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Nathaniel L. Tablante1George W. Malone21University of Maryland College Park and 2University of DelawareIn-House Composting...
Introduction CompostingComposting IncinerationIncineration Landfill disposalLandfill disposal RenderingRendering Buri...
Rationale Averts potential groundwater pollution fromAverts potential groundwater pollution fromburialburial Avoids high...
RationalePrevious research suggests thatAvian Influenza virus can beinactivated at 140oF (60oC) in 10minutes or 133oF (56o...
What Is Composting? Composting is a biological process that utilizesthermophilic microorganisms todegrade organic matter ...
Previous Research On CompostingCatastrophic Poultry Mortalities Composting of catastrophic poultry mortalitieshas been ut...
In-House Composting ProceduresIn case of outbreaks of highlyinfectious diseases that require depopulation,there is a need ...
Contact Proper AuthoritiesIn consultation with poultry companypersonnel, State Veterinarian and/or thestate’s emergency po...
Conduct A ThoroughFarm Evaluation Visit the farm to make an assessment in eachhouse to determine if composting is an opti...
Determine Litter NeedsDetermine the total number of dead birds,their weight, house dimensions, and average litterdepth in ...
Example of CalculatingLitter NeedsA 40 ft. x 500 ft. house has 25,000broilers weighing 4 lbs. and a 3 inch litter base.Thi...
Develop or Obtain The FollowingA pre-approved list of availableassistance for: Personnel Equipment andSupplies
The number of people and time needed will dependon the number, size, age, and weight of the birds.Personnel* include: Per...
Personal Protective Equipment (Tyvek suits, Boots, Gloves, Respirators)Hand Tools (Square Point Long Handle Shovels, Pit...
 Midsize Skid-Steer Loader and Skilled Operator(~ 1,25 – 1.5 Cubic Yard Bucket) Equipment and PersonnelMinimum Requireme...
 Sanitation EquipmentA high pressurewasher must be onsite to clean anddisinfect equipmentand premises
Composting Methods Layering Shredding and Piling Mixing and Piling
Select Composting Method Based On Depopulation ProcedureProcedure For All MethodsIf the depopulation procedureconcentrates...
House Preparation for CompostingIf poly is used as part of the depopulationprocedure, the following are required: Attach ...
House Preparation for CompostingIf carcasses are confined to a portion of the house and cakingis extensive, tilling litter...
Layering Method
1. Create a litter windrow that has a 10to 12 ft.wide base.Layering Method
2. Scoop the dead birds with the loader and laythem on top of the litter windrow base.Layering Method
3. Spread the carcasses evenly with a rakeor pitchfork until they are about 8 to10 inches thick.Layering Method
4. Deposit a 6 to 8-inch layer oflitter/sawdust “cap” over the birdswith a foot overlapon the sides. Leaveno carcasses orb...
Layering Method5. Repeat the layering procedure as needed untilthe pile is 6 feet high.** If the height of the poultry hou...
Shredding & Piling MethodInvolves shredding carcasses and tillingthem into the existing litter base followedby windrowing ...
Shredding & Piling Method1. Remove carcasses one bucket-width widefrom along the side walls and spread themevenly in the c...
Shredding & Piling Method2. Shred thecarcasses using atiller attached to askid steer loaderor a 3-point hitch,PTO driven u...
Shredding & Piling Method3. An alternative toshredding is crushingcarcasses with arubber tire loader.Courtesy of VA Tech a...
Shredding & Piling Method4. Roll the carcasses into thelitter/sawdust windrow.
Mixing & Piling MethodInvolves mixing carcasses into the existinglitter base and forming windrows.*This method involvesthe...
Mixing & Piling Method1. Remove carcasses one bucket-width widefrom along the sidewall and spread themevenly in the center...
Mixing & Piling Method2. Starting with a 3-inch minimum litter base,use the feed line as a guide and mix thecarcasses with...
Mixing & Piling Method3. As with all methods the pile must be coveredwith a layer of litter or sawdust 4 to 6 inches thick...
All Methods Require ProperComposting of Contaminated LitterAny surplus litter or sawdustnot used in the compostingprocess ...
