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Clean Coal technology solutions for NYC

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Coal presentation

  1. 1. Current Options, Future Problems: New York City’s Current Fuel Options, the Energy Situation, and Their Effects on the Ecological Footprint Presented by: Yoni Jacobs HNRS 226
  2. 2. Abstract <ul><li>Current energy decisions are not the best </li></ul><ul><li>New York and U.S. too dependent on oil </li></ul><ul><li>Fossil fuels have damaging effects </li></ul><ul><li>Can coal be used? </li></ul><ul><li>Should we switch to other energy sources? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nuclear </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wind </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Solar </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. Petroleum Dependency <ul><li>Country is too dependent on imported oil </li></ul>Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2006
  4. 4. Coal Production and Consumption <ul><li>“ America’s most abundant indigenous fuel source” </li></ul><ul><li>95% of U.S. fossil energy reserves </li></ul><ul><li>250 year supply </li></ul>Coal Production and Consumption: United States, 2005   Total [in million short tons] Coal Total [in Quadrillion Btus (Quads)] Energy Total [in Quadrillion Btus (Quads)] Percent of Total Coal Production 1,131.50 23.41 70.72 33.10% Coal Consumption 1,105.40 22.9 100.49 22.79%
  5. 5. Energy Consumption: NY vs. US
  6. 6. Higher Priced Energy <ul><li>No coal mines in state </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Must import via rail </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High transport cost </li></ul><ul><li>High cost of living </li></ul><ul><li>High natural gas, petroleum, electricity prices </li></ul><ul><li>Good side – higher Btu content in NY coal </li></ul>
  7. 7. Coal As An Option <ul><li>Positives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cheap Base Price </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>250 years of domestic supply </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Clean-coal and other technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Could make coal a viable option </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Negatives </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hard to change fuel source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Destroy the environment </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Deforestation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change (global warming) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Acid Rain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Threat to society and health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High externality costs </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Coal Prices <ul><li>Coal cheapest source </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Electric sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Used as energy source 6% of time in NY </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Only accounts for .25% of energy expenditures </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>$3.13/mmBtu of energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Compared to: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$9.95 for Natural Gas </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>$23.07 for Propane </li></ul></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Proposed Expenditure Changes <ul><li>Proposed Expenditure Changes </li></ul><ul><li>Currently : </li></ul><ul><li>Coal Price (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Residential  $4.96/mmBtu </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial  $2.26/mmBtu </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial  $2.18/mmBtu </li></ul><ul><li>Electric Generation  $1.54/mmBtu (U.S. Average) </li></ul><ul><li>Net Energy Consumed (2004) </li></ul><ul><li>Residential  846.2 trillion Btu </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial  698.7 trillion Btu </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial  252.3 trillion Btu </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated Expenditures (Based on Current Energy Sources) </li></ul><ul><li>Residential  $14.8 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial  $12.8 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial  $2.3 billion </li></ul><ul><li>Coal Based : </li></ul><ul><li>Estimated Expenditures (Based on a Coal System) </li></ul><ul><li>Residential  846.2 trillion Btu at $4.96/mmBtu </li></ul><ul><li> 846,200,000 mmBtu * $4.96 = $4,197,152,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Commercial  698.7 trillion Btu at $2.26/mmBtu </li></ul><ul><li> 698,700,000 mmBtu * $2.26 = $1,579,062,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Industrial  252.3 trillion Btu at $2.18/mmBtu </li></ul><ul><li> 252,300,000 mmBtu * $2.18 = $550,014,000 </li></ul>
  10. 10. Coal’s Real Cost: “Inconsistent with society’s best interests (Cherry and Shogren, 6)” <ul><li>Market Failure </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to environment, society, and health </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Externalities not accounted for in market price </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>If they were, cost would be much higher </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Market Solution </li></ul><ul><ul><li>True cost  socially and economically cheapest source </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not just cheapest market price </li></ul></ul></ul>
  11. 11. Externalities <ul><li>Land Clearing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of habitat </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased flooding </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coal extraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Property damage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water + air contamination </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Noise pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Worker death + injury </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Processing and disposal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid mine drainage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Regulating + insurance cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Transportation of coal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Damage to roads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Railroad construction and maintenance </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deaths from accidents </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Utilization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Air pollution </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Asthma </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Other respiratory disease </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Death </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Waste </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid Rain </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Coal’s Real Cost (cont.) <ul><li>$30/ton market price </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Acid rain ~ $11/ton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate change ~ $4/mmBtu </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social costs ~ 200% of base cost </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High of 464% for pollution costs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Source: (Cherry and Shogren, “Social Cost of Coal”) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Could be the most under-priced energy </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cost is appr. $190/ton - $220/ton </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Clean-Coal Technology <ul><li>Coal contributes to 81% of CO 2 emissions related to power generation </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of carbon dioxide </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Re-use, absorption, etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Zero-emissions an achievable goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No longer the “black sheep of the energy family” </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Clean-Coal Methods <ul><li>Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Plant (IGCC) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gasification </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Partial combustion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Syngas” produced, Sulfur Dioxide easily removed </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Combined Cycle </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>CO 2 captured from gas streams </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no emissions </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>OxyFuel Method </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Burning fuel in pure oxygen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nitrogen easily removed </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cheaper and easier energy extraction </li></ul></ul></ul>
  15. 15. CO 2 Recycling Source: Sandia, Coal Combustion
  16. 16. Clean Coal Technology: FutureGen Systems Source: Miller, Tech Innovation and Development
  17. 17. Clean-Coal As A Solution <ul><li>Abundant supply for 250 years </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Use our resources </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Stabilize energy prices </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Importing keeps prices high </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean-Coal could lower or eliminate pollution </li></ul><ul><li>Keep the environment clean </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>Ecological Footprint Decrease Opportunity </li></ul><ul><li>Current New York Primary Energy Consumption : </li></ul><ul><li>4,057.4 tBtu = 4.0574 * 10 12 Btu </li></ul><ul><li>If 1 Btu = .00105506 Megajoules (MJ) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>4.0574 * 10 12 Btu = 4,280,800,444 MJ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Assuming Clean Coal Technology will achieve zero emissions : </li></ul><ul><li>If 46,600 Megajoules = 1 global hectare </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4,280,800,444 MJ = 91,862.67047 global hectares </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>New York’s Ecological Footprint will be reduced by: </li></ul><ul><li>91,862.67047 global hectares </li></ul><ul><li>( 226,997.602 acres) </li></ul>
  19. 19. Green Buildings/Roofs <ul><li>Advantages </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Less wasted energy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reduced storm water runoff </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved air quality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implementation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rebates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stricter ventilation rules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Requirements for “cool roofs” </li></ul></ul>
  20. 20. Bloomberg’s PlaNYC <ul><li>A call for a “ Greener, Greater New York” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved transportation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Better water quality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prevent climate change (hybrid vehicles) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>New housing (clearing of brownfields) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Convert open space to parks </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Conclusion <ul><li>Standard coal is harmful to the environment and people </li></ul><ul><li>The price of coal neglects externalities </li></ul><ul><li>Coal can be “cleaned” and emit no pollution </li></ul><ul><li>The U.S. has an abundant resource </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It should take advantage of it </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Clean-coal technology as a path to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ensuring stable fuel prices and a growing economy </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop our dependency on imported fuels </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain a healthy and clean environment </li></ul></ul><ul><li>New York can save money, lives, and the environment by adopting a clean-coal-based system and “Green” policy </li></ul>