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Type 2 Mellitus What? How? Why? Shin Yie Chin Biomedical Sciences, University at BuffaloSeptember 29, 2012 Internship in Luna Medical Care PC
What is it?• Most common form of diabetes• 25.8 millions in the U.S. have diabetes (2011)• Body does not produce enough insulin OR• The cells ignore the insulin• Insulin: needed for the body to use glucose to produce energy
Eat Food Body breaks down all the HEALTHY sugars andINDIVIDUAL starch into GLUCOSE INSULIN GLUCOSE in takes cells GLUCOSE make from the ENERGY blood into cells
Eat Food Body breaks down all the DIABETIC sugars andINDIVIDUAL starch into GLUCOSE GLUCOSE in INSULIN blood takes HIGH BLOOD GLUCOSE SUGAR from the blood into cells
Causes?• Lifestyle factors and Genetics• Obesity – runs in families, families tend to have similar eating and exercise habits• Bad eating habits, poor diet, not exercising• Genetics: runs in families, already in your gene, can’t change• Lifestyle: you can do something about it!
Risk Factors• Ethnicity: More common in African Americans, Latinos, Native Americans, Asian Americans, Native Hawaiians.• Age: risk begins to rise at about 45years old• Family history• Obesity / overweight• Inactive lifestyle• High alcohol intake• High fat and carbohydrate diet• High blood pressure
Symptoms• Frequent urination• Unusual thirst• Extreme hunger• Unusual weight loss• Extreme fatigue and irritability• Frequent infections• Blurred visions• Cuts/bruises that are slow to heal• Tingling/numbness in the hands/feet• Recurring skin, gum, or bladder infections
Myths• 1. Diabetes is not that serious of a disease. – Fact: Diabetes causes more deaths a year than breast cancer and AIDS combined. 2 out of 3 people with diabetes die from heart disease or stroke.• 2. If you are overweight or obese, you will eventually develop Type 2 Diabetes – Fact: Obesity is a risk factor, but other risk factors also play a role, such as family history, ethnicity and age. Many overweight people never develop type 2 diabetes.