VERBAL TENSES IN ENGLISH
PRESENT SIMPLE. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
• I work
• You work
• He works
• She works
• It works
• We work
• You ...
PRESENT SIMPLE. SPELLING RULES
• Verbos acabados en “-y”.
1- “-y” precedida de consonante: carry carries
2- “-y” precedida...
PRESENT SIMPLE. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
• FORMA
INTERROGATIVA
• Do I work ?
• Do you work ?
• Does he work ?
• Does she work ?
...
ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA
• ALWAYS: siempre
• ALMOST ALWAYS:
casi siempre
• OFTEN: a menudo
• USUALLY: usualmente
• SOMETIME...
EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES
• Every day, week, month..: todos los días,
semanas, meses..
• At the weekend: el fin de semana
• ...
PRESENT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
• I am (I’m) working: yo estoy
trabajando
• You are (you’re) worki...
PRESENT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA INTERROGATIVA
• Am I working?
• Are you working?
• Is he working?
• Is she wo...
PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR
PROGRESSIVE. SPELLING RULES
• Verbos acabados en “-e” muda ( no se pronuncia).
Write Writing
Agree A...
ADVERBIOS Y EXPRESIONES
ADVERBIALES CON PRESENT SIMPLE Y
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
PRESENT SIMPLE
• Always
• Almost always
• Usua...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
Present Simple Presente de indicativo
Example: I teach English in a se...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
Present Continuous Presente de estar + gerundio
Example: What are you ...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
Un uso especial del Present Continuous or Progressive es para
referirn...
PAST SIMPLE. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
• I worked
• You worked
• He worked
• She worked
• It worked
• We worked
...
PAST SIMPLE. SPELLING RULES
• Verbos acabados en “-y”.
1- “-y” precedida de consonante: carry carried
2- “-y” precedida de...
PAST SIMPLE. PRONUNCIATION
RULES
La terminación “-ed” tiene tres pronunciaciones diferentes: /d/ - /t/ -
/id/.
Pronunciamo...
PAST SIMPLE. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
• FORMA INTERROGATIVA
• Did I work ?
• Did you work ?
• Did he work ?
• Did she work ?
• D...
IRREGULAR VERBS
Hay unos verbos en inglés que no siguen la
regla de la terminación “-ed” para formar
el pasado. Estos verb...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
Past Simple Pretérito Perfecto Simple de Indicativo
Example: I worked ...
PAST CONTINUOUS. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
• I was working
• You were working
• He was working
• She was working...
PAST CONTINUOUS. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA INTERROGATIVA
• Was I working?
• Were you working?
• Was he working?
• Was she w...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
Past Continuous Pretérito Imperfecto de Indicativo (-aba;-ía)
Example:...
PAST CONTINUOUS AND PAST
SIMPLE IN A SENTENCE
En una frase podemos combinar el Past Simple con el Past Continuos or
Progre...
PAST PERFECT. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
• I had worked
• You had worked
• He had worked
• She had worked
• It ha...
PAST PERFECT. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA INTERROGATIVA
• Had I worked?
• Had you worked?
• Had he worked?
• Had she worked?
...
PAST PERFECT DE UN VERBO
IRREGULAR
Como hemos visto en las anteriores diapositivas el past
perfect se forma con had + part...
USE OF PAST PERFECT
El past perfect se usa para describir una acción pasada
que es anterior a otra pasada.
Example: I had ...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
Past Perfect Pretérito Pluscuamperfecto de indicativo
I had made a res...
WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. TO
WORK (TRABAJAR)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
• I will work
• You will work
• He will work
• She will work...
WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE.
WILL.TO WORK (TRABAJAR)
FORMA INTERROGATIVA
• Will I work?
• Will you work?
• Will he work?
• Wi...
USE OF WILL
PREDICTIONS
People will live longer and so life expectancy will increase
Las persona vivirán más y por tanto l...
USE OF WILL
PROMISES
I promise I wont’ let you down.
Prometo que no te defraudaré.