All Methods Require ProperSanitation ProceduresAll tools andequipment shouldbe removed fromthe house afterforming windrows...
All Methods RequireTemperature MonitoringUse a long-stem composting thermometer or a digitalrecording thermometer to check...
All Methods Require TurningAfter 10 to 14 days, the composttemperature will decline. As itdrops below ~125oF (52oC),turn t...
For All Methods After TurningScrape along the edges of the turnedwindrow and deposit material on the pile.
For All MethodsCap The Turned WindrowCap the new windrow with a minimum of4 inches of litter or sawdust to cover anyexpose...
For All Methods, MonitorTemperatures After TurningAfter turning the compost windrow, thetemperature should equal or exceed...
Land Apply CompostAfter an additional 2-3 weeks, thecompost material may be land-applied.
Summary In-house composting is a viable, biosecure and practical optionfor the disposal of catastrophic poultry mortaliti...
ReferencesBendfeldt, E., R. Peer, G. Flory, G. Evanylo, L. Carr and G. Malone. 2005. CanCatastrophic Turkey Mortalities be...
AcknowledgmentsA follow up project on in-house composting of turkeys wasconducted by Virginia Tech Cooperative Extension, ...
Contact information:Nathaniel L. TablanteAssociate ProfessorExtension Poultry VeterinarianUniversity of Maryland301-314-68...
University of Delaware on In house Composting
University of Delaware on In house Composting
University of Delaware on In house Composting
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University of Delaware on In house Composting

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This presentation is handling about Carcass Disposal through In house composting as one of the options to dispose carcasses after an outbreak. Complete depopulation of infected flocks is often required for highly virulent diseases such as Avian Influenza. Typical methods of disposal of poultry carcasses with highly virulent disease include: Composting - Incineration - Landfill disposal - Rendering - Burial.

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Transcript of "University of Delaware on In house Composting"

  1. 1. Nathaniel L. Tablante1George W. Malone21University of Maryland College Park and 2University of DelawareIn-House Composting ofPoultry Mortalities Due ToCatastrophic Disease
  2. 2. Introduction CompostingComposting IncinerationIncineration Landfill disposalLandfill disposal RenderingRendering BurialBurialComplete depopulation of infected flocksComplete depopulation of infected flocksis often required for highly virulent diseasesis often required for highly virulent diseasessuch as Avian Influenza. Typical methods ofsuch as Avian Influenza. Typical methods ofdisposal of poultry carcasses with highlydisposal of poultry carcasses with highlyvirulent disease include:virulent disease include:
  3. 3. Rationale Averts potential groundwater pollution fromAverts potential groundwater pollution fromburialburial Avoids high fuel costs and potential airAvoids high fuel costs and potential airpollution from incinerationpollution from incineration Prevents potential disease spread associatedPrevents potential disease spread associatedwith carcass and litter removal from houses,with carcass and litter removal from houses,transport to landfills or other disposal sitestransport to landfills or other disposal sitesand the associated costs and feesand the associated costs and feesComposting of mortalities on the farmComposting of mortalities on the farmappears to be the most acceptable because it:appears to be the most acceptable because it:
  4. 4. RationalePrevious research suggests thatAvian Influenza virus can beinactivated at 140oF (60oC) in 10minutes or 133oF (56oC) in 15 to 20minutes (Senne et al. 1994).Composting of the contaminated litterand carcasses destroys pathogens inpoultry houses, thus reducing thepotential for disease spread.
  5. 5. What Is Composting? Composting is a biological process that utilizesthermophilic microorganisms todegrade organic matter into humus-like materialcalled compost. The proper amount of air, water, nutrients,and carbon must be balanced to allow thecomposting process to initiate and continue at arate sufficient to produce enough heat to reducethe level of pathogens in the organic matter.~ Ideal compost temperatures average between 135 to145oF, enough to kill Avian Influenza virus and other heatsensitive pathogens.
