| Sudhakar Dhanapal 1
Sudhakar Dhanapal
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 2
Contents
This is my first eBook. I hope you will like it.
Typewriting Machine ----------------------...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 3
TYPEWRITING MACHINE
The idea behind the typewriter was to apply the concept of movable type
develope...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 4
In 1714, the British engineer Henry Mill obtains a patent for a machine or
method to put letters on ...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 5
TELEPHONE
Alexander Graham Bell owns the patent for the electric telephone in 1876. He
also has the ...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 6
a new type of 'liquid transmitter'. Through the instrument Mr. Bell spoke
to his assistant and said,...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 7
two people speaking tied up that line for as long as they were talking,
thus, denying service to oth...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 8
1758 All liquid evaporation has a cooling effect. Benjamin "I invented
everything" Franklin and Camb...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 9
Bicycle
Karl Von Drais was a German inventor and invented the 1st
Bicycle (pedal-less) in 1818 calle...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 10
the rider. With that definition in mind, let's look at the history of early bicycles
that led up to...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 11
propaganda by British writers to discredit the following French version of
events. The first really...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 12
Flute
One of the notable finds at Divje Babe in 1995 is the putative 50,000 year-
old flute, known ...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 13
said, they are like a simple fingerprint. The Divje Babe bone's holes matched
those spacings very c...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 14
When the craze for the newly invented art of lithography swept France in 1813, it
attracted Joseph ...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 15
TEMPLE
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 16
Archaeologically categorised as a site of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Period (c.
9600–7300 BC) Göbe...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 17
come across some three-dimensional sculptures, in shape of a predator
depicting a lion, descending ...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 18
WEBSITE
The World Wide Web, invented at CERN in 1989 by British scientist Tim
Berners-Lee, has grow...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 19
basic idea of the WWW was to merge the technologies of personal computers,
computer networking and ...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 20
Robert Cailliau, collaborator on the World Wide Web project and
first Web surfer.
The first web sit...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 21
and read by government officials. In 1582, there was the first reference to
privately published new...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 22
Some books mention the Avisa as the world's
first newspaper. Before 2005 there was a dispute whethe...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 23
Like many of these more practical devices, its main purpose was to strike a bell
at precise times. ...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 24
other mechanical parts are enclosed in a square iron frame of 1.2
m. Two large stones hanging from ...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 25
Charles-Émile Reynaud was born on December 8, 1844 in Montreuil-sous-
Bois (France). His father, Be...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 26
lumineuses » from October 28, 1892 until March 1900. More than 500,000
people attended these screen...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 27
Various representations of wrestlers has been found on stone slabs
recovered from the Sumerian civi...
| Sudhakar Dhanapal 28
Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their countries to the
games in safety. The pr...
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World's Products

  1. 1. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 1 Sudhakar Dhanapal
  2. 2. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 2 Contents This is my first eBook. I hope you will like it. Typewriting Machine --------------------------------- 3 Telephone --------------------------------- 5 Air Conditioner --------------------------------- 7 Bicycle --------------------------------- 9 Flute --------------------------------- 12 Photograph --------------------------------- 13 Temple --------------------------------- 15 Website --------------------------------- 18 Newspaper --------------------------------- 20 Clock --------------------------------- 22 Film --------------------------------- 24 Sport --------------------------------- 26
  3. 3. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 3 TYPEWRITING MACHINE The idea behind the typewriter was to apply the concept of movable type developed by Johann Gutenberg in the invention of the printing press century to a machine for individual use. Descriptions of such mechanical writing machines date to the early eighteenth century. In 1714, a patent something like a typewriter was granted to a man named Henry Mill in England, but no example of Mills’ invention survives. In 1829, William Burt from Detroit, Michigan patented his typographer which had characters arranged on a rotating frame. However, Burt’s machine, and many of those that followed it, were cumbersome, hard to use, unreliable and often took longer to produce a letter than writing it by hand. Finally, in 1867, a Milwaukee, Wisconsin printer-publisher-politician named Christopher Latham Sholes, with assistance from Carlos Glidden and Samuel Soule, patented what was to be the first useful typewriter. He licensed his patent to Remington & Sons of Ilion, New York, a noted American gun maker. In 1874, the Remington Model 1, the first commercial typewriter, was placed on the market. Based on Sholes’ mechanical typewriter, the first electric typewriter was built by Thomas Alva Edison in the United States in 1872, but the widespread use of electric typewriters was not common until the 1950s. The electronic typewriter, a typewriter with an electronic "memory" capable of storing text, first appeared in 1978. It was developed independently by the Olivetti Company in Italy and the Casio Company in Japan.