OFFERINGS ( SHALL I....?)
Shall I get you a drink?
¿Quieres que te ponga algo de beber?
SUGGESTIONS ( SHALL WE...?)
Shall ...
USE OF WILL
SPONTANEOUS DECISIONS
YOU HAVE LEARNT YOU HAVE WON THE LOTTERY. YOUR FIRST
REACTION IS : I will buy a big hous...
WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. BE
GOING TO . TO WORK (TRABAJAR)
AFFIRMATIVE FORM
I am( I’m) going to work
You are( you’re) goin...
WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. BE
GOING TO . TO WORK (TRABAJAR)
INTERROGATIVE FORM
Am I going to work?
Are you going to work?
I...
USES OF BE GOING TO
PLANS AND INTENTIONS
(Ir a hacer algo)
This year I’m going to learn English!
Este año voy a aprender i...
USES OF BE GOING TO
IMMEDIATE FUTURE
(Futuro inmediato, algo está a punto de
suceder)
A: The sky is very cloudy
B: Yes. It...
WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE.
PRESENT CONTINUOUS
HAZ CLICK AQUÍ PARA IR A LA DIAPOSITIVA
CORRESPONDIENTE
PRESENT PERFECT. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
• I have worked
• You have worked
• He has worked
• She has worked
• ...
PRESENT PERFECT. TO WORK
(TRABAJAR)
FORMA INTEROGATIVA
• Have I worked?
• Have you worked?
• Has he worked?
• Has she work...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
Present Perfect Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto
I have travelled to many ...
ADVERBIOS USADOS CON PRESENT
PERFECT
EVER: alguna vez. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio). Ejemplo: Have...
DIFERENCIAS ENTRE PRESENT
PERFECT Y PAST SIMPLE
PRESENT PERFECT
1- Preguntamos si alguien ha hecho alguna vez
en su vida:
...
ADVERBIOS USADOS CON PRESENT
PERFECT
ALREADY: Ya. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio) y en
oraciones afir...
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS.
TO WORK (TRABAJAR)
FORMA AFIRMATIVA
• I have been working
• You have been working
• He has bee...
PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS.
TO WORK (TRABAJAR)
FORMA INTEROGATIVA
• Have I been working?
• Have you been working?
• Has he...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
El Present Perfect Continuous equivale a nuestra
perífrasis: haber est...
USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT
(CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE.
• Es muy frecuente usar ambos tiempos verbales
con las prep...
USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT
(CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE.
• En primer lugar hay que saber que usamos el present perfe...
USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT
(CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE.
DIFERENCIAS ENTRE FOR Y SINCE.
FOR: se usa para indicar la ...
EXPRESIONES CON FOR/SINCE
FOR
• Three minutes
• Two hours
• Some weeks (unas, algunas semanas)
• One month
• Many years
• ...
HOW LONG WITH PRESENT
PERFECT (CONTINUOUS).
Es muy frecuente usar el Present Perfect Simple y el Present Perfect Continuou...
EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS
VERBALES EN CASTELLANO
Cuando usamos el Present Perfect Simple (have/has+participio) o el
Pre...
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE / PRESENT
PERFECT CONTINUOUS CON FOR/SINCE.
Por último saber cuándo usar Present Perfect Simple
(ha...
PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE / PRESENT
PERFECT CONTINUOUS CON FOR/SINCE.
Present Perfect Continuous
Action verbs: Verbos que des...
