WORLD BANK STUDY - CONTRACT 7142400GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESANDRELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFIN...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related ...
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing  Countries, final report feb 2009
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Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing Countries, final report feb 2009

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The World Bank published this final report in 2009. The main aim of the Study is to develop global guidance for potential Bank interventions in the livestock market and slaughter sector.

Due to population growth, urbanization, and increased per capita demand for meat products, livestock and poultry production is projected to grow four times faster in developing countries than in high-income countries, with growth in pork and poultry more than twice the growth in the production of ruminate meat.

It is estimated that 800 million people worldwide still suffer chronic under-nutrition and hunger; thus, the growth in livestock and poultry production is expected to continue to escalate with a resulting increase in the quantity of livestock wastes generated.

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Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing Countries, final report feb 2009

  1. 1. WORLD BANK STUDY - CONTRACT 7142400GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESANDRELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFINAL REPORTFebruary 2009in association with
  2. 2. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal ReportWORLD BANK STUDY - CONTRACT 7142400GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESANDRELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFINAL REPORTFebruary 2009
  3. 3. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 1EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1. Introduction(a) BackgroundSolid waste management, and to a lesser extent wastewater management, has been given a relatively highpriority in developing countries over the past 15-20 years, often with great success. However, one particulararea of neglect has been wastes generated by urban livestock markets, slaughterhouses, and relatedfacilities. In developing countries these are typically municipal facilities that are often old, in poor condition,and operating well beyond their original design capacity. If not appropriately treated and disposed, wastesfrom such facilities pose a high risk to public health and the environment.Due to population growth, urbanization, and increased per capita demand for meat products, livestock andpoultry production is projected to grow four times faster in developing countries than in high-incomecountries, with growth in pork and poultry more than twice the growth in the production of ruminate meat.Figure 1 shows the historical and projected meat production in developed and developing countries for theperiod 1980 to 2030. Between 1980 and 2004 the consumption of meat and poultry in developing countriesincreased three-fold, see Figure 2. Nevertheless, it is estimated that 800 million people worldwide still sufferchronic under-nutrition and hunger; thus, the growth in livestock and poultry production is expected tocontinue to escalate with a resulting increase in the quantity of livestock wastes generated.Approximately 675 million rural poor are sustained by livestock-related income or ownership; however,large-scale production is now responsible for most of the growth in livestock and poultry production andrural small holders have seen little benefit. Large-scale intensive livestock production is growing at six-timesthe annual growth of grazing production and the majority of this growth is around urban areas, wheredemand is greatest and infrastructure and resources are available for the distribution of animal products andby-products.In addition to the settlement of large-scale livestock production close to urban areas, there is often extensiveinformal rearing of domestic animals and birds in peri-urban households and urban slums. This situation isunregulated and a potential source of disease and its spread. It is estimated that more than 60% of allhuman infectious diseases originate from animal sources and, in the past two decades, 75% of all emerginghuman diseases originated from livestock (Cointreau, 2007). Recent diseases that have been widelyreported include SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), avian influenza, encephalopathy from madcow disease, West Nile, Lyme disease, and Ebola. There is a growing recognition that animal health is veryclosely linked to human health and, as yet, these emerging diseases remain incurable. Exposure to livestockand particularly livestock wastes, therefore, provides conditions for emerging diseases and the vectorsFigure 2 – World Meat Consumption(Source FAO)Figure 1 – World Meat Production(Source FAO)
  4. 4. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 2needed for the transmission of disease. In addition the globalization of trade and ease of travel onlyexacerbate this situation. This paper describes the main fieldwork findings with respect to urban livestockand slaughter wastes and their potential implications on public health and the environment. Proposedoutline solutions are also discussed.(b) The StudyThe study is was undertaken for the World Bank, through a Japan country-tied fund, to identify whatlivestock and slaughter wastes are generated in developing countries and how they are treated and/ordisposed. The main aim of the Study is to develop global guidance for potential Bank interventions in thelivestock market and slaughter sector. The main objectives of the Study are to:Gather data on livestock markets, municipal slaughter facilities (abattoirs), meat processing, andrelated systems of waste management;Examine the prevalence, handling, treatment, disposal, and recycling of wastes;Collect and examine available data on related bio-security and food safety issues;Identify and report on the problems and needs of the facilities; andIdentify appropriate technical options to develop guidance for use by municipalities.The main issues pertinent to the Study comprise the following:Waste generation, treatment, and disposal.Physical infrastructure.Animal welfare.Cultural and religious issues.Disease and disease control.Animal feeds and use of antibiotics.Of particular interest, is the re-use and recycling of animal wastes; a business that can often be as large asthe slaughter business itself, and yet is unregulated in developing countries.(c) Data CollectionWhilst much data is available for the livestock sector in general, few data have been recorded about thelivestock and slaughter wastes generated, nor the methods for treatment and disposal of such wastes. Thislack of published data has made the collection of new primary data essential and a main task of the Study.As such, the Study included country reconnaissance visits to five developing countries to collect data firsthand from actual facilities in order to bridge this huge knowledge gap. The countries were selected from fiveof the World Bank’s six geographical regions and one major city was selected in each for the collection ofprimary data. Selection criteria for the reconnaissance visits included, amongst other items, the following:Two countries to be Muslim or have a large Muslim population.Both middle and low-income countries are to be represented.Each selected city must be the capital or another large city.Whilst this methodology does not provide a fully representative profile for each country, let alone a profileof each region, it does provide sufficient opportunity to identify and highlight the main practices and areasof concern in developing countries within a fixed study budget.The country reconnaissance visits included meetings with national government agencies (for agriculture,animal production, animal health, public health, and the environment) and local authorities responsible formunicipal facilities and services. The main focus for data collection, however, was on field visits to facilitieswhere the wastes are generated, treated, and/or disposed. Such facilities comprised livestock markets,slaughterhouses, meat processing plants, and waste treatment and disposal facilities. To complete thepicture, visits to public markets, supermarkets, and retail butchers where also undertaken. Due to the
