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    Influenza  like ilness laguna plos Influenza like ilness laguna plos Document Transcript

    • Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance in PeruV. Alberto Laguna-Torres1*, Jorge Gomez2, Vıctor Ocana3, Patricia Aguilar1, Tatiana Saldarriaga1, ´ ´ ˜Edward Chavez , Juan Perez , Hernan Zamalloa , Brett Forshey1, Irmia Paz5, Elizabeth Gomez5,7, Roel 4 1 ´ 1Ore5,7, Gloria Chauca1, Ernesto Ortiz1, Manuel Villaran1, Stalin Vilcarromero1, Claudio Rocha1, OmayraChincha1, Gerardo Jimenez6, Miguel Villanueva1, Edwar Pozo3, Jackeline Aspajo1, Tadeusz Kochel1 ´ ´ ´ ´ ´1 US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment, Lima, Peru, 2 Direccion General de Epidemiologıa del Ministerio de Salud del Peru, Lima, Peru, 3 Direccion Regional de ´ ´Salud de Piura Ministerio de Salud del Peru, Piura, Peru, 4 Centro Medico Militar Sullana, Piura, Peru, 5 Universidad Nacional de San Agustın, Arequipa, Peru, 6 Universidad ´ ´Nacional de Ucayali, Pucallpa, Peru, 7 Direccion Regional de Salud de Puno, Ministerio de Salud del Peru, Puno, Peru Abstract Background: Acute respiratory illnesses and influenza-like illnesses (ILI) are a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the public health importance, little is known about the etiology of these acute respiratory illnesses in many regions of South America. In 2006, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MoH) and the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment (NMRCD) initiated a collaboration to characterize the viral agents associated with ILI and to describe the clinical and epidemiological presentation of the affected population. Methodology/Principal Findings: Patients with ILI (fever $38uC and cough or sore throat) were evaluated in clinics and hospitals in 13 Peruvian cities representative of the four main regions of the country. Nasal and oropharyngeal swabs, as well as epidemiological and demographic data, were collected from each patient. During the two years of this study (June 2006 through May 2008), a total of 6,835 patients, with a median age of 13 years, were recruited from 31 clinics and hospitals; 6,308 were enrolled by regular passive surveillance and 527 were enrolled as part of outbreak investigations. At least one respiratory virus was isolated from the specimens of 2,688 (42.6%) patients, with etiologies varying by age and geographical region. Overall the most common viral agents isolated were influenza A virus (25.1%), influenza B virus (9.7%), parainfluenza viruses 1, 2, and 3, (HPIV-1,-2,-3; 3.2%), herpes simplex virus (HSV; 2.6%), and adenoviruses (1.8%). Genetic analyses of influenza virus isolates demonstrated that three lineages of influenza A H1N1, one lineage of influenza A H3N2, and two lineages of influenza B were circulating in Peru during the course of this study. Conclusions: To our knowledge this is the most comprehensive study to date of the etiologic agents associated with ILI in Peru. These results demonstrate that a wide range of respiratory pathogens are circulating in Peru and this fact needs to be considered by clinicians when treating patients reporting with ILI. Furthermore, these data have implications for influenza vaccine design and implementation in South America. ´ ˜ Citation: Laguna-Torres VA, Gomez J, Ocana V, Aguilar P, Saldarriaga T, et al. (2009) Influenza-Like Illness Sentinel Surveillance in Peru. PLoS ONE 4(7): e6118. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118 Editor: Justin Brown, University of Georgia, United States of America Received January 22, 2009; Accepted May 21, 2009; Published July 1, 2009 This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Public Domain declaration which stipulates that, once placed in the public domain, this work may be freely reproduced, distributed, transmitted, modified, built upon, or otherwise used by anyone for any lawful purpose. Funding: This study was funded by the United States Department of Defense Global Emerging Infections Systems Research Program, WORK UNIT NUMBER:847705.82000.25GB.B0016. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish or preparation of the manuscript. Competing Interests: The authors have declared that no competing interests exist. * E-mail: alberto.laguna@med.navy.milIntroduction infections such as pharyngitis [3,4]. Patients infected by these diverse viral pathogens present with widely overlapping sympto- Influenza-like illnesses (ILI) are a significant source of morbidity mology, which render clinical diagnosis unreliable and severelyand mortality worldwide. In many parts of the world, particularly limits etio-epidemiological studies.in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere such as the The predominant pathogens of ILI are typically the influenzaUnited States and Europe, the etiologic agents associated with ILI viruses which cause annual recurrent epidemics affecting anhave been well characterized. In much of Latin America, however, estimated 5–15% of the population presenting with upperthe epidemiology and etiology of ILI are poorly understood. ILI respiratory tract infections worldwide. The World Healthcan be attributed to a wide range of respiratory viruses, including Organization (WHO) estimates that globally there are 3–5 millioninfluenza viruses, adenoviruses, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), severe cases and 250,000–500,000 deaths globally [5] due toenteroviruses, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), and parainflu- influenza every year, with most deaths occurring among elderlyenza viruses. Adenovirus, RSV, and parainfluenza viruses can populations. Influenza viruses are genetically labile and are thuscause severe disease particularly in children, accounting for a able to adapt and elude the host immune response, leading toconsiderable proportion of childhood morbidity and mortality regular seasonal influenza circulation and occasional pandemic[1,2]. Enteroviruses and HSV have been isolated from patients events [5–7]. Vaccination is considered the best transmissionwith acute respiratory infections and these viruses may also cause prevention method; however, the vaccine must be updated PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 1 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in Peruannually to match the circulating influenza strains [8]. Through region, some outbreak-related samples were included in thean international influenza surveillance network, the WHO molecular characterization to provide broader coverage andidentifies the viral strains that are to be included in the vaccine description of circulating influenza virus variants.for the following transmission period in both the Northern andSouthern Hemispheres [9–11]. Selecting the appropriate antigens Data Collection and Managementfor the annual vaccine requires surveillance systems to be in place Data on gender, age, lost work or school days, previousworldwide to monitor circulating variants. treatment, medical attention before enrollment, influenza vaccina- Since 1998, the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Peru has conducted tion status and travel in the last 7 days were collected utilizing a casevirological surveillance of influenza and other respiratory viruses report form (CRF) from all participants who met the case definition.[12,13]. In 2006, to strengthen the National Peruvian surveillance Temporal distribution of the results were recorded by monthprogram, the MoH Sub-committee of Influenza Surveillance and epidemiological week (EW) during the study period, takinginvited the US Naval Medical Research Center Detachment into account the number of ILI cases identified and the number of(NMRCD) in Lima, Peru to assist in increasing surveillance confirmed cases of influenza A and B in each geographical region.coverage by establishing new sentinel sites. Since then, NMRCD Weekly reports of enrolled ILI participants and monthlyhas augmented the existing program with support for obtaining and laboratory results were sent to the MoH. Regular personnelprocessing samples from new sentinel sites as well as providing data training in protocol procedures and semi-annual site visits wereto the Epidemiology Directorate and the National Institute of conducted as part of the strategy to improve sampling, storage andHealth of Peru. The objectives of the present study were to describe shipping procedures.the clinical and epidemiological presentation of ILI in the study Local coordinators notified NMRCD when an outbreak waspopulation, identify the etiologic agents associated with ILI, and suspected, and additional supplies were shipped to the site. When anmolecularly characterize the influenza viruses isolated from patient increased number of cases were detected in any health center,specimens. Herein we present the data on the viral agents causing Peruvian officers were notified and the Regional MoH EpidemiologyILI in Peru from June 2006 through May 2008, based on results Directorate determined if an outbreak investigation was necessary.from NMRCD-MoH study sites in 13 cities across the country. Laboratory AanalysisMaterials and Methods Sample collection. Two types of samples were obtained from the cases for diagnostic testing: a nasal swab for the RapidCase Definition Influenza Test (RIT; QUICKVUE Influenza test, Quidel, San At each site, trained medical personnel were responsible for Diego, CA) and an oropharyngeal swab for viral isolation. Theproperly identifying and classifying patients with ILI. The case RIT was processed on site, and the results were provided to thedefinition was ‘‘any person with a sudden onset of fever ($38uC) patient. Oropharyngeal swabs were placed in transport media andand cough or sore throat fewer than 5 days in duration, stored at 270uC until they were delivered on dry ice to NMRCDaccompanied or not by general symptoms such as myalgias, for laboratory analysis.prostration, headache or malaise’’ [14]. Virus isolation and identification. Patient specimens were inoculated into four cell lines for virus isolation: Madin-DarbyStudy Population canine kidney (MDCK), African green monkey kidney (Vero76 and The study population included every patient with ILI, VeroE6) and Rhesus monkey kidney (LLCMK2) cells. Upon theregardless of age, who sought attention in participating health appearance of a cytopathic effect (CPE) or after ten (or thirteen incenters between June 2006 and May 2008 and agreed to the case of Vero cells) days of culture, the cells were spotted ontoparticipate in the study. microscope slides. Cell suspensions were dried and fixed in chilled Peru is divided by the Andes Mountains into naturally distinct acetone for 15 minutes. Immunofluorescence assay (IFA) wasregions (highlands, coastal desert and jungle) all extending the performed to identify the virus isolates using a direct fluorescenseentire length of the country. The capital city of Lima serves as a assay (DFA). The Respiratory Virus Screening and Identificationreference point dividing the northern and southern regions. Kit (D3 DFA Respiratory Virus Diagnostic Hybrids, Athens, OH)Participants (outpatient or inpatient) were recruited in 31 hospitals was utilized for the identification of adenoviruses, influenza A virus,or health centers in 13 Peruvian cities located in 10 provinces, influenza B virus, parainfluenza viruses (types 1, 2, and 3), and RSV.which were intended to represent four distinct geographic regions The D3 DFA HSV identification kit and the D3 IFA Enterovirus IDof the country. The sites included in this study were from 1) the kit (Diagnostic hybrids) were utilized for the identification of HSVsouthern highlands, including Arequipa, Cusco, Puno and Juliaca, and enteroviruses respectively. All assays were performed followingall located over 2,500 meters above sea level; 2) the northern the manufacturer’s established protocols.coastal desert, including Tumbes, Piura and Sullana, all with Cases with positive RIT results, but without confirmatory viruslimited rainfall (,20 cm/year); 3) the jungle region, including isolation results were further tested for influenza A and B virusesPuerto Maldonado, Pucallpa, Iquitos and Yurimaguas, where by using a one step reverse transcriptase-polymerase chainrainfall exceeds 200 cm yearly; and 4) the central region of the reaction (RT-PCR) with the influenza primers described below.country, including La Merced (Chanchamayo) and Lima The viral etiology of cases was based on the isolation of virus (CPE(Figure 1). In each city, at least two accessible health centers were and/or IFA/DFA positive) and/or a positive result by both RITincluded from urban areas. Hospitalization was noted if the and RT-PCRpatient spent at least one night in the hospital or health center. RNA extraction and RT-PCR. For the genetic analyses of Study participants from Sullana, Arequipa, Puno, Pucallpa and influenza viruses, viral RNA extraction was performed from theIquitos also included military personnel who presented at local supernatant of infected MDCK cells using a QIAamp Viral RNAmilitary health centers. Military populations were included from kit (QIAGEN, Valencia, CA) following the manufacturer’s protocol.ILI outbreaks occurring in any military base (army or navy) within The one-step RT-PCR was performed with primers that amplifyPeru. While participants recruited during outbreak investigations the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza A and influenza B viruseswere excluded from epidemiological analyses of each geographical using the SuperScript III One-Step RT-PCR System kit PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 2 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in PeruFigure 1. Viral etiology of ILI in Peru distributed by age and geographic region, June 2006–May 2008.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118.g001(Invitrogen, San Diego, CA). The following primers were used for phylogenetic analysis using parsimony (PAUP) software [15,16].the amplification of H1 influenza A viruses: H1F-6 (59- For the neighbor joining analyses the HKY85 distance was usedAAGCAGGGGAAAATAAAA-39) and H1R-1193 (59- and bootstrap values were calculated based on 1000 replicates toGTAATCCCGTTAATGGCA-39); for H3 influenza A viruses: place confidence values on grouping within trees.H3F-7 (59-ACTATCATTGCTTTGAGC-39) and H3R-1184 (59-ATGGCTGCTTGAGTGCTT-39); for influenza B viruses: Ethical ManagementBHAF-36 (59-GAAGGCAATAATTGTACT-39) and BHAR- This surveillance protocol (NMRCD.2002.0019) was approved1140 (59-ACCAGCAATAGCTCCGAA-39). Five ml of the as less than minimal risk research by the NMRCD Institutionalextracted RNA was added to 20 ml of master mix containing the Review Board (IRB) and the Peruvian MoH, and written consentenzyme mixture (SuperScript III RT/Platinum Taq), 2X reaction forms were not required. Stamped, approved information sheetsmixture (containing 0.4 mM of each dNTP and 3.2 mM of MgSO4) were used in place of written consent forms. Additionally, theand 20 mM of each primer. Cycling conditions included a reverse study database was shared with the Epidemiology Directorate attranscription step at 50uC for 30 minutes and a denaturation step at the Peruvian MoH94uC for 2 min. Cycling conditions of the PCR were 40 cycles of94uC for 15 seconds, 52uC for 30 seconds, and 68uC for 75 seconds, Statistical Analysisfollowed by a final incubation step at 68uC for 5 min. The clinical-epidemiological forms were entered into a database The RT-PCR products were purified using Centri-Sep created in Microsoft (MS) Office Access 2003, and data wereColumns (Princeton Separation, Englishtown, NJ) and sequenced analyzed using dynamic tables in MS Excel 2003.using the BigDye Terminator v. 3.1 Cycle Sequencing Kit The Chi square and Fisher exact tests were used to compare(Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA) following manufacturers’ means and associations using SPSS software version 10.0 (SPSSstandard procedures. Sequences were analyzed and edited using Inc., Chicago, IL).the Sequencer 4.8 software (Applied Biosystems Foster City, CA) Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis. The nucleotide Resultssequences were aligned using the Clustal program in the MacVectorsoftware package (Mac Vector Inc., Cary, NC), and General Findingsphylogenetic analyses were performed using the neighbor joining A total of 6,835 participants from general hospitals and healthand maximum likelihood algorithms implemented in the centers located in 13 different cities were enrolled in this study, of PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 3 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in Peruwhom 3,786 (55%) were male (Table 1). Of those, participants, Laboratory Findings6,308 were recruited during routine surveillance activities, and 527 Of the samples collected during routine surveillance, 2,688were recruited during outbreak investigations. The patients ranged (42.6%) were positive for respiratory viruses by isolation; of thosein age from #1 to 94 years with a median age of 13 years and a 1,583 (25.1%) were positive for influenza A virus, 609 (9.7%) formean age of 16 years (SD 16.4 yrs); 56.4% of participants were influenza B virus, 115 (1.8%) for an adenovirus and 202 (3.2%) forunder 15 years of age, and 8.1% were older than 45 years. From parainfluenza 1, 2 or 3 viruses (Table 2). Viral etiology of ILI cases4,552 ILI cases between 5 and 65 years of age, 1,213 (26.6%) by age and region is shown in Figure 1.reported lost school or working days because of the illness; 85% of Among sites (Table 2), the percentage of samples positive forwhom lost 2 days or fewer (mean 1.7 days; SD 1.2 days). A total of one or more viral pathogens ranged between 27.8% (Pucallpa) and116 (1.7%) participants reported a history of influenza vaccination 50.8% (Piura). The highest prevalence of influenza B virusamongfor that season (Table 1). ILI patients was in La Merced, Iquitos and Piura, all exceeding Table 1. Characteristics of the study population. No. (%) Number of samples (total patients enrolled) 6835(100) Respiratory virus positive (regular passive surveillance) 2688(42.6) Influenza virus positive (influenza A and B) 2192(34.8) Respiratory virus positive (total patients enrolled) 2840(41.6) Sex Female 3049(44.6) Male 3786(55.4) Age (N = 6385) Mean, 6SD 16, 616.4 yrs Median, [range] 13, [0–94] 0–4 yrs 2267(35.5) 5–14 yrs 1337(20.9) 15–29 yrs 1961(30.7) 30–44 yrs 733(11.5) 45–59 yrs 367(5.7) .60 yrs 154(2.4) Travel (last 7 days) 888(13) Vaccination history 116(1.7) Hospitalized 209(3.1) Lost work/school days (n = 1213 between 5–65 years) Mean, 