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Tenses

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Tenses

  1. 1. VERBAL TENSES IN ENGLISH
  2. 2. PRESENT SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA • I work • You work • He works • She works • It works • We work • You work • They work FORMA NEGATIVA • I do not (don’t) work • You do not (don’t) work • He does not (doesn’t) work • She does not (doesn’t) work • It does not (doesn’t) work • We don’t work • You don’t work • They don’t work
  3. 3. PRESENT SIMPLE. SPELLING RULES • Verbos acabados en “-y”. 1- “-y” precedida de consonante: carry carries 2- “-y” precedida de vocal: stay stays • Verbos acabados en “-o”. Go goes • Verbos acabados en “-s”, “-ss”, “-sh”, “ch”, “-z”, “-x”. pass passes wash washes teach teaches relax relaxes Al verbo se le añade una sílaba, que suena /iz/
  4. 4. PRESENT SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) • FORMA INTERROGATIVA • Do I work ? • Do you work ? • Does he work ? • Does she work ? • Does it work ? • Do we work ? • Do you work ? • Do they work ? • RESPUESTAS BREVES • Yes, I do / No, I don’t • Yes, you do / No, you don’t • Yes, he does / No, he doesn’t • Yes, she does / No, she doesn’t • Yes, it does / No, it doesn’t • Yes, we do / No, we don’t • Yes, you do / No, you don’t • Yes, they do / No, they don’t
  5. 5. ADVERBIOS DE FRECUENCIA • ALWAYS: siempre • ALMOST ALWAYS: casi siempre • OFTEN: a menudo • USUALLY: usualmente • SOMETIMES: a veces • HARDLY EVER: casi nunca • NEVER: nunca ALWAYS ALMOSTALWAYS OFTEN USUALLY SOMETIMES HARDLYEVER NEVER Los adverbios de frecuencia de colocan delante del verbo
  6. 6. EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES • Every day, week, month..: todos los días, semanas, meses.. • At the weekend: el fin de semana • Once a week: una vez a la semana • Twice a week: dos veces a la semana • On Sundays...: los domingos.. Estas expresiones adverbiales se colocan al principio o al final de la frase
  7. 7. PRESENT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA • I am (I’m) working: yo estoy trabajando • You are (you’re) working: tú estás trabajando • He is (he’s) working: él está trabajando • She is ( she’s) working: ella está trabajando • It is (it’s) working: está trabajando • We are (we’re) working: estamos trabajando • You are ( you’re) working: estáis trabajando • They are (they’re) working: están trabajando. FORMA NEGATIVA • I am (I’m not) working: yo no estoy trabajando • You are not (you aren’t) working: tú no estás trabajando • He is not (isn’t) working: él no está trabajando • She is not (isn’t) working: ella no está trabajando • It is not (isn’t) working: no está trabajando • We are not (we aren’t) working: no estamos trabajando • You are not (you aren’t) working: vosotros no estáis trabajando • They are not (they aren’t) working: no están trabajando.
  8. 8. PRESENT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA • Am I working? • Are you working? • Is he working? • Is she working? • Is it working? • Are we working? • Are you working? • Are they working? SHORT ANSWERS • Yes, I am / No I’m not • Yes you are / No, you aren’t • Yes, he is / No, he isn’t • Yes, she is / No, she isn’t • Yes, it is / No, it isn’t • Yes, we are / No we aren’t • Yes, you are / No you aren’t • Yes, they are / No they aren’t
  9. 9. PRESENT CONTINUOUS OR PROGRESSIVE. SPELLING RULES • Verbos acabados en “-e” muda ( no se pronuncia). Write Writing Agree Agreeing ( La “-e” se mantiene porque suena en el infinitivo) • Verbos acabados en “-y”. Carry Carrying (La “-y” se mantiene siempre) Stay Staying • Verbos de una sílaba con el esquema C+V+C Stop Stopping Run Running • Verbos acabados con el diptongo “-ie” Die Dying Lie Lying La consonante se dobla El diptongo cambia a “-y”
  10. 10. ADVERBIOS Y EXPRESIONES ADVERBIALES CON PRESENT SIMPLE Y PRESENT CONTINUOUS PRESENT SIMPLE • Always • Almost always • Usually • Sometimes • Hardly ever • Never • Every day • At the weekend • Once a week.. • On Sundays.. PRESENT CONTINUOUS • Now: ahora • Right now: ahora mismo • At the moment: en este momento • These days,weeks..: estos días, estas semanas..
