Earthquake Measurement Questions  Dteston
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Earthquake Measurement Questions Dteston

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Earthquake Measurement Questions Dteston Presentation Transcript

  • 1. • What does the inside of the Earth look like?
  • 2. How do we determine the composition of the Earth? • Scientists cannot see the interior so they must use other ways to figure it out! • Earthquakes have many different types of waves • These waves travel at different speeds through solids and liquids • Some waves don’t travel at all through liquids. • Measuring these waves tells us what is in the Earth’s core and where the materials change.
  • 3. Earth Layers • The Earth is divided into four main layers. *Inner Core *Outer Core *Mantle *Crust
  • 4. The Earth’s Crust • The crust is the thinnest layer on Earth • There are two types of crust • Oceanic crust – made mostly of the igneous rock basalt. Found under the ocean. Relatively thin. • Continental crust – made mostly of granite. Found under the continents. Relatively thick.
  • 5. Special parts of the Crust • Lithosphere • Crust is the upper part of the lithosphere • Broken up into large plates • Asthenosphere • Upper part of mantle, below lithosphere • 130 – 160 km thick • Cooler part of the mantle that the lithospheric plates slide on top of.
  • 6. The Earth’s Mantle • Located directly above the outer core • Starts below the crust • Is the largest layer • 80% of the Earth’s volume & 68% of Earth’s mass
  • 7. The Earth’s Mantle • Composed of more iron than the crust. • Density, pressure, and temperature all increase the deeper you go in the mantle • Temperature ranges from 870 C – 2200 C
  • 8. Special layers of the mantle • Lithosphere – crust plus the upper, solid part of the mantle. Forms plates. • Asthenosphere – just under the lithosphere. Slow moving “Silly putty” layer on which the lithospheric plates slid. (Solid rock that flows very slowly.)
  • 9. Currents in the Mantle
  • 10. The Earth’s Core The Earth’s Core • Composed of the inner and outer core • Both are made of iron and nickel
  • 11. • How do scientists know that there is a solid inner core?
  • 12. The Earth’s Outer Core The Outer Core - Liquid • Surrounds the inner core • Temperature ranges from 2200 C – 5000 C near inner core • Molten (liquid) iron and nickel
  • 13. The Earth’s Inner Core The Inner Core - Solid • Temperature reaches 5000 C • Solid iron and nickel • Usually both would be liquid but are solid in the core because of the incredible pressure • The solid core is the source of Earth’s magnetic field
  • 14. What do you know about these layers?