth habits Different species have different uses for bothhumans and wildlife
Tree ID Dichotomous Key1. Is it brown or red? If brown go to 2 If red go to 32. Can you hold it in your hand? If yes go to 4 If no go to 5…4. Is it electronic?1. If yes, than it’s your cell phone2. If no, it’s your wallet
Tree IDBroadleaf/deciduous/hardwood/angiosperm orconifer/evergreen/softwood/gymnosperm?Red maple(Acer rubrum)White pine(Pinus strobus)
Tree ID Needle: long or scales?Virginia pine(Pinus virginiana)Eastern redcedar(Juniperis virginiana)
Tree ID Needles: single or in bundles?Eastern hemlock(Tsuga canadensis)White pine(Pinus strobus)Virginia pine(Pinus virginiana)Loblolly pine(Pinus taeda)Eastern white pine(Pinus strobus)Shortleaf pine(Pinus strobus)
Tree ID Twigs/leaves: Alternate or opposite or whorled?Whorled(few; e.g.Catalpa)Alternate(most)Opposite(MADCAP Horse)
Tree ID Leaf: simple or pinnate compound or palmatecompound?
Tree ID Leaf: entire/smooth or dentate or serrate?
Tree ID Leaf: obovate or ovate or lanceolate or cordate?
Tree ID Leaf: Glacous or pubescent or waxy?
Tree ID Chambered pith: yes or no?Black walnut(Juglans nigra)
Tree ID Leaf scar: 1, 3, or many bundles?
Tree ID Lenticels: yes or no?
Tree ID Fruit: nut or drupe or samara or cone?Flowering dogwood(Cornus florida)Red maple(Acer rubrum)
Tree ID Form: overstory or shrub?
Tree ID Bark: scaly or shaggy or smooth?Flowering dogwood(Cornus florida)Shagbark hickory(Carya ovata)American beech(Fagus grandifolia)
Tree ID Search for “Virginia Tech leaf key” online Dichotomous key Multi-chotomous key
Tree ID Apps Leaf Snap VTree Audubon Tree Doctor Field guides Audubon Peterson Apps Software
Tree Anatomy andPhysiology Anatomy Nutrient and Water Flow Hormones Nutrition
Summary Trees are complexorganisms thatcommunicate internallyand externally Variation both within andbetween species An understanding of howtrees work can help youmanage them
Forestry as Art and ScienceScience: knowledge covering general truths especially as obtainedand tested through the scientific method and concerned with thephysical world and its phenomena (Merriam-Webster) Pinchot as America’s first forester Founded conservation movement:sustainable use v. exploitation Founded Society of American Foresters 190050 accredited degree programs US Forest Service Created 1891 Manages for the “greatest good”
Forestry as Art and ScienceArt: Skill that is attained by study, practice, or observation; Skillarising from the exercise of intuitive faculties (American Heritage) Infinite variation in interaction of trees andresources Too complicated to quantify completely Thus the Art
The Dynamic Natural Area:Principles of Succession1. Natural areas change over time, whether or not youdo anything to them.2. You can accelerate the process of succession3. Stop mowing and the natural process of successionwill eventually provide a forest.
The Dynamic Natural Area:Principles of Succession4. Some plants need full sunlight: shade-intolerantspecies. Others are able to get started in partial shade:shade-tolerant species.5. Different successional stages provide different wildlifehabitat, aesthetics, and recreation.6. A small wooded lot may not contain every stage ofsuccession
Forestry Principles Tree size not directlyrelated to age Different tree speciesrequire different conditions Trees grow at differentrates Compete forresources(i.e., sunlight,water, and nutrients) Nature v. nurture Forests are3-dimensional25 years25 years
Forestry Principles Trees reproduce either from seeds or sprouts Trees don’t live forever; dead trees valuable for wildlifeand soil No matter how you manage your land, but especially ifyou practice passive management, invasive and exoticspecies will inhabit it.
Forestland GoalsWhat could you manage a forest for?• Oxygen• Timber• Wildlife• Food production (consume/sell)• Recreation• Energy (burning)• Energy conservation• Water quality• Carbon sequestration
Forestland Goals Fish & Wildlife Create brush or rock piles Encourage growth of wildlife food trees Improve shelter opportunities by planting trees orcreating soft edge Improve water quality and conditions
Forestland Goals Recreation & Aesthetics Create or improve trails Create a campfire or camping area Improve opportunities for hunting orwildlife watching Create or enhance a scenic view Plant trees that have brilliant fall coloror flowers Clean up natural areas damaged byinsects, disease, or storms
Forestland Goals Forest Products Timber Firewood for personal or others’ use Ginseng or other medicinal plants Grapevines for wreaths Shiitake mushrooms
Forestland Goals Passive Management Do-nothing approach Allow Nature to take its course Be aware of innate human influence Invasives/exotics Fire suppression Forest will change with or without yourintervention
Forestry as a Management Tool Once goals are set, plan out steps to reach them Three methods to affect change Plant trees/plants Remove trees/plants Do nothing
Forestry as a Management ToolPlant trees/plants Change composition of forest Mast trees Flowering trees Timber trees Compensate for deer browse Spacing affects growth
Forestry as a Management ToolRemove trees/plants Prune Remove non-essential branches Change growth pattern Produce clear wood for higher value Spray Change species composition Remove certain plant types Cut
Forestry as a Management ToolRemove trees/plants Cut Thin Crop tree release Selection Single tree Group Shelterwood Seed tree Clearcut
Forestry as a Management Tool
Forestry as a Management ToolThinning Trees draw from a limited pool of resources Sun Water Nutrients Light is most limiting Remove worst trees (wolf trees) to increasegrowth of best trees Sometimes incur cost now for increased profitlater
Forestry as a Management ToolThinning—Crop Tree Management Step 1: Identify your goals! Wildife, large trees, color, diversity, firewood, etc. Step 2: Define crop tree attributes Based on objectives Assessment will determine number Step 3: Mark crop trees in the woods Step 4: Remove (or kill) competing trees Can kill and leave or cut down for products
Forestry as a Management ToolThinning—Crop Tree Management
Questions?Nevin DawsonForest Stewardship EducatorWye Research and Education Centerndawson@umd.edu 410-827-8056 x125