  11. 11. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Present Simple Presente de indicativo Example: I teach English in a secondary school Doy inglés en un instituto. Present Simple Presente de subjuntivo Example: When I get home, I will ring you up. Cuando llegue a casa te llamaré.
  12. 12. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Present Continuous Presente de estar + gerundio Example: What are you doing? ¿Qué estás haciendo?.
  13. 13. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Un uso especial del Present Continuous or Progressive es para referirnos a nuestros planes o intenciones. En este caso, el Present Continuous or Progressive va acompañado de una referencia de tiempo futura ( tomorrow= mañana; next weekend= el fin de semana que viene). En este caso, el Present Continuous se traduce con la perífrasis: ir a hacer algo. Example: What are you doing tomorrow evening? ¿Qué vas a hacer mañana por la noche? Tomorrow evening I’m going out for dinner Mañana por la noche voy a cenar fuera
  14. 14. PAST SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA • I worked • You worked • He worked • She worked • It worked • We worked • You worked • They worked FORMA NEGATIVA • I did not (didn’t) work • You did not (didn’t) work • He did not (didn’t) work • She did not (didn’t)work • It did not (didn’t) work • We did not (didn’t)work • You did not (didn’t) work • They did not (didn’t) work
  15. 15. PAST SIMPLE. SPELLING RULES • Verbos acabados en “-y”. 1- “-y” precedida de consonante: carry carried 2- “-y” precedida de vocal: stay stayed • Verbos acabados en “-e”. advise advised • Verbos de una sílaba con el esquema C+V+C Stop Stopped Plan Planned • Verbos de dos sílabas con el esquema C+V+C cuya última sílaba es tónica (se pronuncia con más fuerza) PreFER Preferred PerMIT Permitted La consonante se dobla La consonante se dobla
  16. 16. PAST SIMPLE. PRONUNCIATION RULES La terminación “-ed” tiene tres pronunciaciones diferentes: /d/ - /t/ - /id/. Pronunciamos /id/, por tanto añadimos una sílaba más al verbo, cuando éste acaba en sonido dental, esto es, sonido /d/ o sonido /t/. Ejemplo: Start Started End Ended ID
  17. 17. PAST SIMPLE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) • FORMA INTERROGATIVA • Did I work ? • Did you work ? • Did he work ? • Did she work ? • Did it work ? • Did we work ? • Did you work ? • Did they work ? • RESPUESTAS BREVES • Yes, I did / No, I didn’t • Yes, you did / No, you didn’t • Yes, he did / No, he didn’t • Yes, she did / No, she didn’t • Yes, it did / No, it didn’t • Yes, we did / No, we didn’t • Yes, you did / No, you didn’t • Yes, they did / No, they didn’t
  18. 18. IRREGULAR VERBS Hay unos verbos en inglés que no siguen la regla de la terminación “-ed” para formar el pasado. Estos verbos tienen su propia forma de pasado y constituyen el grupo de verbos llamado verbos irregulares. Fall Fell WriteWrote
  19. 19. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Past Simple Pretérito Perfecto Simple de Indicativo Example: I worked very late yesterday. Trabajé hasta muy tarde ayer. Past Simple Pretérito imperfecto de subjuntivo (-ara;-ase) Example: If I saw him today....... Si lo viera / viese hoy.......
  20. 20. PAST CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA • I was working • You were working • He was working • She was working • It was working • We were working • You were working • They were working FORMA NEGATIVA • I was not (wasn’t) working • You were not (weren’t) working • He was not (wasn’t) working • She was not (wasn’t) working • It was not (wasn’t) working • We were not (weren’t) working • You were not (weren’t) working • They were not (weren’t) working
  21. 21. PAST CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA • Was I working? • Were you working? • Was he working? • Was she working? • Was it working? • Were we working? • Were you working? • Were they working? SHORT ANSWERS • Yes, I was / No I wasn’t • Yes you were / No, you weren’t • Yes, he was / No, he wasn’t • Yes, she was / No, she wasn’t • Yes, it was / No, it wasn’t • Yes, we were / No we weren’t • Yes, you were / No you weren’t • Yes, they were / No they weren’t
  22. 22. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Past Continuous Pretérito Imperfecto de Indicativo (-aba;-ía) Example: She was driving very fast. Conducía muy rápido. Past Continuous Perífrasis verbal: estaba + gerundio. Example: We were having a good time. Nos lo estábamos pasando bien.