  6. 6. Previous Research On CompostingCatastrophic Poultry Mortalities Composting of catastrophic poultry mortalitieshas been utilized for non-infectious conditions likeheat stress. (MD Coop. Extension Fact Sheet # 732) Composting of huge quantities of poultrycarcasses has been done outside the poultry houseby creating windrows instead of placing thecarcasses in traditional composting bins. Methodologies for large-scale windrowcomposting inside poultry houses have beenevaluated and documented for adoption. (Schwartz,personal communication, Murphy, 1992; Malone, et.al.2003, 2004;Bendfeldt, et.al. 2005)
  7. 7. In-House Composting ProceduresIn case of outbreaks of highlyinfectious diseases that require depopulation,there is a need to dispose of poultrycarcasses in a timely, cost–effective,environmentally friendly, and biosecuremanner.The following composting procedures willhelp the poultry industry when it experienceshigh poultry mortalities due to catastrophicdiseases like Avian Influenza.
  8. 8. Contact Proper AuthoritiesIn consultation with poultry companypersonnel, State Veterinarian and/or thestate’s emergency poultry disease team, obtainthe procedures and/or request assistance onapproved depopulation and sanitation proceduresand initial assessment ofthe best method of carcassdisposal based on theindividual farm situation.
  9. 9. Conduct A ThoroughFarm Evaluation Visit the farm to make an assessment in eachhouse to determine if composting is an option andif additional sawdust will be needed. Consult with the composting expert and skid-steer operator on a “plan” of action that meetsthe composting needs and involves the leastmaterial handling and supplemental sawdust. The “plan” needs to consider all of the following:bird age, litter depth in each part of the house,litter moisture and condition, location of the dead,access to end door for sawdust and litter removal,ability to turn piles, and house ceiling height.
  10. 10. Determine Litter NeedsDetermine the total number of dead birds,their weight, house dimensions, and average litterdepth in the house. Calculate the minimum litterrequired based the on following formula; 0.8 inchlitter required per pound of broiler meat persquare foot floor space; increase this ratio to 1.0inch per pound for large turkeys or when using thelayering compost procedure.If the amount of litter is inadequate,purchase sawdust or alternative low-cost carbonsource such as wood chips.
  11. 11. Example of CalculatingLitter NeedsA 40 ft. x 500 ft. house has 25,000broilers weighing 4 lbs. and a 3 inch litter base.This would be 100,000 lbs. of meat ÷20,000 ft2= 5 lbs. meat/ft2. The 5 lbs.meat/ft2x 0.8 = 4 inches of litter required.One additional inch or 1600 ft3[20,000ft2x 0.08 (1 inch ÷ 12 inches)] of additionalcarbon material would be required.
  12. 12. Develop or Obtain The FollowingA pre-approved list of availableassistance for: Personnel Equipment andSupplies
  13. 13. The number of people and time needed will dependon the number, size, age, and weight of the birds.Personnel* include: Personnel Skilled skid steer loader operator State, federal & poultry co. personnel and the producer Person experienced in composting procedure(company personnel, university rep., or consultant) Labor for composting procedure Personnel for cleaning and disinfectingpoultry house and equipment*does not include depopulation team
  14. 14. Personal Protective Equipment (Tyvek suits, Boots, Gloves, Respirators)Hand Tools (Square Point Long Handle Shovels, Pitch Forks, Long Handle Rakes andHoes, Stick Broom, Drill with Feeder Winch Attachment, Ladder, Hammer, Crowbar andCutter Pliers.) Personal Supplies (Cell Phone, Food, Drinks, Paper Towels and DisinfectantHand Wipes.) Rodenticide and Insecticide Composting Thermometers Carbon Source (Litter, Sawdust, etc.)* Water Hose or Water Supply* Warning Signs Tarp, Poly or Fleece With Anchors * Cleaning & Disinfectant Supplies, Large Garbage Bags, Bucket,Brush, Hand Sprayer Poly Removal Supplies (Tow Rope, Fuel Source, Lighter, Disposal Approval) * Supplies* If necessary
  15. 15.  Midsize Skid-Steer Loader and Skilled Operator(~ 1,25 – 1.5 Cubic Yard Bucket) Equipment and PersonnelMinimum Requirements to CompostMarket-Age Broilers in 8 Hours#Houses #Skid-steer #Workers2 2 44 3 66 4 88 5 10*Requires 1 skid-steer and 2workers 1.5 hrs/house to turnand cap
  16. 16.  Sanitation EquipmentA high pressurewasher must be onsite to clean anddisinfect equipmentand premises
  17. 17. Composting Methods Layering Shredding and Piling Mixing and Piling
  18. 18. Select Composting Method Based On Depopulation ProcedureProcedure For All MethodsIf the depopulation procedureconcentrates the carcasses in a smallsection of the house, the layering optionmay be appropriate.Where carcasses are distributed moreevenly over the litter surface, the mix andpile option is recommended.