  4. 4. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 4 In 1714, the British engineer Henry Mill obtains a patent for a machine or method to put letters on paper that are equal to the quality of printing. Nothing suggests that he will ever build a machine. After that, there were many different attempts to produce a mechanical writing machine, but the first one to be commercially successful was invented by Christopher Latham Sholes. He was an American engineer who, together with Samuel W. Soule and Carlos Glidden, invented the first typewriter machine and QWERTY keyboard in 1868. 1872 Thomas Alva Edison builds first electric typewriter The invention was sold to the company E. Remington and Son, and their first typewriter was sold in 1874. Lilian Sholes, daughter of Christopher Latham Sholes (1815-1891) at one of the first models of her father’s ―typewriter‖ 1978 Olivetti Company and the Casio Company develope electronic typewriter
  5. 5. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 5 TELEPHONE Alexander Graham Bell owns the patent for the electric telephone in 1876. He also has the patent for the phone master patent While many inventors had been working on the idea of sending human speech by wire, Alexander Graham Bell was the first to succeed in this endeavor while working on improving the telegraph. Another gentleman by the name of Elisha Gray also invented a device that could transmit voice through wire, but he was three hours too late registering his device with the patent office. For a little perspective on American history; at roughly the same time Mr. Bell invented the telephone America was still settling the West. The United States was preparing to celebrate the American Centennial - the 100th anniversary of the U.S. America had 38 states, 46 million people, and some 30,000 miles of railroad track providing regular travel from the Atlantic to the Pacific. Below highlights important milestones in the invention of the telephone. On March 10, 1876, at the age of 29, Alexander Graham Bell developed the telephone's fundamental operating principle when he and his associate, Thomas Watson, were working in their lab experimenting with
  6. 6. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 6 a new type of 'liquid transmitter'. Through the instrument Mr. Bell spoke to his assistant and said, 'Mr. Watson, come here, I want you.' And, Mr. Watson declared that he had heard and understood what Mr. Bell had said. This historic event was the first successful experiment with transmitting voice through wire. And shortly after that on July 9, 1877, the first telephone company, 'Bell Telephone Company', was founded in Boston, Massachusetts. 1877 One of the first private citizens to have a telephone was Mark Twain. He, and President Rutherford Hayes, the nineteenth President of the U.S. in 1877 but the first President of the Telephone age. There was a phone booth installed inside the White House just outside the Oval Office. A telephone would not sit on the President's desk until Herbert Hoover was President in 1929 - 53 years after the invention of the telephone. Atlanta's first telephone arrived and was installed in the new 'Atlanta Railroad Depot' connecting it to the dispatcher's office in the 'Western & Atlantic Railroad' building nearby. These telephones were 'point-to-point' Box telephones. The receiver and transmitter were the same device, much like an intercom system. There was no bell or ringing device to get the recipient's attention. One had to either yell into the Box phone or rap on the receiver/transmitter with a pencil or finger to get the attention of the person at the other end. 1878 The first phone books appeared and were printed in sheets at first since there weren't very many subscribers at the time. As more people subscribed to telephone service it became necessary to print directory listings in books. The first telephone switchboard Operators were teenage boys. Young women, who were believed to be more well-mannered than boys, were preferred to fill those positions. Emma M. Nutt was the first female employee for the Bell Telephone Company. She was hired at the Boston exchange September 1, 1878, and continued until her retirement in 1915. Her 37 years as an operator began a tradition of long service. The earliest telephones were all connected to each other. Everyone who shard the same line could listen or talk to each other. Privacy became an issue since it was so easy to listen in on another conversation. Also, any
  7. 7. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 7 two people speaking tied up that line for as long as they were talking, thus, denying service to other subscribers on that line. Identifying the intended recipient of a phone call was done by 'ring-pattern'. The Switchboard allowed people to have private conversations. The first commercial telephone switchboard opened in 1878 in New Haven, Connecticut with eight lines and twenty-one subscribers. The rural (country) switchboard was almost always installed in the home of the local operator. 1879 The first telephone numbers were issued in Lowell, Massachusetts. Before that the operator had to memorize or look up people by their proper names to connect them. AIR Conditioner In 1911 Willis Carrier presented to the American Society of Mechanical Engineers the 'Rational Psychometric Formula' which is still used today by the air conditioning industry and by 1914 Carrier had designed and installed air conditioning systems for manufacturing plants, department stores, soap, rubber and tobacco factories, breweries, bakeries, food processing plants and others.
