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Leadership and School Public Relations
Prepared by: Charo May J. Naigan
What is a good school?
Can goodness be defined?
Is there difference between effectiveness
and excellence in schooling? Just how
does one determine if a school is doing
good job or not?
Effective is commonly understood to mean having
ability to produce a desired effect. Thus, any school
producing an effect desired by some group is
considered effective by that group.
For example, graduates of good schools get jobs or get admitted
to college in larger numbers. Test scores of students are at above average
for similar groups of students.Teachers agree as to what the purposes of
schooling problems are on decline.Students select tougher courses.Survey
of students indicates that they are satisfied with their schools.
1.These schools contain safe and orderly environments where
student achievement is up to or exceeds expectations.
2.These schools responds appropriately to the developmental levels
3.Teachers and students in these schools pursue competency in
4.These schools are accepted within the context of the local
community and its expectations.
5.These schools enjoy a reputation for excellence in the community.
6.These schools function well in response to or despite national
issues such as desegration, busing and other problems.
Kroeze Shoemaker and Fraser Sweeney
Goal Emphasis Assertive,achievement oriented
Coordination of instructional
Orderly, purposeful and peaceful
Emphasis on achievement
High expectations for staff and
Frequent evaluation of student
Human Relations Well-designed instructional
objectives and evaluation system
Establishment of instructional
Most experts agree that effectiveness is a multidimensional concept. the following list
illustrates some criteria and measurements often used.
1.Productivity-the extent to which students, teachers, groups and school
accomplish outcomes or services intended.
2.Efficiency-the ratio of individual and school performance to the cost
involved for that performance.Costs are calculated not only in terms of
money but by objectives or outcomes.
3.Quality-the level and quality of
accomplishments,outcomes,performance and services of individuals and
4.Growth-improvements in quality of offerings,responsiveness and
innovativeness,talent and general competence when school’s present
status is compared with its own past state.
5.Absenteeism-number of times present and frequency of nonattendance
by teachers,students and other school workers.
6.Turnover-the number of voluntary transfers and terminations on the
part of students,faculty and other school workers.
7.Teacher job satisfaction-the extent to which teachers are pleased with
various job outcomes they are receiving.
8.Student satisfaction-the extent to which students are pleased with
various schooling outcomes they are receiving.
9.Motivation-the willingness and drive strength of teachers, students and
other school workers as they engage in the work of the school.
10.Morale-the general good feeling that teachers, parents, students and
other have for the school,traditions, and its goals and the extent to which
they are happy to be part of the school.
11.Cohesion-the extent to which students and teachers like one
another,work well together, communicate fully and openly and coordinate
12.Flexibility adaptation-the ability of the school to change its procedures
and ways of operating in response to community and other environment
13.Planning and goal setting-the degree to which the members plan future
steps and engage in goal setting behavior.
14.Goal Consensus-the extent to which community members ,parents,
students agree that the same goals exists for the school.
15.Internalization of organizational goals-the acceptance of the school’s
goals and belief by parents, students teachers are right and proper.
16.Leadership management skills-the overall level ability of
principals,supervisors and other leaders as they perform school-centered
17.Information mangement and communications-the
completeness,efficiency of dissemination and accuracy of information
considered critical to the school effectiveness by all interested
parties(parents, students teachers and community at large).
18.Readiness-the probabilitythat the school could successfully perform
some specified task or accomplish some specified goal if asked to do so.
19.Utilization of the environment-the extent to which school interacts
successfully with its community and other areas of its environment and
acquires the necessary support and its resources to function effectively.
20.Evaluation by external entities-favorable assessments of the school by
individuals, organizations and groups in the community within which it
21.Stability-the ability of the school to maintain certain structures,
functions and resources overtime and particularly during periods of
22.Shared Influence-the degree to which individuals in the school
participate in making decisions that affect them directly.
23.Training and development emphasis-the amount of effort and
resources that the school devotes to developing the talents of teachers
and other school workers.
24.Achievements emphasis-the extent to which the school places a high
value on achieving existing and new goals.
Six Major Roles of Principal are summarized below, interdependencies among them:
The effective principal works:
To define the school broad philosophy and mission
which guides achievement of school educt’l objectives
through teachers who are committed to these objectives
within supportive school structure and climate
over an extended period of time
in cooperation of teachers,administration and staff
Wynn DeBovoise defines it as “those actions that
principal takes or delegates to others to promote
growth in student learning.”
Promotes School Climate
Fig.4.1 Instructional Management Functions
This first attempts to put a group of exceptional principals
under the microscope was made by Arthur Blumberg and William
1.Principals were highly goal oriented and had a keen sense of goal
2.Principals were characterized by a high degree of ontological
security(in other words, they knew themselves, their capabilities
and what they were about)
3.Principals tended to test the limits of both the interpersonal and
organizational systems they encounter.
4.Principals were sensitive to the dynamics of power.
5.Principlas approached problem situations from highly analytical
6.Principals behaved in ways that enabled them to be in charge of
the job and not let the job in charge of them.