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HRM MONDY

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Strategic Human Resources Management

Strategic Human Resources Management

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  • All managers in organizations get things done through the efforts of others. Consequently, managers at every level must concern themselves with Human Resource Management, or HRM . Individuals dealing with human resource matters face a multitude of challenges, ranging from a constantly changing workforce to ever-present government regulations, technology changes, and economic conditions. Furthermore, global competition has forced both large and small organizations to be more conscious of costs and productivity. Taken together, these factors make effective HRM more critical than ever before.
  • The five functional areas associated with effective HRM are: staffing, human resource development, compensation, safety and health, and employee and labor relations.
  • Staffing is the process through which an organization ensures that it always has the right number of employees, with the appropriate skills, in the right jobs at the right time, to achieve organizational objectives. The staffing process involves job analysis, human resource planning, recruitment, and selection.
  • Job analysis is the systematic process of determining the skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing the jobs in an organization. It impacts virtually every aspect of HRM, including planning, recruitment, and selection.
  • Human resource planning is the systematic process of matching the internal and external supply of people with the job openings that are anticipated for the organization. The data collected as part of the human resource planning enables the recruitment process and other HR actions.
  • Recruitment is the process of attracting enough qualified people to apply for jobs with an organization. Selection is the process of identifying which of these applicants are best suited for particular positions and for the organization in general.
  • Human resource development is a major HRM function consisting of training and development; career planning and related development activities; organization development; and performance management and appraisal.
  • Training is designed to provide employees with the knowledge and skills they need to be effective in their present roles. Development involves long-term learning and professional growth that goes beyond the employees’ current jobs.
  • Career planning is an ongoing process whereby individuals set career goals and identify ways to achieve them. Career development is a formal approach used by the organization to ensure that people with the proper qualifications and experiences are available for promotion or reassignment when needed.
  • Organization development (OD) is a planned and systematic attempt to make the organization more effective, typically by creating a more positive behavioral environment. OD efforts are usually used to influence an entire system, such as a company or a plant.
  • Performance management is a goal-oriented process that is directed toward ensuring that organizational processes are in place to maximize the productivity of employees, teams, and ultimately, the organization.
  • Performance appraisal is a formal system of review and evaluation of individual performance. Sometimes it also includes team performance. It affords employees the opportunity to receive feedback on their strengths and areas for development. Performance appraisal helps employees stay on track, which often leads to greater satisfaction and productivity.
  • The question of what constitutes a fair day’s pay has concerned management, unions, and workers for a long time. A well-thought-out compensation system provides employees with adequate and equitable rewards for their contributions to meeting organizational goals. Compensation consists of direct financial compensation, indirect financial compensation, and nonfinancial compensation.
  • Organizations provide two types of financial compensation to employees. Direct compensation is the pay that an employee receives in the form of wages, salaries, commissions, or bonuses. Indirect compensation is often referred to as benefits, and includes things such as paid vacations, sick leave, holidays, and medical insurance.
  • Nonfinancial compensation includes the things that an employee receives or derives from the job or the organization that do not have cost for the organization. These could include the satisfaction that an employee receives from doing the job itself, the psychological well-being an employee feels from working on a team, or enjoyment of the physical environment in which the employee works.
  • Employees who work in a safe environment and enjoy good health are more likely to be productive. The higher productivity, coupled with lower long-term healthcare costs, benefits the organization. Today, federal and state legislation reflects societal concern, and most organizations have become attentive to their employees’ safety and health .
  • Businesses are required by law to recognize a labor union and bargain with it in good faith if the firm’s employees want the union to represent them. In the past, this relationship was an accepted way of life for many employers, but most firms today would rather have a union-free environment. When a labor union represents a firm’s employees, the human resource activity is often referred to as industrial relations , which handles the job of collective bargaining .
  • Internal employee relations are the HRM activities associated with the movement of employees within the organization, such as promotions, transfers, demotions, terminations, and resignations.
  • All HRM functions are highly interrelated and management must recognize that decisions in one area affect other areas. For instance, a firm that emphasizes recruiting top-quality candidates but neglects to provide satisfactory compensation is wasting time and money. If a firm pays below-market wages, the firm will always be hiring and training new employees, only to see the best leave for higher wages.