6Std 1.7, 61.2 days Median, [range] 1, [0.13–12] ,1 days 64(5.3) 1 day 672(55.4) 2 days 283(23.3) 3 days 114(9.4) .4 days 80(6.6) Medical attention before enrollment 2191(32.1) Previous treatment Antibiotics 1021(14.9) Others 2869(42) Unknown 160(2.3) No treatment 2508(36.7) Missing 277(4.1) Military population 968(14.2) Civilian population 5867(85.4) Outbreak population 527(7.7) Positive rapid test Influenza A 1212(17.7) Influenza B 516(7.5) Undifferentiated 175(2.6) Negative rapid test 4592(67.2) No test 340(5) doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118.t001 PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 4 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • Table 2. Viral etiology of Influenza-like Illness cases by Region. Peru. June 2006–May 2008. Total South Highlands Northern Coast Jungle region Central region Puerto Count (%) Arequipa Cusco Puno1 Tumbes Piura2 Maldonado Pucallpa Iquitos3 La Merced Lima Total 6308 (100) 309 459 274 940 1972 216 389 1178 279 292 (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Total positives samples 2688 (42.6) 38.2 39.7 39.8 41.3 50.8 31 27.8 42.2 44.8 32 Results positives: Flu A 1583 (25.1) 22.3 27.7 25.5 25.9 27.8 19.0 17.5 23.9 25.4 21.9PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org H1N1 102 (6.4) 1.4 2.4 8.6 8.6 3.1 9.8 8.8 8.5 18.3 10.9 H3N2 130 (8.2) 18.8 18.9 15.7 2.9 8.2 19.5 4.4 3.9 1.4 10.9 Flu B 609 (9.7) 6.1 9.2 7.3 5.7 12.9 5.6 3.9 13.0 11.1 2.7 PARA FLU 1,2 & 3 202 (3.2) 6.8 1.5 2.9 3.2 4.2 3.2 3.3 1.5 3.9 1.7 HSV 164 (2.6) 2.9 1.3 2.2 3.6 2.7 1.4 1.5 2.5 3.2 2.7 Adenovirus 115 (1.8) 1.0 0.2 2.2 3.2 2.4 0.5 0.8 1.2 1.8 1.7 RSV 40 (0.6) 1.1 0.3 1.3 1.4 0.3 0.2 0.7 Enterovirus 31 (0.5) 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.5 1.0 Others 6 (0.1) 0.1 0.2 0.1 Total negative samples 3620 (57.4) 61.8 60.3 60.2 58.7 49.2 69.0 72.2 57.8 55.2 68.55 Total South Highlands Northern Coast Jungle region Central region Co-Infeccions Total Co-Infeccions 62 9 37 11 5 Most frequent co-infection: Flu A-HSV 20 3 9 4 4 Most frequent agent: Flu A 39 6 24 4 5 Total South Highlands Northern Coast Jungle region Central region Count Arequipa Cusco Puno Tumbes Piura Puerto Pucallpa Iquitos La Merced Lima Maldonado Total Outbreak 527 (100) 0 0 0 267 79 0 0 0 82 99 (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) Positive samples 152 (28.8) 26.6 16.5 58.5 20.2 Flu A 43 (8.2) 4.5 8.9 19.5 8.1 H3N2 4 (9.3) 25.0 12.5 Flu B 99 (18.8) 21.0 2.5 39.0 9.1 HSV 12 (2.3) 1.5 5.1 4.0 Negative samples 375 (71.2) 73.4 83.5 41.5 79.8 1 ‘‘Puno’’ includes data from Puno and Juliaca cities. 2 Piura includes data from Piura and Sullana cities. 3 ‘‘Iquitos’’ includes data from Iquitos and Yurimaguas cities. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118.t002 ILI Surveillance in PeruJuly 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in Peru11% of total cases (Table 2), which was significantly higher than in infection. Isolates were genetically similar to the influenza B virusthe other locations (p,0.001). Relative to the other study sites, a strain B/Texas/4/2006 (Victoria lineage) and the influenza H3N2significantly higher prevalence of adenovirus infection was A virus strain A/Texas/91/2007 (A/Brisbane/10/07-lineage). Inobserved among study participants in the northern coastal sites 2007 as well, a total of 82 ILI cases were enrolled during anotherof Tumbes and Piura (p,0.001) and a significantly lower outbreak at the La Merced army base in central Peru; 32 wereprevalence of adenovirus infection was observed at study sites in influenza B virus-positive by isolation and 16 were influenza ACusco (p,0.001). HSV was isolated from 164 (2.6%) ILI patients virus-positive (Table 2).and the highest percentage of HSV isolation was observed in thecoastal cities of Lima, Tumbes, and Piura (Table 2). Viral co- Temporal and Geographical Distribution of Influenza Ainfection was detected in 34 (20.7%) HSV-positive cases, including and B Virus Infections20 (12%) who had HSV and influenza A virus co-infection The temporal distribution of total ILI and confirmed influenza(Table 2), which was the most frequent co-infection found in the cases identified at study sites nationwide between the 22ndstudy. We also identified 3 (0.04%) patients with co-infection by Epidemiological week (EW) of 2006 and the 20th EW of 2008 isHSV and parainfluenza viruses. Of patients with HSV infection, shown in Figure 2. During the second half of 2006, influenza A106 (60%) were under 15 years of age, 66 (38%) of whom were virus was predominant, while very few cases of influenza B virusbetween 0–4 years of age. In total, RSV was isolated from 40 were detected. All influenza B virus infections during 2006 were(0.6%) cases; however it was not isolated from patients reporting to detected in study sites along the northern coast (Figures 3A, 3B,clinics in Arequipa, Cusco or La Merced. 3C,). Influenza B virus continued to circulate at low levels between The prevalences of influenza A and B viruses were significantly the 2nd and 10th EW of 2007 before becoming the predominantdifferent between the different age groups (p,0.001), with a higherprevalence among patients older than 5 years. Parainfluenza influenza virus species during the 10th and 28th EW (Figure 2). Aviruses, enteroviruses, RSV, HSV and adenoviruses were more simultaneous increase in the healthcare demand for ILI cases incommon among patients younger than 5 than in the older age Tumbes, Piura, Arequipa, Iquitos and La Merced was observedgroups (Figure 1). during this period. To determine the efficacy of in situ influenza testing, RIT results In the southern highlands, peaks of influenza A and B viruswere compared with laboratory isolation results. Sensitivity of RIT infections were observed between the19th and the 28th EW inwas 73% (1,636/2,250) and specificity was 94% (3,978/4,245). 