Research can be defined as a
Systematic & Scientific
Search or investigation
for pertinent information/knowledge/solution
on a specific topic/subject/problem.
Research is a scientific and systematic search for
pertinent information on a specific topic. It is a careful
investigation or enquiry specially through search for
knowledge. It is a movement from known to unknown
Research means finding answers to the questions.
It is a systematic search for truth.
Through research, new and original information, ideas
about the world we live in, are obtained.
Research is search for knowledge.
Research is defined as a scientific and systematic
search for information on a specific topic.
III IV V VI VII
Review the literature
The differences between knowledge arrived at through
common sense and intuition on the one hand, and
scientific research on the other, can be expressed by
concepts such as “organized”, “structured”, “methodical”,
“systematic”, “testable” and specifically by the notion of
Selinger and shohamy (1989)
Research Methodology says that
to do/conduct research
systematically & scientifically.
not only provides
the knowledge of various types of methods & techniques
for Sampling , data collection, data analysis & report writing
but also guides
that which particular method or technique
for sampling/data collection/data analysis should be used or
& why should /shouldn't do so.
Nature of Business Research
Nature of Business Research involves: academics
trans-disciplinarily related to context not easily
replicated more emphasis on dissemination &
Ways of business research..
Research is a systematic inquiry whose objective
is to provide information to solve managerial
Business Research Methods can be employed in each
of the following four stages:
1. Identification of problems and/or opportunities.
2. Diagnosing and Assessment of problems and/or
3. Selection and Implementation of Courses of Action.
4. Evaluating the Course of Action.
Selected Examples of Real-Life Situations in Which
Business Research Methods are Used
A firm wants to produce and market a new product but first
wants to ascertain if there is a potential consumer demand for
this product in markets x,y and z
A multinational firm wants to establish a production facility in
another country after determining its technical and economic
A government agency wants to ascertain the satisfaction level of
its employees, the causes for any possible discontent, and
propose a scheme for enhancing this level
A financial institution wants to invest in commodities and
commissions a study to determine the past trends and forecast
future returns in a portfolio of commodities
MNC wants to find out the trends in retail and wholesale sector
Business research is defined as the systematic and
objective process of generating information for aid in
making business decisions
M.H. Gopal defined it as “it is scientific analysis of the
nature and trends of social phenomena of groups or in
general of human behavior so as to formulate broad
principles and scientific concepts”.
Is carried on to find solution to a real life problem
requiring an action or policy decision.
It is thus problem oriented and action directed.
It seeks an immediate and practical resulet.
E.g; market research carried on for developing a new
market for studying the post purchage experience of
Pure research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge
without any intention to apply it in practice.
E.g : einstein’s theory of relativity,newtom’s
pure research is also known as basic of fundamental
research . It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity
It is necessarily problem oriented.
It aims extension of knowledge.
Steps in Social Research
Although different methods are used in social science
research, the common goal of a social research is one
the same, i.e. furthering our understanding of society
and thus all share certain basic stages such as:
Choosing the research problems and stating the
Formulating the Research Design.
Gathering the Data.
Coding and Analysis the Data.
Interpreting the results so as to test the hypothesis
As sometimes it goes for collect qualitative
information like attitude, satisfaction level,
perception etc. of consumers, retailers, employees
,hence it is qualitative & sometimes it collects &
present information in numerical forms too like
number of people, percentage of
consumers/retailers/employees, etc. so it is
Applied research refers to scientific study and research
that seeks to solve practical problems. Applied research is
used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness,
and develop innovative technologies, rather than to acquire
knowledge for knowledge's sake.
For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to:
• Improve agricultural crop production
• Treat or cure a specific disease
• Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes
Descriptive research refers to research that provides
an accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular
individual, situation, or group. Descriptive research,
also known as statistical research.
These studies are a means of discovering new meaning,
describing what exists, determining the frequency with
which something occurs, and categorizing information.
In short descriptive research deals with
everything that can be counted and studied,
which has an impact of the lives of the people it
• finding the most frequent disease that affects the
children of a town. The reader of the research will
know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more
people will live a healthy life.
• The people individual studied are unaware so they act naturally or as they
usually do in everyday situation;
• It is less expensive and time consuming than quantitative experiments;
• Collects a large amount of notes for detailed studying;
• As it is used to describe and not make any conclusions it is to start the research
• Descriptive research requires more skills.
• Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon
• Response rate is low in this research.
• Results of this research can change over the period of time.
Experimental research is an objective, systematic, controlled
investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling
phenomena and examining probability and causality among
• Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships
The simplest experimental design includes two variables and two
groups of participants.
The two variables(Independent versus Dependent variables).
• The IV is the predictor variable whereas the DV is the outcome
• Researchers manipulate and control the IV to study it's effect on the
The two groups of participants (Control versus Experimental
• Before beginning the experiment, the researcher (randomly) assigns
his/her sample to two different groups: the control group and the
experimental (treatment group or clinical group).
• The control group receives no manipulation of the IV (no treatment),
whereas the experimental group receives the manipulation of the IV
What is Hypothesis
A Hypothesis is the statement or an assumption about
relationships between variables.
A Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for certain
behaviors, phenomenon or events that have occurred
or will occur.
It should be empirically testable, whether it is right or
It should be specific and precise.
The statements in the hypothesis should not be
It should specify variables between which the
relationship is to be established.
It should describe one issue only.
must make a prediction
must identify at least two variables
should have an elucidating power
should strive to furnish an acceptable explanation or
accounting of a fact
must be falsifiable meaning hypotheses must be capable of
being refuted based on the results of the study
must be formulated in simple, understandable terms
should correspond with existing knowledge
In general, a hypothesis needs to be unambiguous,
specific, quantifiable, testable and generalizable.
Characteristics of a Testable Hypothesis
1. A Hypothesis must be conceptually clear
- concepts should be clearly defined
- the definitions should be commonly accepted
- the definitions should be easily communicable
2. The hypothesis should have empirical reference
- Variables in the hypothesis should be empirical
- If they are not it would not be possible to make the
observation and ultimately the test
3. The Hypothesis must be specific
- Place, situation and operation
4. A hypothesis should be related to available techniques of research
- Either the techniques are already available or
- The researcher should be in a position to develop suitable
5. The hypothesis should be related to a body of theory
- Hypothesis has to be supported by theoretical argumentation
- It should depend on the existing body of knowledge
In this way
- the study could benefit from the existing knowledge and
- later on through testing the hypothesis could contribute to
the reservoir of knowledge
. Null Hypotheses and Alternate Hypotheses
Null hypothesis always predicts that
no differences between the groups being studied (e.g.,
experimental vs. control group) or
no relationship between the variables being studied
By contrast, the alternate hypothesis always
predicts that there will be a difference between the
groups being studied (or a relationship between
the variables being studied)
Select the Suitable Test of
significance or Test Statistic
Whether the test involves one sample, two samples, or
Whether two or more samples used are independent
Is the measurement scale nominal, ordinal, interval,
The choice of a probability distribution of a sample statistics is
guided but the sample size n and the value of population standard
deviation as shown in the table.
Rule to Accept Null Hypothesis
Accept H0 if the test statistic value falls within the area