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Seeing the Forest and the Trees


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  • 1. Seeing the Forestand theTreesA brief overviewNevin DawsonForest Stewardship EducatorWye Research and Education Center
  • 2. Outline The Trees ID Physiology and ID Tree ID outdoors Tree ID indoors The Forest Forest Ecology Forest Stewardship Forest Threats and Management: EAB case study Invasive Plants
  • 3. Tree ID Different species have different appearance Different species have different needs Different species have different response tomanagement Different species have different growth habits Different species have different uses for bothhumans and wildlife
  • 4. Tree ID Dichotomous Key1. Is it brown or red? If brown go to 2 If red go to 32. Can you hold it in your hand? If yes go to 4 If no go to 5…4. Is it electronic?1. If yes, than it’s your cell phone2. If no, it’s your wallet
  • 5. Tree IDBroadleaf/deciduous/hardwood/angiosperm orconifer/evergreen/softwood/gymnosperm?Red maple(Acer rubrum)White pine(Pinus strobus)
  • 6. Tree ID Needle: long or scales?Virginia pine(Pinus virginiana)Eastern redcedar(Juniperis virginiana)
  • 7. Tree ID Needles: single or in bundles?Eastern hemlock(Tsuga canadensis)White pine(Pinus strobus)Virginia pine(Pinus virginiana)Loblolly pine(Pinus taeda)Eastern white pine(Pinus strobus)Shortleaf pine(Pinus strobus)
  • 8. Tree ID Twigs/leaves: Alternate or opposite or whorled?Whorled(few; e.g.Catalpa)Alternate(most)Opposite(MADCAP Horse)
  • 9. Tree ID Leaf: simple or pinnate compound or palmatecompound?
  • 10. Tree ID Leaf: entire/smooth or dentate or serrate?
  • 11. Tree ID Leaf: obovate or ovate or lanceolate or cordate?
  • 12. Tree ID Leaf: Glacous or pubescent or waxy?
  • 13. Tree ID Chambered pith: yes or no?Black walnut(Juglans nigra)
  • 14. Tree ID Leaf scar: 1, 3, or many bundles?
  • 15. Tree ID Lenticels: yes or no?
  • 16. Tree ID Fruit: nut or drupe or samara or cone?Flowering dogwood(Cornus florida)Red maple(Acer rubrum)
  • 17. Tree ID Form: overstory or shrub?
  • 18. Tree ID Bark: scaly or shaggy or smooth?Flowering dogwood(Cornus florida)Shagbark hickory(Carya ovata)American beech(Fagus grandifolia)
  • 19. Tree ID Search for “Virginia Tech leaf key” online Dichotomous key Multi-chotomous key
  • 20. Tree ID Apps Leaf Snap VTree Audubon Tree Doctor Field guides Audubon Peterson Apps Software
  • 21. Tree Anatomy andPhysiology Anatomy Nutrient and Water Flow Hormones Nutrition
  • 22. It’s True!
  • 23. Early Wood v. Late Wood
  • 24. Stoma
  • 25. Tree Morphology and Crown Form Apical dominance Hormone translocation Growth promoters Auxin (IAA: indole-3-acetic acid) Gibberellic Acid (GA) Cytokinins Inhibitors Abscisic acid (AA) Ethylene
  • 26. Essential Elements Nutrients consideredessential if Plant cannot complete its lifecycle without it Its part of a molecule ofsome essential plantconstituent
  • 27. Essential Elements Macronutrients(>1000 ppm) Nitrogen Often limiting factor Phosphorus Potassium Calcium Magnesium Sulfur Micronutrients Iron Manganese (can betoxic) Zinc Copper Boron Molybdenum Chlorine
  • 28. Summary Trees are complexorganisms thatcommunicate internallyand externally Variation both within andbetween species An understanding of howtrees work can help youmanage them
  • 29. Forest Management
  • 30. Forestry as Art and ScienceScience: knowledge covering general truths especially as obtainedand tested through the scientific method and concerned with thephysical world and its phenomena (Merriam-Webster) Pinchot as America’s first forester Founded conservation movement:sustainable use v. exploitation Founded Society of American Foresters 190050 accredited degree programs US Forest Service Created 1891 Manages for the “greatest good”
  • 31. Forestry as Art and ScienceArt: Skill that is attained by study, practice, or observation; Skillarising from the exercise of intuitive faculties (American Heritage) Infinite variation in interaction of trees andresources Too complicated to quantify completely Thus the Art
  • 32. Forest Ecology
  • 33. The Dynamic Natural Area:Principles of Succession1. Natural areas change over time, whether or not youdo anything to them.2. You can accelerate the process of succession3. Stop mowing and the natural process of successionwill eventually provide a forest.