  23. 23. PAST CONTINUOUS AND PAST SIMPLE IN A SENTENCE En una frase podemos combinar el Past Simple con el Past Continuos or Progressive. El Past Continuous se refiere a lo que estaba sucediendo mientras que el Past Simple se refiere a lo que de repente pasó mientras algo ya estaba ocurriendo. En estos casos las conjunciones que usamos para unir estas acciones son when: cuando; while: mientras Example: The teacher was writing on the board when the bell rang. El profesor escribía/ estaba escribiendo en la pizarra cuando sonó el timbre. The teacher was writing on the board The bell rang
  24. 24. PAST PERFECT. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA • I had worked • You had worked • He had worked • She had worked • It had worked • We had worked • You had worked • They had worked FORMA NEGATIVA • I had not (hadn’t) worked • You had not (hadn’t) worked • He had not (hadn’t) worked • She had not (hadn’t) worked • It had not (hadn’t) worked • We had not (hadn’t) worked • You had not (hadn’t) worked • They had not (hadn’t) worked
  25. 25. PAST PERFECT. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA • Had I worked? • Had you worked? • Had he worked? • Had she worked? • Had it worked? • Had we worked? • Had you worked? • Had they worked? SHORT ANSWERS • Yes, I had/ No I hadn’t • Yes you had / No, you hadn’t • Yes, he had / No, he hadn’t • Yes, she had / No, she hadn’t • Yes, it had / No, it hadn’t • Yes, we had / No we hadn’t • Yes, you had / No you hand’t • Yes, they had / No they hadn’t
  26. 26. PAST PERFECT DE UN VERBO IRREGULAR Como hemos visto en las anteriores diapositivas el past perfect se forma con had + participio, cuya terminación es igual que la del pasado de un verbo regular, esto es, con la terminación “-ed”. De nuevo tenemos el problema de los verbos irregulares. El participio de estos verbos tiene su propia forma y por tanto habrá que aprender dicho participio. Por ejemplo: Write Witten You had written Know Known She had known
  27. 27. USE OF PAST PERFECT El past perfect se usa para describir una acción pasada que es anterior a otra pasada. Example: I had laid the table before my guests arrived Había puesto la mesa antes de que llegaran mis invitados ¿Qué acción sucede en primer lugar? Poner la mesa Por tanto el verbo va en past pefect
  28. 28. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Past Perfect Pretérito Pluscuamperfecto de indicativo I had made a reservation before we arrived at the hotel Había hecho una reserva antes de que llegáramos al hotel Past Perfect Pretérito pluscuamperfecto de subjuntivo If I hadn’t made a reservation before.... Si no hubiera/ hubiese hecho antes una reseva......
  29. 29. WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA • I will work • You will work • He will work • She will work • It will work • We will work • You will work • They will work FORMA NEGATIVA • I will not ( won’t) work • You will not ( won’t) work • He will not ( won’t) work • She will not ( won’t) work • It will not ( won’t) work • We will not ( won’t) work • You will not ( won’t) work • They will not ( won’t) work
  30. 30. WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. WILL.TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTERROGATIVA • Will I work? • Will you work? • Will he work? • Will she work? • Will it work? • Will we work? • Will you work? • Will they work? SHORT ANSWERS • Yes, I will/ No I won’t • Yes you will / No, you won’t • Yes, he will / No, he won’t • Yes, she will / No, she won’t • Yes, it will / No, it won’t • Yes, we will / No we won’t • Yes, you will / No you won’t • Yes, they will / No they won’t
  31. 31. USE OF WILL PREDICTIONS People will live longer and so life expectancy will increase Las persona vivirán más y por tanto la expectativa de vida aumentará. I’m afraid the prices of flats will not (won’t) go down. Me temo que los precios de los pisos no bajarán.