2007 coinciding with the winter season in that region. With theThe positive predictive value of the RIT was 85% (1,636/1,903). exception of this time period the number of influenza A and B cases were relatively low in the southern highlands during 2007. In the northern coast region (Tumbes and Piura), influenzaClinical Data virus circulation was detected throughout the year during 2007; Fever, cough, malaise and rhinorrhea were the major symptoms(each observed in over 80% of the patients) for all age groups and influenza B viruses were identified mainly between the 14th andgeographical regions, although sore throat (71%) and headache the 26th EW. This detection of influenza B viruses corresponds to(63%) were also frequently recorded. Rhonchus (17%) and an outbreak identified in two army bases in Tumbes (EW 16wheezing (7%) were more frequent in patients younger than 5 through 18). In the Amazon jungle region (Iquitos, Pucallpayears in contrast to what was seen in older patients, especially Yurimaguas and Puerto Maldonado), very few cases of influenza Athose who were positive for an influenza virus. A total of 209 virus infection were detected during 2007, although an increase of(3.1%) patients with ILI were hospitalized (Table 1). There was no influenza B cases was detected between the 5th and the 16th EW.significant association between any pathogen and higher hospital- Over the period of 2008 reported here (through EW 22),ization rates (p.0.05). influenza A viruses predominated throughout the country, Sore throat and vesicular lesions on the lips, mouth or throat approaching three times the number of influenza B caseswere reported by 120 (68%) and 11 (6.2%) of the HSV-positive (Figure 2). In study sites in the southern highlands region verypatients, respectively. few cases of influenza A and or B were detected during the first A total of 1,021 (14.9%) ILI patients reported receiving months of 2008 (1st–22nd EW). Comparatively, in the northernantibiotics before enrollment into the study. Of these patients, coast region, influenza A cases were more common than influenza248 (24%) were found to be infected with influenza A virus, 121 B cases, although an increase number of influenza B cases were(11.9%) with influenza B virus, 18 (1.7%) with adenoviruses and observed between the 6th and 16th EW (Figures 3A and 3C). In the30 (2.9%) with parainfluenza viruses. RIT was positive for 32.7% jungle region influenza B cases were also identified almost weeklyof participants who had received antibiotics at some point prior to during the 1st–22nd EW period (Figure 3B).enrollment. Phylogenetic Analysis of the Influenza isolatesOutbreaks and Military Population H1N1 influenza A viruses. Genetic analyses based on the A total of 968 military personnel were enrolled, making up 14% HA gene of 102 H1N1 influenza A isolates from Peru revealedof the total study population (Table 1). Of those, 466 (48%) were three distinct genotypes: 1) A/Solomon Islands/03/06-like, 2) A/enrolled during regular surveillance activities maintained at Brisbane/59/07-like and, 3) A/New Caledonia/20/99-likeregional military hospitals at Sullana, Arequipa, Pucallpa, and (Figure 4).Iquitos. The remaining 502 (52%) were enrolled during outbreaks Among the 2006 isolates from the northern coast (in red),in military populations at Tumbes, Piura, La Merced and Lima, central (in blue) and southern highlands (in brown) regions, twomaking up the majority (95%) of the 527 total participants distinct genotypes were observed: A/Solomon Island/03/06-likerecruited during outbreak investigations (Table 1). One of the and the A/New Caledonia/20/99-like. The latter also includes themain outbreaks in 2007 included 124 ILI cases from two army recommended 2006/2007 vaccine strain for the Northern andbases in Tumbes on the northern coast[17]. A total of 66 influenza Southern Hemispheres (A/New Caledonia/20/99). All isolatescases were confirmed by cell culture, including 54 cases of from the jungle region during 2006 grouped within the A/influenza B virus infection and 12 cases of influenza A virus Solomon Islands/03/06-like genotype. PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 6 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in PeruFigure 2. Temporal distribution by month and epidemiological week (EW) of influenza A and B confirmed cases, Peru 2006–2008.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118.g002 In 2007, the A/Solomon Islands/03/06-like genotype contin- introduction and emergence of influenza B viruses in these studyued to circulate in Peru. This genotype does not include the sites. In addition, parainfluenza viruses, enteroviruses, adenovi-recommended 2007 vaccine strain for the Southern Hemisphere ruses, and HSV were isolated from patient specimens, which(A/New Caledonia/20/99). collectively contributed to 8.8% of all ILI cases in our study. The The circulation of the A/Brisbane/59/07-like genotype was prevalences of influenza A and B viruses were significantly higherdetected among the 2008 isolates from the northern coast and in ILI patients older than 5 years of age (p,0.001), while othersouthern highland regions. Furthermore, this genotype does not viruses such as parainfluenza, adenovirus, enterovirus, HSV andinclude the recommended 2008 vaccine strain A/Solomon RSV were more prevalent among participants younger than 5Islands/03/06. years. These results are consistent with studies in other regions of H3N2 influenza A viruses. Genetic analyses based on the South America [18,19]. Taken together, these data demonstrateHA gene of 134 H3N2 influenza A viral isolates circulating in Peru that a wide range of viruses need to be considered during thefrom 2006 through 2008 revealed that the 2007–2008 influenza diagnosis of human respiratory illness.strains grouped within the A/Brisbane/10/07-like genotype, HSV is a viral agent not usually considered in patients with upperwhich includes the 2008 vaccine strain from the Southern respiratory complaints. In our study HSV was isolated from 176Hemisphere (A/Brisbane/10/07). The influenza A H3N2 virus (2.6%) of ILI patients. In addition to the respiratory symptoms, westrains from all geographical regions of Peru were grouped into found that 11 (6.2%) HSV-positive participants also had vesicularthis single genotype (Figure 5). The 2006 influenza A H3N2 virus lesions on the lips, mouth or throat. Mc Millan [3], in a 16-monthisolates differ genetically from the recommended 2006 vaccine study of U.S. college students, found that 5.7% of patients with sorestrain A/California/07/04. throats had HSV