  8. 8. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 8 1758 All liquid evaporation has a cooling effect. Benjamin "I invented everything" Franklin and Cambridge University professor John Hadley discover that evaporation of alcohol and other volatile liquids, which evaporate faster than water, can cool down an object enough to freeze water. 1820 Inventor Michael Faraday makes the same discovery in England when he compresses and liquifies ammonia. 1830s At the Florida hospital where he works, Dr. John Gorrie builds an ice-making machine that uses compression to make buckets of ice and then blows air over them. He patents the idea in 1851, imagining his invention cooling buildings all over the world. But without any financial backing, his dream melts away. 1881 After an assassin shoots President James Garfield on July 2, naval engineers build a boxy makeshift cooling unit to keep him cool and comfortable. The device is filled with water-soaked cloth and a fan blows hot air overhead and keeps cool air closer to the ground. The good news: This device can lower room temperature by up to 20 F. The bad news: It uses a half-million pounds of ice in two months… and President Garfield still dies. 1902 Willis Carrier invents the Apparatus for Treating Air for the Sackett- Wilhelms Lithographing and Publishing Co. in Brooklyn, N.Y. The machine blows air over cold coils to control room temperature and humidity, keeping paper from wrinkling and ink aligned. Finding that other factories want to get in on the cooling action, Carrier establishes the Carrier Air Conditioning Company of America. 1906 Stuart Cramer, a textile mill engineer in North Carolina, creates a ventilating device that adds water vapor to the air of textile plants. The humidity makes yarn easier to spin and less likely to break. He's the first to call this process "air conditioning." 1914 Air conditioning comes home for the first time. The unit in the Minneapolis mansion of Charles Gates is approximately 7 feet high, 6 feet wide, 20 feet long and possibly never used because no one ever lived in the house.
  9. 9. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 9 Bicycle Karl Von Drais was a German inventor and invented the 1st Bicycle (pedal-less) in 1818 called 'Pedestrian Hobby-Horse'. Kirkpatrick Macmillan was a Scottish blacksmith and invented the 1st pedal-driven bicycle in 1839 A modern bicycle by definition is a rider-powered vehicle with two wheels in tandem, powered by the rider turning pedals that are connected to the rear wheel by a chain, and having handlebars for steering and a saddlelike seat for
  10. 10. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 10 the rider. With that definition in mind, let's look at the history of early bicycles that led up to the modern bicycle A few years ago, most historians felt that Pierre and Ernest Michaux, the French father and son team of carriage-makers, invented the first bicycle during the 1860s. Historians now disagree since there is evidence that the bicycle and bicycle like vehicles are older than that. Historians do agree that Ernest Michaux did invent a bicycle with pedal and rotary cranks in 1861. However, they disagree if Michaux made the very first bike with pedals. Another fallacy in bicycle history is that Leonardo DaVinci sketched a design for a very modern looking bicycle in 1490. This has been proven to be untrue. The Celerifere: The celerifere was an early bicycle precursor invented in 1790 by Frenchmen, Comte Mede de Sivrac. It had no steering and no pedals but the celerifere did at least look somewhat like a bicycle. However, it had four wheels instead of two, and a seat. A rider would power forward by using their feet for a walking/running push-off and then glide on the celerifere. The Steerable Laufmaschine: German Baron, Karl Drais von Sauerbronn invented an improved two-wheel version of the celerifere, called the laufmaschine, a german word for "running machine". The steerable laufmaschine was made entirely of wood and had no pedals; a rider would push his/her feet against the ground to make the machine go forward. Drais' vehicle was first exhibited in Paris on April 6, 1818. Velocipede: The laufmaschine was renamed the velocipede, latin for fast foot, by French photographer and inventor, Nicephore Niepce, and soon became the popular name for all the bicycle-like inventions of the 1800s. Mechanically Propelled: In 1839, Scottish inventor Kirkpatrick Macmillan devised a system of driving levers and pedals for velocipedes, that allowed the rider to propel the machine with feet off the ground. However, historians are now debating if Macmillan actually did invent the first pedaled velocipede, or if it was just
  11. 11. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 11 propaganda by British writers to discredit the following French version of events. The first really popular and commercially successful velocipede design was invented by French blacksmith, Ernest Michaux in 1863. A simpler and more elegant solution than the Macmillan bicycle; Michaux's design included rotary cranks and pedals mounted to the front wheel hub. In 1868, Ernest Michaux founded Michaux et Cie (Michaux and company), the first company to manufacture velocipedes with pedals commercially. Penny Farthing: The Penny Farthing is also referred to as the "High" or "Ordinary" bicycle, and the first one was invented in 1871 by British engineer, James Starley. The Penny Farthing came after the development of the French "Velocipede", and other versions of early bikes. However, the Penny Farthing was the first really efficient bicycle, consisting of a small rear wheel and large front wheel pivoting on a simple tubular frame with tires of rubber. Safety Bicycle: In 1885, British inventor John Kemp Starley designed the first "safety bicycle" with a steerable front wheel, two equally-sized wheels, and a chain drive to the rear wheel.
