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Emerald Ash Borer Emerald Ash Borer Presentation Transcript

  • Emerald Ash Borer
  •  Feed in cambium anddisrupt water/nutrient flow Found in PGs Co. in ‘04 Eradication effort in ‘05 Detected in ‘06 Re-eradication effort in ‘07 –’09 Monitoring andbiocontrol tillpresentEmerald Ash Borer
  • Emerald Ash Borer Adult emerges in sync with black locust flowers
  •  Feed in cambium anddisrupt water/nutrient flow Found in PGs Co. in ‘04 Eradication effort in ‘05 Detected in ‘06 Re-eradication effort in ‘07 –’09 Monitoring andbiocontrol tillpresentEmerald Ash Borer
  • D-shaped exit holesBark splitsSerpentine galleriesSymptoms of Attack by EABCourtesy of Al Sawyer
  • David Roberts,MSUMI Dept ofAgricultureThe upper third ofa tree dies backfirst, followed bythe rest the nextyear.This is followed bymany shoots orsprouts emergingbelow dead portionsof the trunk.S-shapedgalleries underbarkSymptoms of attack by EABJames W.SmithCourtesy of Mike Raupp
  • Woodpecker activity is an ‘earlywarning sign’ of emerald ashborers.R.Anderson, USDA FSJ. Solomon, USDA FSSo are barkfissuresVertical split in bark abovelarval galleryDavid Roberts, MSUCourtesy of Mike Raupp
  • …lookalike diseases caused bymicroorganisms.Ash yellows(caused byphytoplasmaorganisms)Ash anthracnose(caused by a fungus)Verticillium wilt(caused by a fungus)North Dakota State U. U. Of MN Extension Forestry at Auburn U.Courtesy of Mike Raupp
  • …there are a number of less lethal native borer insectsthat cause similar symptoms in ash trees…Banded ashclearwing and lilacborer mothsBanded ashborerJ. Solomon, USDA FSRed-headed ashborerG.Csoka,HungaryForestResearchCarpenterworm mothW. Hoffard, USDA FSJ. Solomon, USDA FSJ. Solomon, USDA FSCliff Sadof, Purdue U.Ash privet borerCourtesy of Mike Raupp
  • “How to tell” signs of Emerald Ash Borer and ClearwingBorers
  • Emerald Ash BorerEradication Zone 16,000 acres 3,000 acre bump-out after new detections(7/31/07) 12,000 trees removed 2008 winter 25,000 trees removed winter All ash >1 in. DBH
  • Courtesy of PhilipBell
  • Emerald Ash Borer Primary vector
  • Quarantine All of MD west of the Chesapeake Bay andSusquehanna River Most states: all quarantined Other states: quarantine by county or region
  • 2009
  • December 15, 2011 APHIS, Pest Control, and the Wood Trade
  • Quarantine What does it mean? No transport of EAB across line No transport of living or bark-on ash products acrossline No transport of hardwood firewood across line Most but not all interstate transport within quarantinezone is OK
  • A Little HelpCourtesy of Philip Bell
  • Courtesy of AlSawyer
  • Rate of Spread?
  • How long do we have?(2009 estimates)~1/2 mile per yearCity DistanceUpper Marlboro 6 milesDistrict of Columbia 6 milesWaldorf 8 milesLa Plata 15 milesCollege Park 15 milesBowie 19 milesBaltimore 48 milesArrival Date2010201020122021202120252059
  • How long do we have?2013 estimate Until the next load of untreated firewood
  •  Ash trees provideservices like pollutionremoval, carbonstorage andsequestration, andenergy savings The US Forest Serviceestimates that thevalue of the ashresource withinBaltimore County’sUrban-RuralDemarcation Line is$353M Effective controloptions are available,but are most effectivewhen used togetherwith a managementplan
  • Emerald Ash Borer Purple traps
  • Emerald Ash BorerControl Imidacloprid May to early June Soil drench, 1 oz. per inch circumference Amount needed per in. DBH may increase with tree size Annual application 1 year for protection on young trees (<6 in. DBH), 2 yearsin older trees Available to homeowners Trunk injection also available
  • Emerald Ash BorerControl Emamectin Benzoate (Tree-äge) Registered for EAB in all states where present Trunk injection (systemic) Used as preventive measure in valuable landscapetrees Has 2-3 year protection/application Studies show high efficacy Effectiveness lessened by low initial tree vigor Available to professionals only
  • Control Dinotefuran is registered for basal trunk bark: spray on lower trunk with gardensprayer soil applicationRemember… Always follow instructions on the label—it’s thelaw!
  • Emerald Ash BorerOther control options Tree removal/replacement Bifenthrin Cyfluthrin Permethrin Carbaryl Botanigard Spinosad
  • Compromise Maintain the benefits of large trees (>24 in.) Treat with emamectin benzoate (TREE-äge®) every 2or 3 years Replace smaller trees with non-ash species
  • Key Points and Summary Insecticides can effectively protect ash trees from EAB Only treat a tree if EAB within 15 miles Trees with more than 50% canopy decline are unlikely torecover even if treated Emamectin benzoate is the only product tested to datethat controls EAB for more than one year with a singleapplication; it also provided a higher level of control thanother products in side-by-side studies
  • Key Points and Summary XytectTM soil treatments are labeled for application at ahigher maximum rate than other imidaclopridformulations: useful for large trees Treatment programs must comply with any labelrestrictions on the amount of insecticide that can beapplied
  • Biocontrol Progress Four parasitoids found inChina and US Egg Parasitoid: Oobiusagrili Larval Parasitoids: Spathius agrili Tetrastichus planipennisi Pre-pupal Parasitoid:Scleroderma sp.Courtesy of Philip Bell
  • Emerald Ash Borer Cost of infestation expected: $10-20 billion inlosses to urban forests over the next 10 years Urban density of ash trees Mean of cities in EAB range: 53/ha (131/ac) Baltimore: 244/ha (603/ac) Consider cost of live takedown v. deadtakedown
  • Emerald Ash Borer
  • Emerald Ash BorerOutreach and education OMalley declared May 18-24 Emerald AshBorer Awareness Week in Maryland 2008 Summer-long campaign with the minor-league Bowie Baysox Fact sheets, ID cards, HGIC hotline First responder training www.mda.state.md.us/plants-pests/eab http://www.emeraldashborer.info/ County/municipal decision maker workshops
  • EAB ID card set 1000 general 200 Master Logger 500 Bayer Advanced Apps Poster Meeting Follow-up
  • Mid-Atlantic EarlyDetection Network
  • Coming Soon NIFA Regional IPM grant EDDSmaps Expansion of ID card set Boxwood blight Sudden oak death Sirex wood wasp Kudzu Bug