infection and, of those 34% had vesicular lesions Influenza B viruses. Phylogenetic analyses based on the HA and 71% had pharyngeal erithema. In our study, in the majority ofsequence of 169 influenza B virus isolates revealed the presence of cases where HSV was isolated, no other viral infection was detected.two genotypes in Peru: B/Malaysia/2506/07-like and B/Florida/ However, as HSV is a latent virus that may be reactivated during4/06-like. These genotypes co-circulated in Peru in 2006 and infections with other pathogens, we cannot conclude that HSV is2007; however, the most recent influenza B virus isolates from the causative agent for the infections reported in this study. In2008 belong to the B/Florida/04/06 genotype, which also addition, it should be noted that nearly 60% of total ILI cases wereincludes the vaccine strain for the Southern Hemisphere (Figure 6). undiagnosed; suggesting that in HSV-positive cases where no other infection was detected as-of-yet unidentified pathogens may beDiscussion responsible for the ILI symptoms. A control group without ILI symptoms will be needed to draw more definite conclusions on the Prior to this study, there has been little documentation on the role of HSV as a causative agent of ILI symptoms. Neverthelesscirculating respiratory viruses in most regions of South America. these data suggest that in the future, HSV should be considered inTo date, the data presented here represent the most thorough diagnostic evaluations as a potential cause of ILI.description of ILI-causing viruses throughout Peru. During the two Distribution of the ILI-causing viruses varied by study site andyears of surveillance reported in this study, upper respiratory by region. For example, adenoviruses were more common alongviruses were isolated from greater than 40% of samples collected the northern coast, in Tumbes and Piura (p,0.001) and much lessfrom nearly 7,000 patients with ILI. As expected, influenza A common in Cusco (p,0.001). The geographic distribution of(23.8% of the total cases) was the predominant diagnosis. During influenza viruses varied considerably as well. For influenza Athe period of the study, however, we also observed the viruses, the H3N2 strains predominated in the southern regions of PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 7 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in PeruFigure 3. Temporal distribution of total ILI and influenza A and B cases by month and epidemiological week (EW) and by region.A)northern coast region. B) jungle regionC) south highlands region.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118.g003 PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 8 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in PeruFigure 4. Phylogenetic tree based on the partial hemagglutinin (HA) sequence of influenza A H1N1 viruses. Numbers indicatebootstrap values. The legend indicates the geographical origin of the strains: southern highlands (brown), coastal (red), jungle (green) and central(blue) regions. Arrows indicate the recommended vaccine strain for the Southern Hemisphere for each year of the study period.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118.g004the country (Arequipa, Cusco, Puno, and Puerto Maldonado, Merced). However, it should be noted that almost all detectedspecifically), while influenza B viruses were more common in the influenza strains and lineages were found in all study sites,northern and central regions (Tumbes, Piura, Iquitos, and La suggesting that newly introduced viral strains will spread to all PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 9 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in PeruFigure 5. Phylogenetic tree based on the partial hemagglutinin (HA) sequence of influenza A H3N2 viruses. Numbers indicatebootstrap values. The legend indicates the geographical origin of the strains: southern highlands (brown), coastal (red), jungle (green) and central(blue) regions. Arrows indicate the recommended vaccine strain for the Southern Hemisphere for each year of the study period.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118.g005regions of the country. In addition, while two years is not sufficient increased number of influenza A and B cases were detected intime for an adequate description of the seasonal patterns of both 2006 and 2007. This is consistent with unpublished data frominfluenza transmission; we did observe trends in different regions. the MoH. Comparatively, we found another trend in the northernIn the southern highlands, sunny days and dry weather are coast and jungle regions where high humidity and hot weather arecharacteristic during the autumn and spring. It was during the characteristic of the entire year; in these regions influenza viruswinter season when temperatures fall to 3 to 25uC that an transmission was detected throughout the year. PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 10 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in PeruFigure 6. Phylogenetic tree based on the partial hemagglutinin (HA) sequence of influenza B viruses. Numbers indicate bootstrapvalues. The legend indicates the geographical origin of the strains: southern highland (brown), coastal (red), jungle (green) and central (blue) regions.Arrows indicate the recommended vaccine strain for the Southern Hemisphere for each year of the study period.doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0006118.g006 One shortcoming of a sentinel surveillance program such as this is population at large. One advantage of the present surveillance is thethe potential for sampling bias. As we have limited our studies to two ability to identify increases in the number of patients seekinghealth centers in most cities, our results may not be representative of medical attention due to ILI symptoms and the diagnosis of thethe entire population. Additionally, we are unable to calculate viruses related to such increases, while requiring fewer resourcesincidence rates based on our study due to this bias and the lack of than would be necessary in a population-based study. Furthermore,reliable population data. To address this shortcoming, we are we found similar influenza viruses present throughout the