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An opportunistic pathogen isolated from the gut of An opportunistic pathogen isolated from the gut of Presentation Transcript

  • An opportunistic pathogen isolated fromthe gut of an obese human causesobesity in germfree mice Lisa Luna Medical Primary Care
  • Case• weight 174.8 kg,• body mass index 58.8 kgm2• suffering from diabetes, hypertension and other serious metabolic deteriorations• on a diet composed of whole grains, traditional Chinese medicinal foods and prebiotics• lost 30.1 kg after 9 weeks, and 51.4 kg after 23 weeks• Amelioration of hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hypertension until most metabolic parameters improved to normal ranges
  • How does it happen?• Biomedical Indicator
  • Key Point----Enterobactera genus of opportunistic, endotoxin producingPathogens, made up 35% of the gut bacteria in amorbidly obese volunteerAfter 9 weeks on the WTP diet*, this Enterobacterpopulation in the volunteer’s gut reduced to 1.8%, andbecame undetectable by the end of the 23-week trial*WTP Diet :whole grains, traditional Chinese medicine and prebiotics
  • HypothesisThe endotoxin producing Enterobacterpopulation may have a causative role in themetabolic deteriorations of its human host
  • Animal StudiesAnimal:Germfree (GF) male C57BL/6J mice* *germfree mice are resistant to HFD-induced obesityClinical isolation:• Strain Enterobacter cloacae B29 isolated from the volunteer’s gut• and nearest neighbor as E.cloacae subsp. cloacae ATCC 13047Process:Inoculation of B29 and Luria–Bertani (LB) into GF miceFeed:• normal chow diet (NCD) or• High fat diet(HFD)
  • (continued)4 groups:• NCD+B29• NCD+LB• HFD+B29• HFD+LBdata collected at the end of 16 weeks after inoculation• Body weight• mass of epididymal, mesenteric, subcutaneous inguinal and retroperitoneal fat pad;• oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) and areas under the curve (AUC) for the plasma glucose;• serum 2h post load insulin;• enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) analysis of serum LPS-binding protein (LBP);• serum amyloid A (SAA);• adiponectin corrected for bodyweight
  • Body weight after 16 weeks of experiment
  • Fat pad after 16 weeks of experiment
  • Blood Glucose level after 16 weeks of experiment
  • Conclusion from the data collected• The HFD+B29 gnotobiotic mice developed the most significant insulin resistant phenotype and body gain and other characteristics of obesity• The NCD+B29or NCD+LB both remained lean throughout the trial
  • Serum LPS-binding protein after 16 weeks*B29 was the only LPS producer in the gnotobiotic-mouse gut
  • Conclusion from the LBP level after 16 weeks experiment • The serum LPS-binding protein was significantly higher in the HFD+B29 gnotobiotic mice than in the NCD+B29 • increased serum–endotoxin load in the HFD+B29 gnotobiotic mice could only come from B29.
  • Serum SAA and adiponection level after the 16 weeksHFD+B29 mice had the greatest increase in systemicinflammation
  • Conclusion of the studyOvergrowth of an endotoxin producing gutbacterium is a contributing factor to, rather thana consequence of, the metabolic deteriorationsin its human host
  • Strength of the study• for the first time, established a gnotobiotic-mouse obesity model combining HFD with a human-originated endotoxin producer• identify more such obesity-inducing bacteria from various human populations• develop new strategies for reducing the devastating epidemic of metabolic diseases
  • Several question remains uncertain• Study is conducted for 16 weeks, it’s uncertain if the gut pathogen from the obese functions the similar way in a long term.• B29 is probably not the only contributor to human obesity in vivo.• More case study is required to replicate the experiments
  • Thank You!We Appreciate Your Patience