  32. 32. USE OF WILL PROMISES I promise I wont’ let you down. Prometo que no te defraudaré.
  33. 33. OFFERINGS ( SHALL I....?) Shall I get you a drink? ¿Quieres que te ponga algo de beber? SUGGESTIONS ( SHALL WE...?) Shall we dine out tonight? ¿Quieres que salgamos cenar esta noche? USE OF WILL
  34. 34. USE OF WILL SPONTANEOUS DECISIONS YOU HAVE LEARNT YOU HAVE WON THE LOTTERY. YOUR FIRST REACTION IS : I will buy a big house! YOU SEE YOUR NEIGHBOUR CARRYING TWO HEAVY BAGS. YOUR REACTION IS: I will help you. YOU SEE SOMEONE HAS BEEN ROBBED. YOUR FIRST REACTION IS: I will phone the police!
  35. 35. WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. BE GOING TO . TO WORK (TRABAJAR) AFFIRMATIVE FORM I am( I’m) going to work You are( you’re) going to work He is (he’s) going to work She is (she’s) going to work It is (it’s) going to work We are (we’re) going to work You are (you’re) going to work They are (they’re) going to work NEGATIVE FORM I am notgoing to work You are not (aren’t) going to work He is not (isn’t) going to work She is not (isn’t) going to work It is not (isn’t) going to work We are not (aren’t) going to work You are not (aren’t) going to work They are not (aren’t) going to work
  36. 36. WAYS OF EPRESSING FUTURE. BE GOING TO . TO WORK (TRABAJAR) INTERROGATIVE FORM Am I going to work? Are you going to work? Is he going to work? Is she going to work? Is it going to work? Are we going to work? Are you going to work? Are they going to work? SHORT ANSWERS • Yes, I am / No I’m not • Yes you are / No, you aren’t • Yes, he is / No, he isn’t • Yes, she is / No, she isn’t • Yes, it is / No, it isn’t • Yes, we are / No we aren’t • Yes, you are / No you aren’t • Yes, they are / No they aren’t
  37. 37. USES OF BE GOING TO PLANS AND INTENTIONS (Ir a hacer algo) This year I’m going to learn English! Este año voy a aprender inglés.
  38. 38. USES OF BE GOING TO IMMEDIATE FUTURE (Futuro inmediato, algo está a punto de suceder) A: The sky is very cloudy B: Yes. It’s going to rain. Sí.Va a llover
  39. 39. WAYS OF EXPRESSING FUTURE. PRESENT CONTINUOUS HAZ CLICK AQUÍ PARA IR A LA DIAPOSITIVA CORRESPONDIENTE
  40. 40. PRESENT PERFECT. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA • I have worked • You have worked • He has worked • She has worked • It has worked • We have worked • You have worked • They have worked FORMA NEGATIVA • I have not / haven’t worked • You have not / haven’t worked • He has not / hasn’t worked • She has not / hasn’t worked • It has not / hasn’t worked • We have not / haven’t worked • You have not / haven’t worked • They have not / haven’t worked
  41. 41. PRESENT PERFECT. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTEROGATIVA • Have I worked? • Have you worked? • Has he worked? • Has she worked? • Has it worked? • Have we worked? • Have you worked? • Have they worked? SHORT ANSWERS • Yes, I have/ No, I haven’t • Yes you have / No, you haven’t • Yes, he has / No, he hasn’t • Yes, she has / No, she hasn’t • Yes, it has / No, it hasn’t • Yes, we have / No, we haven’t • Yes, you have / No, you haven’t • Yes,they have /No, they haven’t
  42. 42. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Present Perfect Pretérito Perfecto Compuesto I have travelled to many different countries He viajado a muchos países diferentes She has met a lot of celebrities in her career as a journalist Ha conocido a muchos famosos en su profesión como periodista.