  12. 12. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 12 Flute One of the notable finds at Divje Babe in 1995 is the putative 50,000 year- old flute, known as the Neanderthal Flute. It is a juvenile cave bear femur, broken at both ends, but showing 4 holes in line. Found in 1995 by Ivan Turk in Slovenia, at the Divje Babe site, the juvenile cave bear femur bone, known as the Divje Babe flute, was a major find of recent times. The reason for that was because it provided significant evidence that Neanderthals may have been the equal of Homo Sapiens in the evolution of humankind. It became the oldest known musical instrument, and the first known instance of a diatonic musical scale sequence. But soon after it was found, in 1998, the theory was put forward, most notably by taphonomist Francesco d'Errico et al, as well as Philip Chase and April Nowell, that the bone, with four holes in a line, was not a flute, but was a natural object fashioned by random bites from ancient carnivores. The debate was on. Others entered the debate, and the archaeological and paleo- anthropological community was split. The views of major participants are set out in this article. Musicologist Bob Fink wrote an essay the year before claiming the bone's holes were "consistent with four notes of the diatonic (do, re, mi) scale," based on the spacing of those four holes. The spacing of the holes on a modern diatonic flute (minor scale) are unique, and not evenly spaced. In essence, Fink
  13. 13. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 13 said, they are like a simple fingerprint. The Divje Babe bone's holes matched those spacings very closely to a series of note-holes in a minor scale Flute is the 1st musical instrument in the world. In July 1995, Slovenian archaeologist Ivan Turk discovered a bone carving (i.e. Flute) in the Cerkno, Northwest region of Slovenia. The Ivan carving named the Divje Babe Flute, features four holes that Canadian musicologist Bob Fink determined could have been used to play four notes of a diatonic scale. Researchers estimate the flute's age to be between 43,400 and 67,000 years B.P. Photograph As early as 1793, the brothers had discussed the possibility of using light to reproduce images. Joseph Nicéphore Niépce's earliest experiments in this direction began in 1816. His progress was slow because photography was not his sole, or even his primary, interest. The invention on which the brothers expended most of their efforts, innovation, and money was a combustion engine called the "Pyreolophore" for propelling boats. This early internal combustion engine successfully propelled a model boat on local rivers, and the brothers spent the next 20 years improving and promoting the engine, resulting in Claude's eventual move to England
  14. 14. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 14 When the craze for the newly invented art of lithography swept France in 1813, it attracted Joseph Nicéphore Niépce's attention. His trials with lithography led to what Niépce later termed heliography and resulted in the first permanent photograph from nature, which he produced around 1826. In September 1827, Niépce traveled to England to visit his ailing brother. While there, he was introduced to the noted botanist, Francis Bauer, who recognized the importance of Niépce's discovery and encouraged Niépce to write about his invention. Bauer provided him with introductions to present his paper and heliographs to the Royal Society while he was in England. These specimens—which were all referred to by Niépce as "Les premiers resultats obtenus spontanement par l'action de la lumiere" (the first results obtained spontaneously by the action of light)—were rejected and returned to Niépce because he chose not to fully disclose his process. Upon his return to Le Gras, Niépce continued his experiments. In 1829, he agreed to a ten-year partnership with Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre. Niépce continued to experiment with heliography, dreaming of recognition and economic success, until his death in 1833. In 1839, Daguerre's photographic invention, the daguerreotype, became a commercial success, overshadowing Niépce's heliograph. In France in 1826, Joseph Nicephore Niepce took the world's first photograph. Joseph Nicephore Niepce captured the photo with a camera Obscura focused onto a sheet of 20 × 25 cm oil-treated bitumen. As a result of the 8-hour exposure, Sunlight illuminates the buildings on both sides.