country,establishing community-based active surveillance programs in suggesting that a sentinel surveillance program is sufficient forseveral of these sites to better quantify the impact of ILIs on the detecting and describing currently circulating influenza lineages. PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 11 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in Peru One objective of this study was the identification of circulating resistant to antiviral drugs such as Amantadine based oninfluenza strains to help evaluate current vaccine components and secondary analysis of these isolates [22].inform the composition of future vaccine cocktails. The MoH is These data provide initial background levels of transmission ofplanning to start massive vaccination campaigns for at-risk influenza viruses and other ILI-related viruses in several regions ofpopulations in Peru. For influenza A H1N1 viruses, three Peru. Such data are important for identifying strategic locations togenotypes were observed: A/Solomon Island/03/06-like, A/ establish cohorts in the context of intervention analyses andBrisbane/59/07-like and A/New Caledonia/20/99-like. These experimental vaccine efficacy trials. In addition these studiesgenotypes include isolates that circulated in Peru in 2006 but have provide a springboard for future analyses of more severenot been detected since. It is unclear whether this genotype has complications of viral influenza, including primary influenzabecome extinct or whether it continues to circulate at low levels in pneumonia and secondary bacterial pneumonia [23]. Futurethe Peruvian population. Importantly, our genetic analyses studies will also be focused on identifying the etiologic agents forrevealed that the recommended 2007 vaccine strain A/New the nearly 60% of ILI cases that remain undiagnosed. Retrospec-Caledonia/20/99 does not group with the H1N1 strains that tive analyses of these stored samples will be necessary to identifycirculated in Peru in 2007, suggesting that the vaccine was not other circulating ILI-related viruses, including coronaviruses,protective against the 2007 circulating strains. Similarly, the 2008 HMPV and rhinoviruses, many of which can have severe diseaserecommended vaccine strain A/Solomon Islands/03/06 does not outcomes particularly in young children and the elderly. Ingroup with the 2008 isolates from Peru. addition, bacterial pathogens are likely responsible for some of In contrast to the genetic diversity observed with the influenza A those undiagnosed cases and will need to be considered. We didn’tH1N1viruses, influenza A H3N2 isolates circulating in Peru in test for bacterial infections and may have a role in some ILI cases2007 and 2008 grouped into a single clade irrespective of either as primary or secondary infections.geographical regions. These isolates were found to be genetically Such further analyses are necessary to better understand thesimilar to the A/Brisbane/10/07 vaccine strain, supporting the pathogens in circulation and associated with ILI in the region, asselection of the strain as part of the 2008 vaccine for the Southern well as to define the relative disease burden imposed by eachHemisphere. Importantly, the 2006 isolates from Peru were found pathogen.to be genetically distinct to the recommended vaccine strain A/California/07/04. Overall, these data highlight the necessity for Acknowledgmentscontinuous influenza surveillance in South America and the need We would like to express our gratitude to Direccion General defor sharing this information with WHO reference laboratories for Epidemiologia, Instituto Nacional de Salud and all personnel working atproper evaluation and better selection of future Southern Ministry of Health and military sentinel centers for supporting thisHemisphere vaccines. surveillance study. Genetic analyses of influenza B virus isolates revealed the We thank Maria Esther Gamero, Jane Rios, Josefina Garcia, Merlypresence of two genotypes in Peru: B/Malaysia/2506/07-like and Sovero, Monica Nieto and Ruth Centeno for invaluable laboratory andB/Florida/4/06-like. Both genotypes co-circulated in Peru in technical support in the execution of the study.2006 and 2007; however, the most recent influenza B isolates from DISCLAIMERS2008 belong to the B/Florida/4/06 genotype, which also includes Disclaimer: The views expressed in this article are those of the authorsthe vaccine strain for the Southern Hemisphere (B/Florida/04/ and do not necessarily reflect the official policy or position of the06). Future studies should identify whether this genotype will be Department of the Navy, Department of Defense, nor the U.S.the dominant genotype in the current influenza season or whether Government.both lineages will continue to co-circulate. Such data will be The study protocol was approved by the Ministry of Health of Peru andimportant for defining the components of the yearly vaccine. the Naval Medical Research Center Institutional Review Board (Protocol NMRCD.2002.0019) in compliance with all applicable Federal regulations In Peru like in other South American countries [20], the governing the protection of human subjects.unnecessary use of antibiotics is a generalized problem. In this Disclosure: None of the authors has a financial or personal conflict ofstudy, 15% of the participants had received antibiotics prior to interest related to this study. The corresponding author had full access toenrollment, and thus prior to a definitive diagnosis. A large all data in the study and final responsibility for the decision to submit thispercentage of these participants were found to have a viral agent publication.associated with their illness. These data demonstrate that Copyright Statement: Tadeusz J. Kochel is a U.S. military service member, and V. Alberto Laguna and Gloria Chauca are employees of theunnecessary antibiotic use is common for treatment of a patient U.S. Government. This work was prepared as part of their official duties.with influenza-like illness, even without a definitive diagnosis of the Title 17 U.S.C. 1 105 provides that ‘Copyright protection under this title isetiologic agent [21]. For many of these participants the purchase of not available for any