Earths Interior Andie
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Earths Interior Andie

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Earths Interior Andie Earths Interior Andie Presentation Transcript

    • What does the inside of the Earth look like?
    • Determining the composition of the Earth
    • Scientists cannot see the interior so they must use other ways to figure it out!
    • Earthquakes have many different types of waves
      • These waves travel at different speeds through solids and liquids
      • Some waves don’t travel at all through solids
    • Measuring these waves tells us what is in the Earth’s core and where the materials change.
  •  
  • Earth Layers
    • The Earth is divided into four main layers.
      • *Inner Core
      • *Outer Core
      • *Mantle
      • *Crust
  • The Earth’s Crust
    • The crust is the thinnest layer on Earth
    • There are two types of crust
        • Oceanic crust – made mostly of the igneous rock basalt. Found under the ocean. Relatively thin.
        • Continental crust – made mostly of granite. Found under the continents. Relatively thick.
  • Special parts of the Crust
    • Lithosphere
      • Crust is the upper part of the lithosphere
      • Broken up into large plates
    • Asthenosphere
      • Upper part of mantle, below lithosphere
      • 130 – 160 km thick
      • Cooler part of the mantle that the lithospheric plates slide on top of.
  •  
  •  
  • The Earth’s Mantle
    • Located directly above the outer core
    • Starts below the crust
    • Is the largest layer
    • 80% of the Earth’s volume & 68% of Earth’s mass
  • The Earth’s Mantle
    • Composed of more iron than the crust.
    • Density, pressure, and temperature all increase the deeper you go in the mantle
    • Temperature ranges from 870 C – 2200 C
  •  
  • Special layers of the mantle
    • Lithosphere – crust plus the upper, solid part of the mantle. Forms plates.
    • Asthenosphere – just under the lithosphere. Slow moving “Silly putty” layer on which the lithospheric plates slid. (Solid rock that flows very slowly.)
  •  
  • The Earth’s Core
    • The Earth’s Core
    • Composed of the inner and outer core
    • Both are made of iron and nickel
    • How do scientists know that there is a solid inner core?
  •  
  • The Earth’s Outer Core
    • The Outer Core - Liquid
    • Surrounds the inner core
    • Temperature ranges from 2200 C – 5000 C near inner core
    • Molten (liquid) iron and nickel
  •  
  • The Earth’s Inner Core
    • The Inner Core - Solid
    • Temperature reaches 5000 C
    • Solid iron and nickel
      • Usually both would be liquid but are solid in the core because of the incredible pressure
    • The solid core is the source of Earth’s magnetic field
  • Magnetosphere
    • The inner core and outer cores do not turn at the same speed as the rest of the earth.
    • Causes a generator effect which produces a magnetic field.
    • It protects us from some of the sun’s harmful radiation.
  •  
  • What do you know about these layers?