  15. 15. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 15 TEMPLE
  16. 16. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 16 Archaeologically categorised as a site of the Pre-Pottery Neolithic A Period (c. 9600–7300 BC) Göbeklitepe is a series of mainly circular and oval-shaped structures set on the top of a hill. Excavations began in 1995 by Prof. Klaus Schmidt with the help of the German Archeological Institute. There is archelological proof that these installations were not used for domestic use, but predominantly for ritual or religous purposes. Subsequently it became apparent that Gobeklitepe consists of not only one, but many of such stone age temples. Furthermore, both excavations and geo magnetic results revealed that there are at least 20 installations, which in archeological terms can be called a temple. Based on what has been unearthed so far, the pattern principle seems to be that there are two huge monumental pillars in the center of each installation, surrounded by enclosures and walls, featuring more pillars in those set-ups All pillars are T-shaped with heights changing from 3 to 6 meters. Archeologists interpret those T-shapes as stylized human beings, mainly because of the depiction of human extremities that appear on some of the pillars. What also appears on these mystical rock statues, are carvings of animals as well as abstract symbols, sometimes picturing a combination of scenes. Foxes, snakes, wild boars, cranes, wild ducks are most common. Most of these were carved into the flat surfaces of these pillars. Then again, we also
  17. 17. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 17 come across some three-dimensional sculptures, in shape of a predator depicting a lion, descending on the side of a T-pillar The unique method used for the preservation of Gobeklitepe has really been the key to the survival of this amazing site. Whoever built this magnificent monument, made sure of its survival along thousands of years, by simply backfilling the various sites and burying them deep under, by using an incredible amount of material and all these led to an excellent preservation. Each T-shaped pillar varies between 40 to 60 tonnes, leaving us scratching our heads as to how on earth they accomplished such a monumental feat. In a time when even simple hand tools were hard to come by, how did they get these stone blocks there, and how did they erect them? With no settlement or society to speak of, with farming still a far cry away, in a world of only roaming hunter- gatherers, the complexity and developed blueprints of these temples represented another enigma for archeologists Prof. Klaus Schmidt discovered Gobekli Tepe (the world’s oldest temple) with the help of the German Archeological Institute Gobekli Tepe is located in Southeastern Turkey, Built 12.000 years ago. This Temple contains most of the T-shaped pillars and animal sculptures with heights changing from 3 to 6 meters. Gobekli Tepe's circles range from 30 to 100 feet in diameter and are surrounded by rectangular stone walls about six feet high. Many of the pillars are carved with elaborate animal figure reliefs.
  18. 18. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 18 WEBSITE The World Wide Web, invented at CERN in 1989 by British scientist Tim Berners-Lee, has grown to revolutionize communications worldwide Where the web was born: Tim Berners-Lee, a British scientist at CERN, invented the World Wide Web (WWW) in 1989. The web was originally conceived and developed to meet the demand for automatic information-sharing between scientists in universities and institutes around the world. CERN is not an isolated laboratory, but rather a focus for an extensive community that includes more than 10,000 scientists from over 100 countries. Although they typically spend some time on the CERN site, the scientists usually work at universities and national laboratories in their home countries. Good contact is therefore essential. The
  19. 19. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 19 basic idea of the WWW was to merge the technologies of personal computers, computer networking and hypertext into a powerful and easy to use global information system. How the web began: Berners-Lee wrote the first proposal for the World Wide Web [PDF] at CERN in 1989, further refining the proposal with Belgian systems engineer Robert Cailliau the following year. On 12 November 1990 the pair published a formal proposal outlining principal concepts and defining important terms behind the web. The document described a "hypertext project" called "WorldWideWeb" in which a "web" of "hypertext documents" could be viewed by ―browsers‖. By the end of 1990, prototype software for a basic web system was already being demonstrated. An interface was provided to encourage its adoption, and applied to the CERN computer centre's documentation, its help service and Usenet newsgroups; concepts already familiar to people at CERN. The first examples of this interface were developed on NeXT computers. Info.cern.ch was the address of the world's first website and web server, running on a NeXT computer at CERN. The first web page address was http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html. Going global: The first web server in the US came online in December 1991, once again in a particle physics laboratory: the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California. At this stage, there were essentially only two kinds of browser. One was the original development version, which was sophisticated but available only on NeXT machines. The other was the ―line-mode‖ browser, which was easy to install and run on any platform but limited in power and user- friendliness. It was clear that the small team at CERN could not do all the work needed to develop the system further, so Berners-Lee launched a plea via the internet for other developers to join in. Several individuals wrote browsers, mostly for the X-Window System. The most notable from this era are MIDAS by Tony Johnson from SLAC, Viola by Pei Wei from technical publisher O'Reilly Books, and Erwise by Finnish students from Helsinki University of Technology. Tim Berners-Lee, is a British engineer and computer scientist and MIT (Massachusetts Institute of Technology) professor credited with inventing the World Wide Web
  20. 20. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 20 Robert Cailliau, collaborator on the World Wide Web project and first Web surfer. The first web site built was at CERN (Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire), and was first put on line on 6 August 1991. Info.cern.ch was the address of the worlds first-ever web site and web server, running on a NeXT computer at CERN. The first web page address was http://info.cern.ch/hypertext/WWW/TheProject.html NEWSPAPER The Roman Empire published Acta Diurna ("Daily Acts"), or government announcement bulletins, around 59 BC, as ordered by Julius Caesar. They were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places. In China, early government-produced news sheets, called tipao, were commonly used among court officials during the late Han dynasty (2nd and 3rd centuries AD). Between 713 and 734, the Kaiyuan Za Bao ("Bulletin of the Court") of the Chinese Tang Dynasty published government news; it was handwritten on silk
  21. 21. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 21 and read by government officials. In 1582, there was the first reference to privately published newssheets in Beijing, during the late Ming Dynasty; In 1556, the government of Venice first published the monthly Notizie scritte ("Written notices") which cost one gazetta, a Venetian coin of the time, the name of which eventually came to mean "newspaper". These avvisi were handwritten newsletters and used to convey political, military, and economic news quickly and efficiently throughout Europe, more specifically Italy, during the early modern era (1500-1700) — sharing some characteristics of newspapers though usually not considered true newspapers. However, none of these publications fully met the classical criteria for proper newspapers, as they were typically not intended for the general public and restricted to a certain range of topics. Early publications played into the development of what would today be recognized as the newspaper, which came about around 1601. Around the 15th and 16th centuries, in England and France, long news accounts called "relations" were published; in Spain they were called "relaciones". Single event news publications were printed in the broadsheet format, which was often posted. These publications also appeared as pamphlets and small booklets (for longer narratives, often written in a letter format), often containing woodcut illustrations. Literacy rates were low in comparison to today, and these news publications were often read aloud (literacy and oral culture were, in a sense, existing side by side in this scenario). Before the invention of newspapers in the early 17th century, official government bulletins were circulated at times in some centralized empires. They were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places The German-language Relation aller Furnemmen und gedenckwurdigen Historien (Collection of all distinguished and commemorable news), printed from 1605 onwards by Johann Carolus (Publisher) in Strasbourg, is often recognized as the first newspaper Avisa Relation oder Zeitung was one of the first news-periodicals in the world. It was published in Wolfenbuttel, Germany in 1609. The printer/publisher was Lucas Schulte
  22. 22. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 22 Some books mention the Avisa as the world's first newspaper. Before 2005 there was a dispute whether the Avisa or the Relation, which was printed in Strassburg by Johann Carolus, was first. It was believed that both started in 1609. New evidence found in 2005 by the World Association of Newspapers, however, suggests that the Relation aller Furnemmen und gedenckwurdigen Historien started as early as 1605 CLOCK A clock in Salisbury Cathedral that struck the hours was mentioned in 1306. This was probably one of the precursors of the 1386 clock, one of the many early examples of mechanical water clocks that are mentioned from c. 1280 onwards. The clock was found in the cathedral in 1928. It had a pendulum, which appeared to have been installed at a later date. The clock was restored in 1956, and a verge escapement and foliot were installed. There were no drawings or documents available, so it is unlikely that the original foliot and verge escapement looked exactly like the one now installed in the clock. The striking train of the clock is believed to be original.