  • The firm often has little, if any, control over how the external environment impacts the task of managing its human resources. External factors include the legal considerations, labor market, society, political parties, unions, shareholders, competition, customers, technology, the economy, and unanticipated events. Each factor, either separately or in combination with others, can enable or hinder the accomplishment of HRM tasks within the firm.
  • A significant external force affecting HRM relates to federal, state, and local legislation and the court decisions interpreting this legislation. In addition, presidential executive orders have had a major impact on HRM. These legal considerations affect virtually the entire spectrum of human resource policies.
  • Potential employees located within the geographic area from which employees are recruited comprise the labor market . The labor market is always changing, and these shifts inevitably cause changes in the workforce which can affect the way management must deal with the workforce.
  • The public does not accept, without question, the actions of firms in the business world today. To remain acceptable to the general public, a firm must accomplish its purpose while acting ethically and responsibly. Ethics is the discipline dealing with what is good and bad, or right and wrong, and with moral duty and obligation. Corporate social responsibility is the implied, enforced, or felt obligation of managers, acting in their official capacities, to serve or protect the interests of stakeholders inside and outside the organization.
  • A union is comprised of employees who have joined together for the purpose of dealing collectively with their employer. In a unionized organization, the union—rather than the individual employee—acts as a third party to negotiate work agreements with management. Wage levels, benefits, and working conditions for millions of employees reflect decisions made jointly by unions and management.
  • Because shareholders have invested money in the firm, they may at times challenge decisions made by management. Shareholders wield increasing influence, and management may be forced to justify the merits of a particular program in terms of how it will affect future projects, costs, revenues, profits, and even how it will benefit society as a whole.
  • Firms may face intense competition in both their product or service and labor markets. Unless an organization is in the unusual position of monopolizing the market it serves, other firms will be producing similar products or services. To compete effectively, a firm must also compete for and retain competent employees.
  • Customers are the people who actually use a firm’s goods and services. Because sales are crucial to a firm’s survival, management has the task of ensuring that its employment practices enhance the ability of its workforce to provide top-quality goods and services. This capacity is directly related to the skills, qualifications, and motivation of the organization’s employees.
  • A social networking site is a website that serves as a virtual community, where a group of people use the Internet to communicate with each other about anything and everything related to a business. Social networking is a broad term that encompasses such sites as LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter.
  • The world has never before seen the rapid rate of technological change that is occurring today. While the development of technology has created new roles for HR professionals, it also places additional pressures on them to keep abreast of new HR technology . With the increased sophistication of technology has come the ability to design more useful human resource information systems (HRIS).
  • HRIS are used to obtain and track relevant information for human resource decisions. Primary HR responsibilities, such as recruitment, selection, oversight of legal and regulatory compliance, benefits administration, and the safeguarding of confidential employee information, cannot be carried out effectively without an integrated HRIS.
  • The economy , on the whole and in its various segments, is a major environmental factor affecting HRM. Generally speaking, when the economy is booming, it is more difficult to recruit qualified workers. On the other hand, when a downturn is experienced, as with the recession of 2008–10, more applicants are typically available. To complicate this situation even further, one segment of the country may be experiencing a downturn and another a boom. This variation in supply and demand is also true for obtaining qualified workers in different industry and professional areas.
  • Unanticipated events are occurrences in the external environment that cannot be foreseen. These events cause major modifications in the performance of many human resource functions in the affected firms. Every disaster, whether man-made or natural, requires a tremendous amount of adjustment with regard to human resource management. On a global level, think of the many different ways HR was affected when major earthquakes struck Japan, Haiti, and Chile.
  • The people who perform the HRM tasks have changed dramatically in recent years, and today there is no longer a typical HR department. Many organizations continue to perform the majority of HR functions internally, but not always by the HR department itself. As internal operations are examined, questions are raised, such as: Can some HR tasks be performed more efficiently by line managers or outside vendors? Can some HR tasks be centralized or eliminated altogether? Can technology perform some of the tasks that were previously done by HR personnel? One apparent fact is that all functions are being scrutinized for efficiency and are subject to cost-cutting, including HR.
  • In light of the changing needs of organizations, the HR profession continues to evolve. Many HR departments continue to get smaller because others outside the HR department are now performing certain HRM functions. HR outsourcing, shared service centers, professional employer organizations, and line managers now assist in many traditional human resource activities.
