introduction Research methodology


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introduction Research methodology

  1. 1. UNIT-I
  2. 2. Research Methodology:-Basics  What is Research ?  What is Research Methodology?  What are Research Methods & Techniques?  Research in Management : Why & Where & what
  3. 3. Research:- information knowledge solution
  4. 4. RESEARCH……….  Research can be defined as a Systematic & Scientific Search or investigation for pertinent information/knowledge/solution on a specific topic/subject/problem. Research is a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. It is a careful investigation or enquiry specially through search for knowledge. It is a movement from known to unknown
  5. 5. Research:- (Diagram) on a Topic
  6. 6. Research menans Research means finding answers to the questions. It is a systematic search for truth. Through research, new and original information, ideas about the world we live in, are obtained. Research is search for knowledge. Research is defined as a scientific and systematic search for information on a specific topic.
  7. 7. RESEARCH PROCESS Define Research Problem Review Concepts And theories Review Previous Research findings Formulate hypothesis Design Research (Including Sample Design) Collect Data Analyse Data Interpret and report FF F F F FF I II III IV V VI VII F FF Feed Back Feed Forward Review the literature
  8. 8. Research compared The differences between knowledge arrived at through common sense and intuition on the one hand, and scientific research on the other, can be expressed by concepts such as “organized”, “structured”, “methodical”, “systematic”, “testable” and specifically by the notion of disciplinary inquiry. Selinger and shohamy (1989)
  9. 9. Research methodology The way/science
  10. 10. Research methodology..  Research Methodology says that how to do/conduct research systematically & scientifically.  Research methodology not only provides the knowledge of various types of methods & techniques for Sampling , data collection, data analysis & report writing etc. but also guides that which particular method or technique for sampling/data collection/data analysis should be used or not & why should /shouldn't do so.
  11. 11. Research methodology diagram
  12. 12. Nature of Business Research  Nature of Business Research involves: academics policy-makers practitioners trans-disciplinarily related to context not easily replicated more emphasis on dissemination & exploitation
  13. 13. Ways of business research.. Research is a systematic inquiry whose objective is to provide information to solve managerial problems. Business Research Methods can be employed in each of the following four stages: 1. Identification of problems and/or opportunities. 2. Diagnosing and Assessment of problems and/or opportunities. 3. Selection and Implementation of Courses of Action. 4. Evaluating the Course of Action.
  14. 14. Selected Examples of Real-Life Situations in Which Business Research Methods are Used  A firm wants to produce and market a new product but first wants to ascertain if there is a potential consumer demand for this product in markets x,y and z  A multinational firm wants to establish a production facility in another country after determining its technical and economic feasibility  A government agency wants to ascertain the satisfaction level of its employees, the causes for any possible discontent, and propose a scheme for enhancing this level  A financial institution wants to invest in commodities and commissions a study to determine the past trends and forecast future returns in a portfolio of commodities  MNC wants to find out the trends in retail and wholesale sector
  15. 15. Defined….  Business research is defined as the systematic and objective process of generating information for aid in making business decisions
  16. 16. Social Research  M.H. Gopal defined it as “it is scientific analysis of the nature and trends of social phenomena of groups or in general of human behavior so as to formulate broad principles and scientific concepts”.
  17. 17. Applied research  Is carried on to find solution to a real life problem requiring an action or policy decision.  It is thus problem oriented and action directed.  It seeks an immediate and practical resulet.  E.g; market research carried on for developing a new market for studying the post purchage experience of customers.
  18. 18. Pure research  Pure research is undertaken for the sake of knowledge without any intention to apply it in practice.  E.g : einstein’s theory of relativity,newtom’s contribution,galileo’s contribution  pure research is also known as basic of fundamental research . It is undertaken out of intellectual curiosity or inquisitiveness.  It is necessarily problem oriented.  It aims extension of knowledge.
  19. 19. Steps in Social Research  Although different methods are used in social science research, the common goal of a social research is one the same, i.e. furthering our understanding of society and thus all share certain basic stages such as:  Choosing the research problems and stating the hypothesis.  Formulating the Research Design.  Gathering the Data.  Coding and Analysis the Data.  Interpreting the results so as to test the hypothesis
  20. 20. Qualitative& Quantitative As sometimes it goes for collect qualitative information like attitude, satisfaction level, perception etc. of consumers, retailers, employees ,hence it is qualitative & sometimes it collects & present information in numerical forms too like number of people, percentage of consumers/retailers/employees, etc. so it is quantitative too.