  23. 23. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 23 Like many of these more practical devices, its main purpose was to strike a bell at precise times. It probably did not have a dial. The wheels and gears are mounted in a four-post wrought iron frame. The framework was not held together with nuts and bolts (which had not been invented), but rather with metal wedged tenons. The escapement was a verge escapement with a foliot, standard for clocks of this age. The power was supplied by two large stone weights. As the weights descend, ropes unwind from the wooden barrels. One barrel drives the going train which is regulated by the escapement, the other drives the striking train whose speed is regulated by the fly (air brake). Before the weights reach the floor, they have to be wound back up again, a task that explains the presence of two large wheels shaped like steering wheels at either end of the clock. The clock was a 'single strike' clock that struck only on the hour. It made one strike per hour of the day (e.g. 12 strikes at noon). The left half of the clock (as in the photograph above), is the striking train; the right half is the going train. At the end of the 17th century, the Salisbury clock, like many others, was modified from verge and foliot to pendulum and anchor operation. This usually made clocks much more accurate, even though trials in the early 1990s by Michael Maltin showed that the clock was running to within two minutes a day if the rope on the barrel was kept in a single layer. As soon as there are two layers, there is more torque applied to the barrel by the weight and the clock will go faster. As a single layer of winding is enough to keep the clock going for 12 hours, it could have been kept exact to within 2 minutes per day if it had been wound twice per day. In 1790, the old bell tower 'on the ditch of the close of the canons of the said church' mentioned in the deed of 1386 which had housed the clock was demolished, so the clock was moved to the Cathedral's central tower. In 1884, a new clock was installed and the old one was left to the side. The Salisbury Cathedral Clock is the world’s first mechanical working clock in the world; it has been telling the time since 1386. The clock doesn’t have a dial and it belongs to the category of astronomical clocks which were built in the 13th and 14th century England. The Salisbury Cathedral clock doesn’t have a dial; it was designed to strike hours at regular intervals. The gears and
  24. 24. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 24 other mechanical parts are enclosed in a square iron frame of 1.2 m. Two large stones hanging from a pulley supplied the power. They hang in the air and power the clock on their way down. Once the stones are down, they have to be lifted again. FILM
  25. 25. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 25 Charles-Émile Reynaud was born on December 8, 1844 in Montreuil-sous- Bois (France). His father, Benoît-Claude-Brutus Reynaud was a medal engraver, and his mother, Marie-Caroline Bellanger was a schoolteacher. His parents took care of his education. From his father he learned precision mechanics, and his mother taught him to draw and paint. In 1858 he held an apprenticeship into Gaiffe's in Paris, where he worked to repair, assemble and develop optical and physics instruments, before going to Artige & Co., where he learned industrial drawing. Then he worked as an operator at the portraitist Adam-Salomon, where he did photographic retouching, and then moved to Paris as a photographer. In 1864, he attended public scientific lectures by light projections from Abbot Moigno. He became his assistant and learned the profession of lecturer. At the same time, he participated in the illustrations of the general dictionary of the theoretical and applied sciences, published in 1870, by the French professor and naturalist Adolphe Focillon. Also under his leadership he took stereoscopic pictures of the families of plant life. After the death of his father in 1865, Emile Reynaud moved with his mother to Le Puy-en-Velay, where the family found its origines. He completed his training and his scientific study with the encouragement of Dr. Claude-Auguste Reynaud, a cousin of his father. He acquired solid knowledge of botany, zoology, astronomy and physics. In 1873, Abbot Moigno called on him to do a series of lectures about photography in the "Progrès" Hall in Paris. These conferences couldn't be go on and Emile Reynaud had to come back to Le Puy-en-Velay where the city decided to light projected lessons about science to the students of the Industrial Schools of Puy and the general public. These lessons were orchestrated by Emile Reynaud whose numerous experiments projected on the big screen secured him success with the audience. It was in Le Puy-en-Velay in 1876 that he developed his optical toy, the Praxinoscope. In December 1877, he returned to Paris to assemble and market his praxinoscopes. He married Margueritte Rémiatte October 21, 1879 in Paris. They had two sons, Paul (1880) and Andre (1882). He continued to develop his Praxinoscope, into the Praxinoscope-Theatre (with a decor) and then to the Projection-Praxinoscope (projection on a screen). But these machines only reproduced a cyclical movement, limited to 12 frames. Finally, in 1888, Emile Reynaud developed the Optical Theatre used to project to the public of the Musée Grevin, short cartoons he called « Pantomimes
  26. 26. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 26 lumineuses » from October 28, 1892 until March 1900. More than 500,000 people attended these screenings. Animated cartoons were born In 1877 Charles Emile Reynaud invented the Praxinoscope, a mirrored drum that gives the illusion of movement using strips of pictures and on 28 October 1892 he projected the world’s first film in public, Pauvre Pierrot, at the Musee Grevin in Paris. It is an animated film consists of 500 individually painted images and lasts about 15 minutes SPORT Paintings of humans in the cave of swimmers An Egyptian burial chamber mural, from the tomb of Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum dating to around 2400 BC, showing wrestlers in action Cave paintings have been found in the Lascaux caves in France that been suggested to depict sprinting and wrestling in the Upper Paleolithic around 17,300 years ago.Cave paintings in the Bayankhongor Province of Mongolia dating back to Neolithic age of 7000 BC show a wrestling match surrounded by crowds. Neolithic Rock art found at the Cave of swimmers in Wadi Sura, near Gilf Kebir in Libya has shown evidence of swimming and archery being practiced around 6000 BC. Prehistoric cave paintings have also been found in Japan depicting a sport similar to sumo wrestling.