  43. 43. ADVERBIOS USADOS CON PRESENT PERFECT EVER: alguna vez. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio). Ejemplo: Have you ever seen a falling star?: ¿Has visto alguna vez una estrella fugaz? NEVER: nunca. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio). Ejemplo: I have never been to the USA: Nunca he estado en los Estados Unidos. JUST: Con este adverbio nos referimos a acciones muy recientes, por tanto lo traducimos como acabar de hacer algo. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio). Ejemplo: -Is Claudia in? –Yes, she has just arrived. – ¿Esta Claudia? - Sí, acaba de llegar. RECENTLY: recientemente. Podemos usar este adverbio en distintas posiciones dentro de la frase. Ejemplo: Have you been on a diet recently? (final de la frase) ¿Te has puesto a dieta recientemente? I have recently re-read “Cien Años de Soledad” (antes del participio) : He vuelto a leer recientemente “Cien Años de Soledad”.
  44. 44. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE PRESENT PERFECT Y PAST SIMPLE PRESENT PERFECT 1- Preguntamos si alguien ha hecho alguna vez en su vida: Ejemplo: Have you ever eaten snails? ¿Has comido alguna vez caracoles? 2- Decimos lo que hemos hecho en nuestra vida Ejemplo. I have eaten snails. He comido caracoles 3- Usamos el present prefect con referencias de tiempo que aún no han acabado .como por ejemplo: this year, today.. Ejemplo: I’ve seen Carla today. Hoy he visto a Carla PAST SIMPLE 1- Preguntamos cuándo hizo alguien algo. Ejemplo: When did you eat snails? ¿Cuándo comiste caracoles? 2- Decimos cuándo hicimos algo. Evidentemente acompañaremos esta frase con una referencia de tiempo pasada. Ejemplo: I ate snails when I was a child. Comí caracoles cuando era niño. 3- Usamos el past simple con referencias de tiempo ya acabadas, como por ejemplo: last year, yesterday Ejemplo; I saw Carla yesterday. Ayer vi a Carla
  45. 45. ADVERBIOS USADOS CON PRESENT PERFECT ALREADY: Ya. Se coloca antes del verbo principal (del participio) y en oraciones afirmativas. Ejemplo: They have already finished their work so they are going home. Ya han acabado su trabajo así que se van a casa. YET: Este adverbio tiene dos significados diferentes según el tipo de oración. Veamos: 1- oraciones interrogativas: ya. Su posición es al final. Ejemplo: Have you sent all these emails yet? ¿Has enviado ya todos estos correos? 2- oraciones negativas: todavía. Su posición es al final. Ejemplo: No I haven’t sent them yet. No, todavía no los he enviado.
  46. 46. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA AFIRMATIVA • I have been working • You have been working • He has been working • She has been working • It has been working • We have ben working • You have been working • They have been working FORMA NEGATIVA • I have not / haven’t been working • You have not / haven’t been working • He has not / hasn’t been working • She has not / hasn’t been working • It has not / hasn’t been working • We have not / haven’t been working • You have not / haven’t been working • They have not / haven’t been working
  47. 47. PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS. TO WORK (TRABAJAR) FORMA INTEROGATIVA • Have I been working? • Have you been working? • Has he been working? • Has she been working? • Has it been working? • Have we been working? • Have you been working? • Have they been working? SHORT ANSWERS • Yes, I have/ No, I haven’t • Yes you have / No, you haven’t • Yes, he has / No, he hasn’t • Yes, she has / No, she hasn’t • Yes, it has / No, it hasn’t • Yes, we have / No, we haven’t • Yes, you have / No, you haven’t • Yes,they have /No, they haven’t
  48. 48. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO El Present Perfect Continuous equivale a nuestra perífrasis: haber estado haciendo algo. En este sentido, su uso es muy parecido al del present perfect + just: acabar de hacer algo. Ejemplo: -What’s the matter? You have tears in your eyes! ¿Qué pasa? ¡Tienes lágrimas en los ojos! - Don’t worry. I have been peeling onions. No te preocupes. He estado pelando cebollas
  49. 49. USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT (CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE. • Es muy frecuente usar ambos tiempos verbales con las preposiciones de tiempo for y since. Son frases del tipo: I have been a teacher for 23 years. Soy profesor desde hace veintitrés años. I have been living in Madrid since 1975. Vivo/Llevo viviendo en Madrid desde 1975. Llama la atención como he traducido estas frases ¿verdad?