work of the United States Government’. Title 17antibiotics combinated with paying for the clinic visit can be a U.S.C. 1 101 defines a U.S. Government work as a work prepared by amajor economic imposition thus, it is important to have a better military service members or employees of the U.S. Government as part ofunderstanding of the pathogens most commonly associated with those person’s official duties.ILI in the region for both diagnostic and economic purposes. Inthis study, RIT results were available at the time of enrollment, Author Contributionswhich helped decrease the unnecessary continual use of antibiotics Conceived and designed the experiments: VALT JG KT. Performed theand thus provided an additional economic benefit for the patients. experiments: VO TS EC HZ IP EG OR GC SV CR OC GJ MV EP JA.Unfortunately our study design does not permit us to determine Analyzed the data: VALT JG VO PVA TS EC JP HZ BF IP EG OR OEdefinitively what percentage of participants received antibiotics MVV CR OC GJ MV EP KT. Contributed reagents/materials/analysisfollowing a positive RIT result, as follow up interviews were not tools: PVA JP BF GC OE KT. Wrote the paper: VALT JG PVA KT.conducted. We also did not ask participants about use of antiviral Principal investigator: VALT. Ministry of Health of Peru investigator: JG. Final approval of the version to be published: JG KT. Acquisition of data: VOdrugs since viral inhibitors are not a commonly used treatment for TS EC IP EG OR SV CR OC GJ MV EP JA. Local analysis: VO TS EC IPinfluenza infection in Peru, mostly due to their high cost and low EG OR SV CR OC GJ MV EP JA. Approval of the version to be published:availability. It is interesting to note, nonetheless, that we found that VO TS EC. Critically revised the article: PVA BF. Approval of the data to bea high percentage of circulating influenza A H3N2viruses are published: IP EG OR GJ EP. Senior laboratory supervisor: GC. PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 12 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118
    • ILI Surveillance in PeruReferences 1. Monto AS (2002) Epidemiology of viral respiratory infections. Am J Med 112 13. Ministerio de Salud del Peru (2005) Plan Nacional de Preparacion y Respuesta ´ Suppl 6A: 4S–12S. Frente a una Potencial Pandemia de Influenza. Lima-Peru. Available: http:// 2. Williams BG, Gouws E, Boschi-Pinto C, Bryce J, Dye C (2002) Estimates of www.minsa.gob.pe/portal/Especiales/aviar/PlannInfluenzaPeru.pdf. Accessed world-wide distribution of child deaths from acute respiratory infections. Lancet 2007 Oct 15. Infect Dis 2: 25–32. 14. Ministerio de Salud del Peru (2005) Directiva Nu 057 MINSA/OGE-V.01 3. McMillan JA, Weiner LB, Higgins AM, Lamparella VJ (1993) Pharyngitis ‘‘Vigilancia centinela de la influenza y otros virus respiratorios’’. Lima-Peru. associated with herpes simplex virus in college students. Pediatr Infect Dis J 12: Available: http://www.dge.gob.pe/influenza/PDF/doctecnicos/RM230- 280–284. 2005%20influenza%20y%20otros%20virus.pdf. Accessed 2007 Oct 15. 4. Portes SA, Da Silva EE, Siqueira MM, De Filippis AM, Krawczuk MM (1998) 15. Swofford DL (1998) Phylogenetic Analysis Using Parsimony (and Other Enteroviruses isolated from patients with acute respiratory infections during Methods). In: Associates SMS e, editor. seven years in Rio de Janeiro (1985–1991). Rev Inst Med Trop Sao Paulo 40: 16. Wilgenbusch JC, Swofford D (2003) Inferring evolutionary trees with PAUP*. 337–342. Curr Protoc Bioinformatics Chapter 6: Unit 6 4. ´ 17. Saldarriaga T, Laguna-Torres VA, Arrasco J, Guillen L, Aguila J (2008) ´ 5. World Health Organization (2003) Influenza Fact Sheet. Available: http:// ´ ´ Caracterısticas clınicas y moleculares de un brote de influenza en dos bases www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs211/en. Accessed 2007 Oct 30. militares, Tumbes- Peru 2007. Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica 25: 35–43. ´, 6. Cox NJ, Subbarao K (1999) Influenza. Lancet 354: 1277–1282. 18. Avila M, Salomon H, Carballal G, Ebekian B, Woyskovsky N (1990) Isolation 7. Cox NJ, Subbarao K (2000) Global epidemiology of influenza: past and present. and identification of viral agents in Argentinian children with acute lower Annu Rev Med 51: 407–421. respiratory tract infection. Rev Infect Dis 12 Suppl 8: S974–981. 8. Garcia-Garcia J, Ramos C (2006) [Influenza, an existing public health problem]. 19. Straliotto SM, Siqueira MM, Muller RL, Fischer GB, Cunha ML (2002) Viral Salud Publica Mex 48: 244–267. etiology of acute respiratory infections among children in Porto Alegre, RS, 9. World Health Organization (2002) WHO Global Influenza Programme: survey Brazil. Rev Soc Bras Med Trop 35: 283–291. on capacities of national influenza centres, January–June 2002. Wkly Epidemiol 20. da Cunha AJ, Amaral J, e Silva MA (2003) inappropriate antibiotic prescription Rec 77: 350–358. to children with acute respiratory infection in Brazil. Indian Pediatr 40: 7–12.10. World Health Organization (2007) Programa Mundial de la OMS contra la 21. Gonzalez Ochoa E, Armas Perez L, Bravo Gonzalez JR, Cabrales Escobar J, Gripe. Available: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/globalagenda/ Rosales Corrales R (1996) Prescription of antibiotics for mild acute respiratory spanish/en/index1.html. Accessed 2007 Sep 30. infections in children. Bull Pan Am Health Organ 30: 106–117.11. World Health Organization (2007) Recommendations for influenza vaccines. ´ 22. Garcıa J, Sovero M, Laguna-Torres VA, Gomez J, Douce R (2009) Antiviral Available: http://www.who.int/csr/disease/influenza/vaccinerecommenda- resistance in influenza viruses circulating in Central and South America based tions/en/index.html. Accessed 2007 Sep 15. on the detection of established genetic markers. Influenza and Other Respiratory12. Oficina General de Epidemiologia/Instituto Nacional de Salud (2000) Influenza. Viruses 3: 69–74. Lima-Peru: Ministerio de Salud, Available: http://www.dge.gob.pe/publica- 23. Rothberg MB, Haessler SD, Brown RB (2008) Complications of viral influenza. ciones/pub_serieazul/serie04.pdf. Accessed 2007 Sep 15. Am J Med 121: 258–264. PLoS ONE | www.plosone.org 13 July 2009 | Volume 4 | Issue 7 | e6118