  • Historically, the human resource manager was responsible for all HR functions and acted in an advisory capacity, working with line managers to help them deal with their areas’ human resource matters. The HR manager was primarily responsible for coordinating the management of human resources to help the organization achieve its goals. There was a shared responsibility between line managers and human resource professionals. Frequently, the line manager went to HR for guidance in topics such as selection, training, promotion, and taking disciplinary action.
  • HR outsourcing is the process of hiring external HR professionals to do the HR work that was previously done internally. The key to HR outsourcing success is to determine which functions to outsource, the extent to which they should be outsourced, and which functions to keep in-house. HR outsourcing focuses primarily on routine, transaction-oriented processes and clerical work. This permits HR to focus on more strategic areas. HR outsourcing is done in three ways: discrete services, multi-process services, and business process outsourcing.
  • With discrete services , one element of a business process or a single set of high-volume repetitive functions is outsourced to a third party. Benefits such as retirement plan administration is one of the HR tasks most likely to be outsourced.
  • Multi-process services involve the complete outsourcing of one or more human resource processes, such as training. For example, the large consumer product manufacturer Procter & Gamble has outsourced its entire training operation.
  • Business process outsourcing (BPO) represents the transfer of the majority of HR services to a third party. For example, Kraft Foods and IBM have a BPO agreement in which IBM performs workforce administration, compensation, and performance reporting for all of Kraft’s 98,000 employees spread across 72 countries.
  • A shared service center takes routine activities dispersed throughout the organization and consolidates them in one place. Shared service centers provide an alternative to HR outsourcing and can often provide the same cost savings. The most common HR functions that use SSCs are benefits administration, payroll, recruitment, global training and development, succession planning, and talent retention.
  • A professional employer organization (PEO) is a company that leases employees to other businesses. When a decision is made to use a PEO, the company releases its employees, who are then hired by the PEO. The PEO then manages the administrative needs associated with employees, pays their salaries, and manages their benefits. The PEO typically charges a fee based on the number of leased employees. Because the PEO is the employees’ legal employer, it has the right to hire, fire, discipline, and reassign an employee. However, the client company maintains enough control so it can run the day-to-day operations of its business. PEOs have advantages for employees. Because they provide workers for many companies, they often enjoy economies of scale that permit them to offer a wider selection of benefits at considerably lower costs because of the large numbers of employees in their pools. In addition, workers frequently have greater opportunities for job mobility. In addition, if a client organization suffers a downturn, the leasing company may be able to transfer employees to another client, avoiding both layoffs and loss of seniority. A potential disadvantage to the client is erosion of employee loyalty. Regardless of any shortcomings, use of employee leasing is growing.
  • Individuals directly overseeing the accomplishment of the organization’s primary goals are line managers . As organizations change, line managers are performing some duties typically done by human resource professionals. This has been simplified by the automation of processes that require a manager’s approval, record-keeping, or input, and processes that support the manager’s job. Everything from recruitment and selection to performance appraisal and employee development can be automated to assist line managers.
  • Various designations are used within the human resource profession to differentiate roles and levels of responsibility. An executive is a top-level manager who reports directly to the CEO or to the head of a major division. A generalist performs tasks in many or all of the five HRM functions for dedicated client groups. A specialist is typically concerned with only one of the five functional areas of HRM. In this example, the vice president of industrial relations specializes primarily in union-related matters, and is both an executive and a specialist. An HR vice president is both an executive and a generalist who is responsible for a wide variety of functions. The compensation manager is a specialist, as is the benefits analyst.
  • Traditionally, separate functions, such as staffing, training and development, compensation, safety and health, and labor relations, were created and placed under the direction of a human resource executive. Large firms might have had a manager and staff for each HR function that reported to the HR executive.
  • As we have seen, line managers, HR outsourcing, HR shared service centers, and professional employer organizations are now handling many of the traditional HR tasks. HR managers can tell you that there is no set pattern for how human resource tasks are now achieved. The only certainty is that the five previously identified HR functions must still be accomplished. Each company must choose the appropriate vehicle for doing these tasks based on its specific needs and goals.
  • A possible example of an evolving HR organization is presented here. The company has outsourced training and development, and the compensation function is now performed at a shared service center. Safety and health has been removed from HR and, because of its importance in this particular firm, reports directly to the CEO. Staffing activities remain under the strategic vice president for human resources, but many activities have been automated, and line managers are now more involved in the selection process.