  27. 27. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 27 Various representations of wrestlers has been found on stone slabs recovered from the Sumerian civilization. One showing three pairs of wrestlers was generally dated to around 3000 BC. A cast Bronze figurine, (perhaps the base of a vase) has been found at Khafaji in Iraq that shows two figures in a wrestling hold that dates to around 2600 BC. The statue is one of the earliest depictions of sport and is housed in the National Museum of Iraq. The origins of boxing have also been traced to ancient Sumer. The Epic of Gilgamesh gives one of the first historical records of sport with Gilgamesh engaging in a form of belt wrestling with Enkidu. The cuneiform tablets recording the tale date to around 2000 BC, however the historical Gilgamesh is supposed to have lived around 2800 to 2600 BC. The Sumerian king Shulgi also boasts of his prowess in sport in Self-praise of Shulgi A, B and C. Fishing hooks not unlike those made today have been found during excavations at Ur, showing evidence of angling in Sumer at around 2600 BC. Monuments to the Pharaohs found at Beni Hasan dating to around 2000 BC indicate that a number of sports, including wrestling, weightlifting, long jump, swimming, rowing, shooting, fishing and athletics, as well as various kinds of ball games, were well-developed and regulated in ancient Egypt. Other Egyptian sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. An earlier portrayal of figures wrestling was found in the tomb of Khnumhotep and Niankhkhnum in Saqqara dating to around 2400 BC Depictions of ritual sporting events are seen in the Minoan art of Bronze Age Crete, such as a fresco dating to 1500 BC of gymnastics in the form of religious bull-leaping and possibly bullfighting. The origins of Greek sporting festivals may date to funeral games of the Mycenean period, between 1600 BC and ca. 1100 BC. In the Iliad there are extensive descriptions of funeral games held in honour of deceased warriors, such as those held for Patroclus by Achilles. Engaging in sport is described as the occupation of the noble and wealthy, who have no need to do manual labour themselves. In the Odyssey, king Odysseus of Ithaca proves his royal status to king Alkinoös of the Phaiakes by showing his proficiency in throwing the javelin. It was predictably in Greece that sports were first instituted formally, with the first Olympic Games recorded in 776 BC in Olympia, where they were celebrated until 393 AD. The games were held every four years, or Olympiad, which became a unit of time in historical chronologies. Initially a single sprinting event, the Olympics gradually expanded to include several footraces, run in the nude or in armor, boxing, wrestling, pankration, chariot racing, long jump, javelin throw, and discus throw. During the celebration of the games, an Olympic
  28. 28. | Sudhakar Dhanapal 28 Truce was enacted so that athletes could travel from their countries to the games in safety. The prizes for the victors were wreaths of laurel leaves. Other important sporting events in ancient Greece were the Isthmian games, the Nemean Games, and the Pythian Games. Together with the Olympics, these were the most prestigious games, and formed the Panhellenic Games. Some games, e.g. the Panathenaia of Athens, included musical, reading and other non-athletic contests in addition to regular sports events. The Heraean Games were the first recorded sporting competition for women, held in Olympia as early as the sixth century BC Reference: 1. Internet 2. Books Contact: Author : Sudhakar Dhanapal Email : u0113024@gmail.com

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