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Clean Coal technology solutions for NYC

Clean Coal technology solutions for NYC

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Coal presentation Presentation Transcript

  • 1. Current Options, Future Problems: New York City’s Current Fuel Options, the Energy Situation, and Their Effects on the Ecological Footprint Presented by: Yoni Jacobs HNRS 226
  • 2. Abstract
    • Current energy decisions are not the best
    • New York and U.S. too dependent on oil
    • Fossil fuels have damaging effects
    • Can coal be used?
    • Should we switch to other energy sources?
      • Nuclear
      • Wind
      • Solar
  • 3. Petroleum Dependency
    • Country is too dependent on imported oil
    Source: EIA, Annual Energy Outlook 2006
  • 4. Coal Production and Consumption
    • “ America’s most abundant indigenous fuel source”
    • 95% of U.S. fossil energy reserves
    • 250 year supply
    Coal Production and Consumption: United States, 2005   Total [in million short tons] Coal Total [in Quadrillion Btus (Quads)] Energy Total [in Quadrillion Btus (Quads)] Percent of Total Coal Production 1,131.50 23.41 70.72 33.10% Coal Consumption 1,105.40 22.9 100.49 22.79%
  • 5. Energy Consumption: NY vs. US
  • 6. Higher Priced Energy
    • No coal mines in state
      • Must import via rail
    • High transport cost
    • High cost of living
    • High natural gas, petroleum, electricity prices
    • Good side – higher Btu content in NY coal
  • 7. Coal As An Option
    • Positives
      • Cheap Base Price
      • 250 years of domestic supply
      • Clean-coal and other technology
        • Could make coal a viable option
    • Negatives
      • Hard to change fuel source
      • Destroy the environment
        • CO 2 emissions
        • Deforestation
        • Climate change (global warming)
        • Acid Rain
      • Threat to society and health
      • High externality costs
  • 8. Coal Prices
    • Coal cheapest source
      • Residential, Commercial, Industrial, Electric sectors
      • Used as energy source 6% of time in NY
        • Only accounts for .25% of energy expenditures
    • $3.13/mmBtu of energy
      • Compared to:
        • $9.95 for Natural Gas
        • $23.07 for Propane
  • 9. Proposed Expenditure Changes
    • Proposed Expenditure Changes
    • Currently :
    • Coal Price (2004)
    • Residential  $4.96/mmBtu
    • Commercial  $2.26/mmBtu
    • Industrial  $2.18/mmBtu
    • Electric Generation  $1.54/mmBtu (U.S. Average)
    • Net Energy Consumed (2004)
    • Residential  846.2 trillion Btu
    • Commercial  698.7 trillion Btu
    • Industrial  252.3 trillion Btu
    • Estimated Expenditures (Based on Current Energy Sources)
    • Residential  $14.8 billion
    • Commercial  $12.8 billion
    • Industrial  $2.3 billion
    • Coal Based :
    • Estimated Expenditures (Based on a Coal System)
    • Residential  846.2 trillion Btu at $4.96/mmBtu
    •  846,200,000 mmBtu * $4.96 = $4,197,152,000
    • Commercial  698.7 trillion Btu at $2.26/mmBtu
    •  698,700,000 mmBtu * $2.26 = $1,579,062,000
    • Industrial  252.3 trillion Btu at $2.18/mmBtu
    •  252,300,000 mmBtu * $2.18 = $550,014,000
  • 10. Coal’s Real Cost: “Inconsistent with society’s best interests (Cherry and Shogren, 6)”
    • Market Failure
      • Damage to environment, society, and health
        • Externalities not accounted for in market price
          • If they were, cost would be much higher
    • Market Solution
      • True cost  socially and economically cheapest source
        • Not just cheapest market price
  • 11. Externalities
    • Land Clearing
      • Loss of habitat
      • Increased flooding
    • Coal extraction
      • Property damage
      • Water + air contamination
      • Noise pollution
      • Worker death + injury
    • Processing and disposal
      • Acid mine drainage
      • Regulating + insurance cost
      • Damage to water quality
    • Transportation of coal
      • Damage to roads
      • Railroad construction and maintenance
      • Deaths from accidents
    • Utilization
      • Air pollution
        • Emissions
      • Asthma
      • Other respiratory disease
      • Death
      • Waste
      • Acid Rain
  • 12. Coal’s Real Cost (cont.)
    • $30/ton market price
      • Acid rain ~ $11/ton
      • Climate change ~ $4/mmBtu
      • Social costs ~ 200% of base cost
      • High of 464% for pollution costs
        • Source: (Cherry and Shogren, “Social Cost of Coal”)
    • Could be the most under-priced energy
      • Cost is appr. $190/ton - $220/ton
  • 13. Clean-Coal Technology
    • Coal contributes to 81% of CO 2 emissions related to power generation
    • Elimination of carbon dioxide
      • Re-use, absorption, etc.
    • Zero-emissions an achievable goal
      • No longer the “black sheep of the energy family”
  • 14. Clean-Coal Methods
    • Integrated Gasification Combined-Cycle Plant (IGCC)
      • Gasification
        • Partial combustion
          • “ Syngas” produced, Sulfur Dioxide easily removed
      • Combined Cycle
        • CO 2 captured from gas streams
        • Little or no emissions
    • OxyFuel Method
        • Burning fuel in pure oxygen
        • Nitrogen easily removed
        • Cheaper and easier energy extraction
  • 15. CO 2 Recycling Source: Sandia, Coal Combustion
  • 16. Clean Coal Technology: FutureGen Systems Source: Miller, Tech Innovation and Development
  • 17. Clean-Coal As A Solution
    • Abundant supply for 250 years
      • Use our resources
    • Stabilize energy prices
      • Importing keeps prices high
    • Clean-Coal could lower or eliminate pollution
    • Keep the environment clean
  • 18.
    • Ecological Footprint Decrease Opportunity
    • Current New York Primary Energy Consumption :
    • 4,057.4 tBtu = 4.0574 * 10 12 Btu
    • If 1 Btu = .00105506 Megajoules (MJ)
      • 4.0574 * 10 12 Btu = 4,280,800,444 MJ
    • Assuming Clean Coal Technology will achieve zero emissions :
    • If 46,600 Megajoules = 1 global hectare
        • 4,280,800,444 MJ = 91,862.67047 global hectares
    • New York’s Ecological Footprint will be reduced by:
    • 91,862.67047 global hectares
    • ( 226,997.602 acres)
  • 19. Green Buildings/Roofs
    • Advantages
      • Increased efficiency
      • Less wasted energy
      • Reduced storm water runoff
      • Improved air quality
    • Implementation
      • Rebates
      • Stricter ventilation rules
      • Requirements for “cool roofs”
  • 20. Bloomberg’s PlaNYC
    • A call for a “ Greener, Greater New York”
      • Improved transportation
      • Better water quality
      • Prevent climate change (hybrid vehicles)
      • New housing (clearing of brownfields)
      • Convert open space to parks
  • 21. Conclusion
    • Standard coal is harmful to the environment and people
    • The price of coal neglects externalities
    • Coal can be “cleaned” and emit no pollution
    • The U.S. has an abundant resource
      • It should take advantage of it
    • Clean-coal technology as a path to:
      • Ensuring stable fuel prices and a growing economy
      • Stop our dependency on imported fuels
      • Maintain a healthy and clean environment
    • New York can save money, lives, and the environment by adopting a clean-coal-based system and “Green” policy