  19. 19. House Preparation for CompostingIf poly is used as part of the depopulationprocedure, the following are required: Attach a tow rope to the back corner of a poly sectionto start removal procedure. Use a farm tractor or skidsteer loader to assist inremoving poly. Confine or deposit sections ofpoly outside of the house forultimate disposal.
  20. 20. House Preparation for CompostingIf carcasses are confined to a portion of the house and cakingis extensive, tilling litter may enhance the composting process.Courtesy of VA Tech and VA DEQ
  21. 21. Layering Method
  22. 22. 1. Create a litter windrow that has a 10to 12 ft.wide base.Layering Method
  23. 23. 2. Scoop the dead birds with the loader and laythem on top of the litter windrow base.Layering Method
  24. 24. 3. Spread the carcasses evenly with a rakeor pitchfork until they are about 8 to10 inches thick.Layering Method
  25. 25. 4. Deposit a 6 to 8-inch layer oflitter/sawdust “cap” over the birdswith a foot overlapon the sides. Leaveno carcasses orbird parts exposed.Layering Method
  26. 26. Layering Method5. Repeat the layering procedure as needed untilthe pile is 6 feet high.** If the height of the poultry houseprevents a 6-foot high windrow, make onlytwo layers which will be approximately 3to 4 feet high.
  27. 27. Shredding & Piling MethodInvolves shredding carcasses and tillingthem into the existing litter base followedby windrowing the mixture.This method may be beneficial for compostinglarge carcasses such as roasters or turkeys.It also does not require the addition of wateras moisture from the shredded carcasses will beadequate to support the composting process.
  28. 28. Shredding & Piling Method1. Remove carcasses one bucket-width widefrom along the side walls and spread themevenly in the center of the house.(With adequate litterdepth, the litter alongthe side walls can beused to cap thewindrows.)
  29. 29. Shredding & Piling Method2. Shred thecarcasses using atiller attached to askid steer loaderor a 3-point hitch,PTO driven unit forfarm tractor.~ make at least 2 passes to ensure adequate shredding~ use sharp tines and high rpm~ use the best angle and direction of rotation
  30. 30. Shredding & Piling Method3. An alternative toshredding is crushingcarcasses with arubber tire loader.Courtesy of VA Tech and VA DEQ
  31. 31. Shredding & Piling Method4. Roll the carcasses into thelitter/sawdust windrow.
  32. 32. Mixing & Piling MethodInvolves mixing carcasses into the existinglitter base and forming windrows.*This method involvesthe least time, laborand materials.
  33. 33. Mixing & Piling Method1. Remove carcasses one bucket-width widefrom along the sidewall and spread themevenly in the center of the house.If litter is inadequateand supplementalsawdust is required,this step is notnecessary.
  34. 34. Mixing & Piling Method2. Starting with a 3-inch minimum litter base,use the feed line as a guide and mix thecarcasses with the litter to start theformation of the windrow.Continue to roll thematerials from along thesides together to forma windrow 10 – 12 feetwide in the center ofthe house.
  35. 35. Mixing & Piling Method3. As with all methods the pile must be coveredwith a layer of litter or sawdust 4 to 6 inches thick.All carcasses must be covered!
  36. 36. All Methods Require ProperComposting of Contaminated LitterAny surplus litter or sawdustnot used in the compostingprocess should also be placed inwindrows to inactivatepathogens.