  • 34. The Dynamic Natural Area:Principles of Succession4. Some plants need full sunlight: shade-intolerantspecies. Others are able to get started in partial shade:shade-tolerant species.5. Different successional stages provide different wildlifehabitat, aesthetics, and recreation.6. A small wooded lot may not contain every stage ofsuccession
  • 35. Forestry Principles Tree size not directlyrelated to age Different tree speciesrequire different conditions Trees grow at differentrates Compete forresources(i.e., sunlight,water, and nutrients) Nature v. nurture Forests are3-dimensional25 years25 years
  • 36. Forestry Principles Trees reproduce either from seeds or sprouts Trees don’t live forever; dead trees valuable for wildlifeand soil No matter how you manage your land, but especially ifyou practice passive management, invasive and exoticspecies will inhabit it.
  • 37. Forestland Goals
  • 38. Forestland GoalsWhat could you manage a forest for?• Oxygen• Timber• Wildlife• Food production (consume/sell)• Recreation• Energy (burning)• Energy conservation• Water quality• Carbon sequestration
  • 39. Forestland Goals USDA Forest Service Forest StewardshipProgram Goal Categories Soil & Water Fish & Wildlife Recreation & Aesthetics Forest Products Passive Management
  • 40. Forestland Goals Soil & Water Improve Riparian Buffer Plant Nitrogen-fixing trees
  • 41. Forestland Goals Fish & Wildlife Create brush or rock piles Encourage growth of wildlife food trees Improve shelter opportunities by planting trees orcreating soft edge Improve water quality and conditions
  • 42. Forestland Goals Recreation & Aesthetics Create or improve trails Create a campfire or camping area Improve opportunities for hunting orwildlife watching Create or enhance a scenic view Plant trees that have brilliant fall coloror flowers Clean up natural areas damaged byinsects, disease, or storms
  • 43. Forestland Goals Forest Products Timber Firewood for personal or others’ use Ginseng or other medicinal plants Grapevines for wreaths Shiitake mushrooms
  • 44. Forestland Goals Passive Management Do-nothing approach Allow Nature to take its course Be aware of innate human influence Invasives/exotics Fire suppression Forest will change with or without yourintervention
  • 45. Forestry as a Management Tool Once goals are set, plan out steps to reach them Three methods to affect change Plant trees/plants Remove trees/plants Do nothing
  • 46. Forestry as a Management ToolPlant trees/plants Change composition of forest Mast trees Flowering trees Timber trees Compensate for deer browse Spacing affects growth
  • 47. Forestry as a Management ToolRemove trees/plants Prune Remove non-essential branches Change growth pattern Produce clear wood for higher value Spray Change species composition Remove certain plant types Cut
  • 48. Forestry as a Management ToolRemove trees/plants Cut Thin Crop tree release Selection Single tree Group Shelterwood Seed tree Clearcut
  • 49. Forestry as a Management Tool
  • 50. Forestry as a Management ToolThinning Trees draw from a limited pool of resources Sun Water Nutrients Light is most limiting Remove worst trees (wolf trees) to increasegrowth of best trees Sometimes incur cost now for increased profitlater
  • 51. Forestry as a Management ToolThinning—Crop Tree Management Step 1: Identify your goals! Wildife, large trees, color, diversity, firewood, etc. Step 2: Define crop tree attributes Based on objectives Assessment will determine number Step 3: Mark crop trees in the woods Step 4: Remove (or kill) competing trees Can kill and leave or cut down for products
  • 52. Forestry as a Management ToolThinning—Crop Tree Management
  • 53. Questions?Nevin DawsonForest Stewardship EducatorWye Research and Education 410-827-8056 x125