  • Cultural differences among countries are a major factor influencing global business. This borderless world adds dramatically to the difficulty of managing human capital. Cultural differences are often the biggest barrier to doing business in the global market. A country’s culture is the set of values, symbols, beliefs, languages, and norms that guide human behavior within the country. Companies operating in the global environment recognize that national cultures differ and that such differences cannot be ignored. For example, a businessperson who travels from Switzerland to Italy goes from a country where meetings tend to be highly structured and expected to start on time, to one where meetings can be more informal and punctuality is less important. Recognizing the cultural differences present in a workplace can help managers achieve maximum effectiveness.

Transcript

  • 1. Human Resource Management 12th Edition Chapter 1 STRATEGIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT: AN OVERVIEWCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 4-1
  • 2. Human Resource Management (HRM)• Utilization of individuals to achieve organizational objectives• Concern of all managers at every levelCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-2
  • 3. HRM Functions in g aff Hu St m De an ve Re lop so m urc en e Emp Relati Lab t or loye Human Resource e an s 1 ation Management on d pens Com Safety and HealthCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-3
  • 4. StaffingProcess of ensuring theorganization always has:•Proper number of employees•Employees with appropriateskills•Employees in the right jobs atthe right timeCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-4
  • 5. Job Analysis• Systematic process of determining skills, duties, and knowledge required for performing jobs in organization• Impacts virtually every aspect of HRMCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-5
  • 6. Human Resource Planning• Matching internal and external supply of people with anticipated job openings over specified period of time• Sets the stage for recruitment or other HR actionsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-6
  • 7. Recruitment and SelectionRecruitment: Attracting individualsto apply for jobs•Must be timely•Applicants need appropriate qualifications•Need sufficient number of applicantsSelection: Choosing individual best suitedfor a particular position and the organizationCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-7
  • 8. Human Resource DevelopmentMajor HRM function; includes: – Training – Development – Career planning – Career development – Organization development – Performance management – Performance appraisalCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-8
  • 9. Training and DevelopmentTraining: Providing learners withknowledge and skills needed for theirpresent jobsDevelopment: Offeringlearning that goes beyondpresent job•Long-term focusCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-9
  • 10. Career Planning and DevelopmentPlanning is an ongoing process. • Individual sets career goals • Identifies means to achieve themDevelopment is a formal approach used by the organization. • Ensures a pipeline of people with proper qualifications and experiencesCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-10
  • 11. Organization DevelopmentPlanned and systematicattempt to: – Make the organization more effective – Create positive behavioral environmentCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-11
  • 12. Performance Management Goal-oriented process to ensure organizational processes are in place to maximize productivity •Applies to employees, teams, and ultimately, the organizationCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-12
  • 13. Performance AppraisalFormal system of review and evaluation – Individual – TeamCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-13
  • 14. Compensation All rewards that individuals receive as a result of their employmentCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-14
  • 15. Financial CompensationDirect: Pay employee receives in formof wages, salaries, bonuses, orcommissionsIndirect: Benefits employee receives•Paid vacations, sick leave, holidays,medical insuranceCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-15
  • 16. Nonfinancial CompensationSatisfaction that person receives from: – Job itself – Psychological and/or physical environmentCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-16
  • 17. Safety and Health Safety: Protecting employees from injuries caused by work-related accidents Health: Employees freedom from illness and their general physical and mental well-beingCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-17
  • 18. Labor Unions and Collective Bargaining• Businesses are required by law to recognize a union and bargain with it in good faith if the firm’s employees want the union to represent them.• Human resource activity with a union is often referred to as industrial relations.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-18
  • 19. Internal Employee RelationsHRM activities associated with themovement of employees within theorganization – Promotions – Demotions – Terminations – ResignationsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-19
  • 20. Interrelationships of HRM Functions • All HRM functions are interrelated • Each function affects the othersCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-20
  • 21. DYNAMIC HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENT ENVIRONMENTCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-21
  • 22. Environment of Human Resource ManagementCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-22
  • 23. Legal Considerations • Federal, state, and local legislation • Court decisions • Presidential executive ordersCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-23
  • 24. Labor Market• Potential employees located within certain geographic area• Always changingCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-24
  • 25. SocietyEthics: Deals with what is good andbad, or right and wrong, and with moralduty and obligationCorporate social responsibility:Implied, enforced, or felt obligation ofmanagers to serve or protect interestsof groups other than themselvesCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-25
