Abby’s History Presentation 5 Unrest in Britain, Westward Migration, The Arts,Architecture, Science and Technology, and The World at a Glance
Unrest in Britain1811-1832The years of peace after the Napolean Wars were not happy ones. There washigh food prices, poor housing, frequent accidents, disease, andunemployment.Events from afar gave British workers hope, and they demanded betterconditions and pay, along with a say in government. Some protesterssmashed new machinery in factories, fearing they would loose their jobs tomachines.Six years later, “the Blanketeers” marched to London from Manchester to askPrince Regent for his support. Limited trade union was permitted in 1824, andin 1832, the law was changed to reform election for Parliament. Still, onlymen who owned property could vote.
Westward Migration1776-1845In early 1800s, the USA was still very small and affectedby European politics. During the Napolean Wars, theBritish took control of the seas, blocking most sea trafﬁcbetween Napolean Europe and the USA. It was disastrousfor American trade. After harsh wars, the British blockadewas ﬁnally lifted.Settlers ﬂocked to the United States. It seemed like a newempire, rich in land and resources. However, for theNative Americans, America’s expansion meant hardship,poverty, and conﬁnement.In 1830, Congress passed the Indian Removal Act. TheCherokee won a Supreme Court decision to stay on theirlands, but the general ignored it. Thousands of helplessNative Americans died and by 1821, there were 23 statesin the Union.
The Arts1708-1835Europeans now enjoyed worldwide domination, in terms of power andinnovation. Their ideas and standards were entering other cultures, and theirstyle of moneymaking and trade affected many places. The trade alsobrought exotic, fresh inﬂuences.Oriental china, Indian cotton goods, and African carvings arrived in Europe,bringing along ideas, knowledge, and inspiration from the Far East andcultures of the Americas. Designers, painters, and craftspeople found newinspiration and combined them with their own.The upperclass built extravagant mansions and opera houses. Cities andcoffehouses along with streetlife bred a new popular culture. New factoryitems changed the designs and uses of regular items. Society was changingand so were it’s tastes.
Wolfgang Mozart: 1756-1791Mozart was already famous at age six, after playingfor Maria Theresa, empress of Austria. Born inSalzburg, he showed much potential.At 17, he became a court musician in Salzburg, butgrew restless and moved on. When he visited Viennain 1781, he was dismissed from his Salzburg position,so he chose to stay in the capital.He was awarded much fame, but little ﬁnancialsecurity. During his ﬁnal years, he composed manyof his best known symphonies, concertos, andoperas. The circumstances of his death have beenmystiﬁed.
Architecture1708-1835Across the entire world, most cultures referred back to tradition to deﬁnearchitecture. Creativity was not their strong point, except in Europe. Two maininﬂuences were used in Europe. First, the growth of huge townhouses andcountry estates. Large windows were the fashion. Second, the new industries,which inﬂuenced the building of which large factories and cities were built.In many parts of the world, traditional designs using only local materialsremained popular. Settlers were building housing in the new territorieseverywhere. In most cases, this was practical. The governors, bosses, andplantation owners also built grand houses to remind of their wealth andstatus.
Science and Technology1708-1835During this period, many scientiﬁc and technologic developments were made, particularly in Europe.Discoveries were made in theoretical and practical areas. Mathematicians, scientists, and philosophersdiscussed, researched, and published investigations on how the world worked. Meanwhile, engineers andinventors developed new processes and machines.Some of these inventions just made it easier to produce things on a larger scale such as textile machines.Some produced large quantities of cloth and metal objects quickly and cheaply. But some inventions broughtcompletely new possibilities, such as batteries, steamboats, and locomotives. It would take decades for theseto be widely known, but their creation helped set the beginning of our modern day world.
The World At A Glance 1836-1913 -North America -Latin America -Europe -Australia -Middle East -Africa
North and Latin America- The United States grew strong during this period of time. Its Latin America developed more territories now extended west to California and Texas. The slowly, partly because of its Wild West was being opened by railroads, soldiers, and controlling land owners and settlers, which took tolls on the Native Americans. dictatorial governments. - In the 1860s, the Civil War broke out, and slavery was After the independence wars in the 1820s, South American countries abolished. fought each other. - Canada was united, and it pushed west too, becoming a There followed a spate of prosperous and independent dominion inside the British development brought from empire. population growth, increasing welath, and railroads. - By 1900, North America had become strong and wealthy. The United States were an imperial power in itself, with Old Spanish ways lived on, however and there continued to be masses ofﬁnanciers, corporations, and armies used to help it dominate poor people, rich landowners, and the world from the 1900s on to today. tough governments.
Europe, Australia, Africa, and the Middle EastAustralia was mostly taken over by Britain, and in growing numbers, overwhelmed the peoples. Australia and New Zealand made a name for themselves as exporters of gold, wool, and food. Europe’s incessant wars almost stopped, and its armies went In Africa, explorers, governors, missionaries, overseas, staking claims to elsewhere traders, and administrators came. In the 1880s, empires. Industrial cities grew largeEurope took over Africa. Gold rushes made South and were linked by telegraph wires Africa rich, though they were ruled by whites. and railroads.The slave trade had now ended, but all of Africa was dominated by Europeans. Industrialists, politicians, and middle classes gained power. AchievementsThe Middle East was suffering the long decline of were made in science, ideas, the the Ottomans. The Persians had to ﬁght the arts, engineering, and exploring the British to fend them off. It became something world. held in check by traditional rule.
Industrial Revolution1836-1913During the 1700s, many in Britain worked at home producing goods by hand.By the middle of the 1800s, it changed. Many British lived in towns andworked in enormous factories or stores, ofﬁces, and other businesses.Four factors brought out the change in the industry. Coal mining, a canalsystem, cheap labor, and capital money.In time, laws were made after deaths in the dangerous factories, hard laborfor men, women, and children, deadly diseases, and more. The lawsshortened working hours, better working conditions, better schooling, and thelaw prohibited child labor.