  37. 37. All Methods Require ProperSanitation ProceduresAll tools andequipment shouldbe removed fromthe house afterforming windrowsand properlysanitized.
  38. 38. All Methods RequireTemperature MonitoringUse a long-stem composting thermometer or a digitalrecording thermometer to check temperatures. Thetemperature should reach a minimum of 135oF (57oC)within 5 days after compost formation.Need to monitor andrecord temperaturesin multiple locationsby placing the tip ofthe thermometer incontact with apoultry carcass insidethe compost windrow.
  39. 39. All Methods Require TurningAfter 10 to 14 days, the composttemperature will decline. As itdrops below ~125oF (52oC),turn the windrows.Example of Daily Temperature Log4060801001201401601 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20DaysTemperature(oF)
  40. 40. For All Methods After TurningScrape along the edges of the turnedwindrow and deposit material on the pile.
  41. 41. For All MethodsCap The Turned WindrowCap the new windrow with a minimum of4 inches of litter or sawdust to cover anyexposed carcasses on the surface.
  42. 42. For All Methods, MonitorTemperatures After TurningAfter turning the compost windrow, thetemperature should equal or exceed that inthe initial windrow. Monitor and recordtemperatures.Windrow turned atthis pointExample of Daily Temperature Log4060801001201401601 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1213 14 1516 17 1819 2021 22 2324 25 2627 28 2930 3132 33 3435 36 3738 39 4041 4243 44 45DaysTemperature(oF)Turn
  43. 43. Land Apply CompostAfter an additional 2-3 weeks, thecompost material may be land-applied.
  44. 44. Summary In-house composting is a viable, biosecure and practical optionfor the disposal of catastrophic poultry mortalities. The layering and mix & pile compost methods produce acceptablecompost temperatures. The mix & pile method involves the leastlabor and cost (~50% less than fees associated with landfilling). If circumstances allow, an exercise on a non-emergency situationto try out the procedure is highly recommended. In-house composting may tie up the poultry house no morethan 4 weeks, but as little as 2 weeks, if the windrows arestockpiled outside after the initial turning. Avian Influenza virus was not detected in the active compostwindrows during the 2004 Delmarva Avian Influenza outbreak.
  45. 45. ReferencesBendfeldt, E., R. Peer, G. Flory, G. Evanylo, L. Carr and G. Malone. 2005. CanCatastrophic Turkey Mortalities be Composted in-House as a Means of Disposal?Proceedings to Composting Mortalities and Slaughterhouse Residuals. University ofMaine. March 2005.Carr, L., H. Brodie, J. Martin, Jr., G. Malone, D. Palmer and N. Zimmermann.Composting Catastrophic Event Poultry Mortalities. Univ. of MD Fact Sheet 732.Malone, G., N. Tablante and L. Carr. 2003. In-House Composting of CatastrophicPoultry Mortalities: An Educational Opportunity. Poultry Sci. Supp 1. 82:22.Malone, G., S. Cloud, R. Alphin, L. Carr and N. Tablante. 2004. Delmarva In-HouseCarcass Composting Experiences. Proceedings to 39thNational Meeting on PoultryHealth and Processing. Ocean City, MD.Murphy, D. Massive Depopulation and Disposal by Composting. 1992. Proceedings of96thMeeting of US Animal Health Assoc., Louisville, KY.Schwartz, J. Disposal by Composting of a Commercial Turkey Flock Infectedwith Avian Influenza. Personal communications.
  46. 46. AcknowledgmentsA follow up project on in-house composting of turkeys wasconducted by Virginia Tech Cooperative Extension, VirginiaDept. of Agriculture and Consumer Services and VirginiaDept. of Environmental Quality.The initial project on in-house composting was funded by theU.S. POULTRY AND EGG ASSOCIATION
  47. 47. Contact information:Nathaniel L. TablanteAssociate ProfessorExtension Poultry VeterinarianUniversity of Maryland301-314-6810nlt@umd.eduGeorge W. MaloneExtension Poultry SpecialistUniversity of Delaware302-856-7303malone@udel.edu
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