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Coal presentation
 

Coal presentation

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Clean Coal technology solutions for NYC

Clean Coal technology solutions for NYC

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    Coal presentation Coal presentation Presentation Transcript

    • Current Options, Future Problems: New York City’s Current Fuel Options, the Energy Situation, and Their Effects on the Ecological Footprint Presented by: Yoni Jacobs HNRS 226
    • Abstract
      • Current energy decisions are not the best
      • New York and U.S. too dependent on oil
      • Fossil fuels have damaging effects
      • Can coal be used?
      • Should we switch to other energy sources?
        • Nuclear
        • Wind
        • Solar
    • Petroleum Dependency
      • Country is too dependent on imported oil
      Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2006
    • Coal Production and Consumption
      • “ America’s most abundant indigenous fuel source”
      • 95% of U.S. fossil energy reserves
      • 250 year supply
      Coal Production and Consumption: United States, 2005   Total [in million short tons] Coal Total [in Quadrillion Btus (Quads)] Energy Total [in Quadrillion Btus (Quads)] Percent of Total Coal Production 1,131.50 23.41 70.72 33.10% Coal Consumption 1,105.40 22.9 100.49 22.79%
    • Energy Consumption: NY vs. US
    • Higher Priced Energy
      • No coal mines in state
        • Must import via rail
      • High transport cost
      • High cost of living
      • High natural gas, petroleum, electricity prices
      • Good side – higher Btu content in NY coal
    • Coal As An Option
      • Positives
        • Cheap Base Price
        • 250 years of domestic supply
        • Clean-coal and other technology
          • Could make coal a viable option
      • Negatives
        • Hard to change fuel source
        • Destroy the environment
          • CO 2 emissions
          • Deforestation
          • Climate change (global warming)
          • Acid Rain
        • Threat to society and health
        • High externality costs
    • Coal Prices
      • Coal cheapest source
        • Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Electric sectors
        • Used as energy source 6% of time in NY
          • Only accounts for .25% of energy expenditures
      • $3.13/mmBtu of energy
        • Compared to:
          • $9.95 for Natural Gas
          • $23.07 for Propane
    • Proposed Expenditure Changes
      • Proposed Expenditure Changes
      • Currently :
      • Coal Price (2004)
      • Residential  $4.96/mmBtu
      • Commercial  $2.26/mmBtu
      • Industrial  $2.18/mmBtu
      • Electric Generation  $1.54/mmBtu (U.S. Average)
      • Net Energy Consumed (2004)
      • Residential  846.2 trillion Btu
      • Commercial  698.7 trillion Btu
      • Industrial  252.3 trillion Btu
      • Estimated Expenditures (Based on Current Energy Sources)
      • Residential  $14.8 billion
      • Commercial  $12.8 billion
      • Industrial  $2.3 billion
      • Coal Based :
      • Estimated Expenditures (Based on a Coal System)
      • Residential  846.2 trillion Btu at $4.96/mmBtu
      •  846,200,000 mmBtu * $4.96 = $4,197,152,000
      • Commercial  698.7 trillion Btu at $2.26/mmBtu
      •  698,700,000 mmBtu * $2.26 = $1,579,062,000
      • Industrial  252.3 trillion Btu at $2.18/mmBtu
      •  252,300,000 mmBtu * $2.18 = $550,014,000
    • Coal’s Real Cost: “Inconsistent with society’s best interests (Cherry and Shogren, 6)”
      • Market Failure
        • Damage to environment, society, and health
          • Externalities not accounted for in market price
            • If they were, cost would be much higher
      • Market Solution
        • True cost  socially and economically cheapest source
          • Not just cheapest market price
    • Externalities
      • Land Clearing
        • Loss of habitat
        • Increased flooding
      • Coal extraction
        • Property damage
        • Water + air contamination
        • Noise pollution
        • Worker death + injury
      • Processing and disposal
        • Acid mine drainage
        • Regulating + insurance cost
        • Damage to water quality
      • Transportation of coal
        • Damage to roads
        • Railroad construction and maintenance
        • Deaths from accidents
      • Utilization
        • Air pollution
          • Emissions
        • Asthma
        • Other respiratory disease
        • Death
        • Waste
        • Acid Rain
    • Coal’s Real Cost (cont.)
      • $30/ton market price
        • Acid rain ~ $11/ton
        • Climate change ~ $4/mmBtu
        • Social costs ~ 200% of base cost
        • High of 464% for pollution costs
          • Source: (Cherry and Shogren, “Social Cost of Coal”)
      • Could be the most under-priced energy
        • Cost is appr. $190/ton - $220/ton
    • Clean-Coal Technology
      • Coal contributes to 81% of CO 2 emissions related to power generation
      • Elimination of carbon dioxide
        • Re-use, absorption, etc.
      • Zero-emissions an achievable goal
        • No longer the “black sheep of the energy family”
    • Clean-Coal Methods
      • Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Plant (IGCC)
        • Gasification
          • Partial combustion
            • “ Syngas” produced, Sulfur Dioxide easily removed
        • Combined Cycle
          • CO 2 captured from gas streams
          • Little or no emissions
      • OxyFuel Method
          • Burning fuel in pure oxygen
          • Nitrogen easily removed
          • Cheaper and easier energy extraction
    • CO 2 Recycling Source: Sandia, Coal Combustion
    • Clean Coal Technology: FutureGen Systems Source: Miller, Tech Innovation and Development
    • Clean-Coal As A Solution
      • Abundant supply for 250 years
        • Use our resources
      • Stabilize energy prices
        • Importing keeps prices high
      • Clean-Coal could lower or eliminate pollution
      • Keep the environment clean
      • Ecological Footprint Decrease Opportunity
      • Current New York Primary Energy Consumption :
      • 4,057.4 tBtu = 4.0574 * 10 12 Btu
      • If 1 Btu = .00105506 Megajoules (MJ)
        • 4.0574 * 10 12 Btu = 4,280,800,444 MJ
      • Assuming Clean Coal Technology will achieve zero emissions :
      • If 46,600 Megajoules = 1 global hectare
          • 4,280,800,444 MJ = 91,862.67047 global hectares
      • New York’s Ecological Footprint will be reduced by:
      • 91,862.67047 global hectares
      • ( 226,997.602 acres)
    • Green Buildings/Roofs
      • Advantages
        • Increased efficiency
        • Less wasted energy
        • Reduced storm water runoff
        • Improved air quality
      • Implementation
        • Rebates
        • Stricter ventilation rules
        • Requirements for “cool roofs”
    • Bloomberg’s PlaNYC
      • A call for a “ Greener, Greater New York”
        • Improved transportation
        • Better water quality
        • Prevent climate change (hybrid vehicles)
        • New housing (clearing of brownfields)
        • Convert open space to parks
    • Conclusion
      • Standard coal is harmful to the environment and people
      • The price of coal neglects externalities
      • Coal can be “cleaned” and emit no pollution
      • The U.S. has an abundant resource
        • It should take advantage of it
      • Clean-coal technology as a path to:
        • Ensuring stable fuel prices and a growing economy
        • Stop our dependency on imported fuels
        • Maintain a healthy and clean environment
      • New York can save money, lives, and the environment by adopting a clean-coal-based system and “Green” policy