  50. 50. USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT (CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE. • En primer lugar hay que saber que usamos el present perfect simple o el present perfect continuous con for/since para referirnos a acciones que empezaron en el pasado pero que todavía se continúan en el presente. I became a teacher 1987 2010 I am a teacher I have been a teacher for 23 years Soy profesor desde hace 23 años I have been a teacher since 1987 Soy profesor desde 1987
  51. 51. USOS ESPECIALES DE PRESENT PERFECT (CONTINUOUS) CON FOR/SINCE. DIFERENCIAS ENTRE FOR Y SINCE. FOR: se usa para indicar la cantidad de tiempo que llevamos haciendo algo. Ejemplo: I have been studying sign language for four months: Llevo estudiando/estudio lengua de signos desde hace cuatro meses. SINCE: se usa para indicar el momento o fecha exacta en que empezamos a hacer algo. Ejemplo: I have been studying sign language since October: Llevo estudiando/estudio lengua de signos desde octubre.
  52. 52. EXPRESIONES CON FOR/SINCE FOR • Three minutes • Two hours • Some weeks (unas, algunas semanas) • One month • Many years • Ages (mucho tiempo) • A long time (mucho tiempo) • ...... Como se ve con estos ejemplos, siempre usamos for con expresiones referidas a cantidades de tiempo. SINCE • Nine o’clock • Yesterday • Thursday • 2006 • Last Christmas • I was a child (era niño) • I first saw you... (te vi por primera vez) • ....... Como se ve a partir de estos ejemplos, usamos since con expresiones de tiempo exactas, que nos marcan el comienzo de una acción.
  53. 53. HOW LONG WITH PRESENT PERFECT (CONTINUOUS). Es muy frecuente usar el Present Perfect Simple y el Present Perfect Continuous en interrogativas con how long. En este caso lo traducimos al castellano como: ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que Ejemplos: How long have you been a teacher? ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que eres profesor? How long have you been living in Madrid? ¿Cuánto tiempo hace que llevas viviendo en Madrid? haces algo? llevas haciendo algo?
  54. 54. EQUIVALENCIA CON LOS TIEMPOS VERBALES EN CASTELLANO Cuando usamos el Present Perfect Simple (have/has+participio) o el Present Perfect Continuous (have/has been+ing) con las preposiciones For /Since la equivalencia en castellano es: 1- Presente de indicativo 2- Llevar haciendo algo x tiempo. Ejemplos: 1- I have known my English teacher since October: Conozco a mi profesor de inglés desde octubre. 2- I have been teaching for 23 years: Llevo dando clase desde hace 23 años.
  55. 55. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE / PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS CON FOR/SINCE. Por último saber cuándo usar Present Perfect Simple (have/has+participio) y cuándo Present Perfect Continuous (have/has been+ing). Present Perfect Simple Non-action verbs: be – have (cuando expresa posesión) – know- love-hate... Ejemplos: I’ve had this car since 1999: tengo este coche desde 1999 They have known their teacher for four months: Conocen a su profesor desde hace cuatro meses.
  56. 56. PRESENT PERFECT SIMPLE / PRESENT PERFECT CONTINUOUS CON FOR/SINCE. Present Perfect Continuous Action verbs: Verbos que describen una acción, en vez de un estado, como en la diapositiva anterior Ejemplos: I’ve been working as a teacher since 1987: Trabajo / Llevo trabajando de profesor desde 1987 They have been learning English with Jesús for four months: Llevan aprendiendo inglés con Jesús (desde hace) cuatro meses.
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