  • 26. Unions • Group of employees who have joined together to collectively bargain with their employer • Become a third party when dealing with the companyCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-26
  • 27. Shareholders• Owners of corporation• Have invested money in firm• May at times challenge programs considered by management to be beneficial to organizationCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-27
  • 28. Competition • In product or service and labor markets • Firms must maintain a supply of competent employees • Bidding war often resultsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-28
  • 29. Customers • People who actually use firm’s goods and services. • Employment practices should not antagonize members of the market the firm serves. • Workforce should be capable of providing top- quality goods and services.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-29
  • 30. Trends and Innovations: The Many Uses of Social Networking• Virtual community of people using the Internet to communicate• Encompasses wikis, blogs, LinkedIn, Facebook, and Twitter• Facilitates interactions among people who cannot easily meet in personCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-30
  • 31. HR Technology Rapid technological changes provide: •Increased sophistication •Ability to design more useful human resource information systems (HRIS)Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-31
  • 32. HRIS• An organized approach for obtaining information on which to base HR decisions• An umbrella for merging the various subsystems• Mainstay HR responsibilities need an HRISCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-32
  • 33. Economy • When economy is booming, it is often more difficult to recruit qualified workers. • In economic downturn, more applicants are typically available.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-33
  • 34. Unanticipated Events • Unforeseen occurrences in external environment • Require a tremendous amount of adjustment with regard to HRMCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-34
  • 35. HR’S CHANGING STRATEGIC ROLECopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-35
  • 36. HR’s Changing Role: Questions• Can some HR tasks be performed more efficiently by line managers or outside vendors?• Can some HR tasks be centralized or eliminated?• Can technology perform tasks that were previously done by HR personnel?Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-36
  • 37. Who Performs Human Resource Management Tasks?• Human resource managers• HR outsourcing• HR shared service centers• Professional employer organization (employee leasing)• Line managersCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-37
  • 38. Human Resource Manager• Historically, the HR manager was responsible for each of the five HR functions.• Acts in advisory or staff capacity.• Works with other managers to help them deal with human resource matters.• Today, HR departments continue to get smaller.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-38
  • 39. HR Outsourcing• Transfers responsibility to an external provider – Discrete services – Multi-process services – Business process outsourcing (BPO)Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-39
  • 40. Discrete Services• Single set of high-volume repetitive functions is outsourced to a third party• Typically transactional HR activities• Example: 401(k) administrationCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-40
  • 41. Multi-Process Services • Complete outsourcing of one or more human resource processes. • Example: Procter & Gamble outsourced training operations.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-41
  • 42. Business Process Outsourcing (BPO)• Majority of HR services are transferred to third party.• Example: Whirlpool Corporation signed 10-year deal to outsource HR business.• Kraft Foods Inc. and IBM signed a multi-year BPO agreement.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-42
  • 43. HR Shared Service Centers (SSCs) Takes routine, transaction-based activities that are dispersed and consolidates them in one locationCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-43
  • 44. Professional Employer Organization (Employee Leasing)Company that leases employeesto other businessesAdvantages: – Economies of scale – Greater job mobility for workers – Job security through leasing company – PEO can handle compliance requirements of programsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-44
  • 45. Line Managers Performing HR Tasks • Involved with human resources by nature of their jobs • Now performing some duties typically done by HRCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-45
  • 46. EVOLUTION OF HUMAN RESOURCE MANAGEMENTCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-46
  • 47. Human Resource Executives, Generalists, and SpecialistsCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-47
  • 48. Traditional Human Resource Function in Large Firm• Included separate sections.• Sections are placed under an HR manager.• Each HR function may have a supervisor and staff.• HR manager works closely with top management in formulating policy.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-48
  • 49. The Evolving HR Organization • HR outsourcing • HR shared service centers • Professional employer organization • Line manager • HR becoming more strategicCopyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-49
  • 50. A Possible Evolving HR Organization Example President and CEO Vice Director Vice President, Vice Vice of SafetyPresident, Strategic President, President, andOperations Human Finance Marketing Health Resources Training & Compensation Staffing (Line Managers, use of Development (Shared Service Applicant Tracking Systems) (Outsourced) Centers) Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-50
  • 51. Managing Human Capital in a Borderless World• Throughout this text, cultural differences among countries will be identified as a major factor influencing global business.• Borderless world adds dramatically to the difficulty of managing human capital.• A country’s culture is the set of values, symbols, beliefs, languages, and norms that guide human behavior within the country.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-51
  • 52. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.Copyright © 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Prentice Hall 1-52