  21. 21. APPLIED RESEARCH  Applied research refers to scientific study and research that seeks to solve practical problems. Applied research is used to find solutions to everyday problems, cure illness, and develop innovative technologies, rather than to acquire knowledge for knowledge's sake.  For example, applied researchers may investigate ways to: • Improve agricultural crop production • Treat or cure a specific disease • Improve the energy efficiency of homes, offices, or modes of transportation
  22. 22. DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH  Descriptive research refers to research that provides an accurate portrayal of characteristics of a particular individual, situation, or group. Descriptive research, also known as statistical research.  These studies are a means of discovering new meaning, describing what exists, determining the frequency with which something occurs, and categorizing information.
  23. 23. Cont….  In short descriptive research deals with everything that can be counted and studied, which has an impact of the lives of the people it deals with.  For example, • finding the most frequent disease that affects the children of a town. The reader of the research will know what to do to prevent that disease thus, more people will live a healthy life.
  24. 24. Cont…  Advantages: • The people individual studied are unaware so they act naturally or as they usually do in everyday situation; • It is less expensive and time consuming than quantitative experiments; • Collects a large amount of notes for detailed studying; • As it is used to describe and not make any conclusions it is to start the research with it;  Disadvantages • Descriptive research requires more skills. • Does not identify cause behind a phenomenon • Response rate is low in this research. • Results of this research can change over the period of time.
  25. 25. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH  Experimental research is an objective, systematic, controlled investigation for the purpose of predicting and controlling phenomena and examining probability and causality among selected variables.  Advantages • Best establishes cause-and-effect relationships  Disadvantages • Artificiality • Feasibility • Unethical
  26. 26.  The simplest experimental design includes two variables and two groups of participants.  The two variables(Independent versus Dependent variables). • The IV is the predictor variable whereas the DV is the outcome variable. • Researchers manipulate and control the IV to study it's effect on the DV.  The two groups of participants (Control versus Experimental group). • Before beginning the experiment, the researcher (randomly) assigns his/her sample to two different groups: the control group and the experimental (treatment group or clinical group). • The control group receives no manipulation of the IV (no treatment), whereas the experimental group receives the manipulation of the IV
  27. 27. What is Hypothesis  A Hypothesis is the statement or an assumption about relationships between variables. or  A Hypothesis is a tentative explanation for certain behaviors, phenomenon or events that have occurred or will occur.
  28. 28. Hypothesis Construction  It should be empirically testable, whether it is right or wrong.  It should be specific and precise.  The statements in the hypothesis should not be contradictory.  It should specify variables between which the relationship is to be established.  It should describe one issue only.
  29. 29. A Hypothesis  must make a prediction  must identify at least two variables  should have an elucidating power  should strive to furnish an acceptable explanation or accounting of a fact  must be falsifiable meaning hypotheses must be capable of being refuted based on the results of the study  must be formulated in simple, understandable terms  should correspond with existing knowledge  In general, a hypothesis needs to be unambiguous, specific, quantifiable, testable and generalizable.
  30. 30. Characteristics of a Testable Hypothesis 1. A Hypothesis must be conceptually clear - concepts should be clearly defined - the definitions should be commonly accepted - the definitions should be easily communicable 2. The hypothesis should have empirical reference - Variables in the hypothesis should be empirical realities - If they are not it would not be possible to make the observation and ultimately the test 3. The Hypothesis must be specific - Place, situation and operation
  31. 31. 4. A hypothesis should be related to available techniques of research - Either the techniques are already available or - The researcher should be in a position to develop suitable techniques 5. The hypothesis should be related to a body of theory - Hypothesis has to be supported by theoretical argumentation - It should depend on the existing body of knowledge In this way - the study could benefit from the existing knowledge and - later on through testing the hypothesis could contribute to the reservoir of knowledge
  32. 32. Categorizing Hypotheses . Null Hypotheses and Alternate Hypotheses  Null hypothesis always predicts that  no differences between the groups being studied (e.g., experimental vs. control group) or  no relationship between the variables being studied  By contrast, the alternate hypothesis always predicts that there will be a difference between the groups being studied (or a relationship between the variables being studied)
  33. 33. Steps in Hypothesis Testing
  34. 34. Types of Hypothesis  Null Hypothesis (H0)  Alternative Hypothesis (Ha or H1) Each of the following statements is an example of a null hypothesis and alternative hypothesis.
  35. 35. Establish Critical or Rejection region
  36. 36. Select the Suitable Test of significance or Test Statistic  Whether the test involves one sample, two samples, or samples?  Whether two or more samples used are independent or related?  Is the measurement scale nominal, ordinal, interval, or ratio?
  37. 37. The choice of a probability distribution of a sample statistics is guided but the sample size n and the value of population standard deviation  as shown in the table.
  38. 38. Rule to Accept Null Hypothesis  Accept H0 if the test statistic value falls within the area of acceptance.  Reject otherwise