  5. 5. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 3sensitive nature of the report material the countries and locations visited must remain confidential, asrequested by the World Bank.2. Livestock and Slaughter WastesThe definition of livestock and slaughter wastes can vary based on the perspective of the industry inquestion, the country involved, and local cultural and religious practices. For example, the slaughter andmeat processing industries utilize many parts of the animal, not just the meat, and as such all parts of theanimal that can be used are considered by-products and not wastes. In fact, within this industry, theprocessing and sale of these “by-products” are essential for commercial viability and reducing the quantityof waste for final disposal. Animal products, therefore, only become a waste if they have no commercialvalue or incur a cost to the business; hence, it is difficult to establish an exact definition.For the purposes of this Study, however, a simpler waste management perspective has been employed, withlivestock and slaughter wastes being defined as any product that is not the meat tissue. Thus bones, hides,hooves, horns, and the multitude of offal products are also considered as wastes, even though they areoften consumed, re-used, or recycled in various ways. Based on this definition of slaughter waste typicallyaccounts for 45 to 60% of an animal’s weight, as illustrated in Table 1 for each of the main species farmedfor consumption.Table 1 – Typical Quantity of Waste per Species(Source: ProAnd Associates Australia Pty Ltd)* Estimated because normally sold as a carcass (bone-in).3. Main Fieldwork Findings(a) GeneralThe following general observations were made which can have a significant impact on the quantity of wastegenerated and how it is disposed; these are common to all of the developing countries visited:There is a general consumer preference for ‘fresh’ meat (i.e. no refrigeration or cold-chain)purchased at local markets or butcher shops each morning. The practice of buying freshlyslaughtered meat and edible offal for cooking and consumption the same day currently negates theneed for refrigeration.In contrast to high-income countries, edible offal products are in high demand, whether asexpensive delicacies or simply as a source of low-cost protein for those that cannot afford meatproducts.There is generally a high incidence of informal slaughter; either at household level (mainly poultryand small-stock) or illegally by local retail butchers (small-stock and large ruminants). This presentsa significant problem for the local authorities with respect to the control of waste, public health, anddisease. It also reduces the income of the municipal slaughter facilities.Poultry suppliers have been most successful at intensification of slaughter and processing activitiesand the establishment of modern slaughter facilities. However, live poultry is still preferred in mostdeveloping countries, whether slaughtered at the public market or at household level.(b) Waste ManagementThe main findings relating to the management of livestock and slaughter wastes are:The high incidence of informal and illegal slaughtering results in many livestock and slaughterSpecies Weight (kg) Carcass(%)Meat (%) Waste (kg)Cattle 350 55 40 210.0Pig 70 72 55 31.5Sheep/Goat 30 47 40* 18.0Poultry 2 66 56* 0.88
  6. 6. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 4wastes products being dumped illegally or disposed with municipal wastes resulting in public healthrisks and increasing the number of scavenging animals.The proportion of wastes re-used or recycled is generally high because almost every item has afinancial value, due to low processing costs and low-incomes. This means that little waste is actuallydisposed to the formal waste management sector. Processing and treatment of these wastes,however, is a major concern with respect to public health, environmental pollution, and occupationalhealth and safety; see Photos 1 and 2.There is little, if any, treatment of wastewater or contaminated stormwater runoff at livestockmarkets or slaughterhouses. Liquid wastes are typically discharged untreated to drains and localwatercourses irrespective of other water users downstream, often affecting the urban poor who mayuse the water for bathing, washing clothes, cooking, and even drinking.Although blood is potentially a valuable commodity produced during the slaughter process, there isoften no market demand or cultural/religious beliefs may prevent its collection. In othercircumstances, however, poor slaughtering facilities and lack of process control prevent the effectivecollection of blood. Therefore, blood is often wasted to drains and local watercourses contaminatingthem with high organic load and providing a vector for disease, see Photo 3.Photo 1 – Processing of cattle slaughterwastes on the floor of a slaughter facility.Photo 2 – Processing of goat heads and feetin very poor and unsanitary workingPhoto 4 – Emergency slaughter wastedumped in the road outside thePhoto 3 – Blood, unborn calves, and otherslaughter wastes discharging to the public
  7. 7. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 5Unwanted animal wastes are often disposed at municipal disposal sites. These sites are typicallyopen dumpsites with few facilities, where municipal staff, waste-pickers, and scavenging animals arein abundance and are directly exposed to animal wastes, see Photos 4 and 5. The sites have nofacilities for hazardous or special wastes and present significant disease risks. In some casesunwanted animal wastes are dumped in the street, see Photo 6.Large quantities of animal manure and poultry litter are used as fertilizer without any compostingprocess, providing potential routes for disease spread through crops.Biogas production and composting are not commonplace in urban areas because there is generallyno local demand for the gas and space for composting is very limited. Also, the supply of biogas andcompost products to rural customers from the city is not financially viable due to high transportcosts.(c) Conditions at Municipal Livestock Markets and SlaughterhousesThe main findings at municipal facilities are as follows:Most municipal slaughterhouses and many urban livestock markets are located in densely populatedurban areas, creating nuisance in terms of traffic congestion, odours, and pollution (noise, air, andwater). Slaughterhouses typically operate during the night and noise can be a significant problem.Vehicular access at most livestock markets and slaughterhouses is very poor, with little or no parkingand limited loading / unloading space. This creates severe congestion in some cases, stressinglivestock further.Security of sites, particularly slaughterhouses, can be wholly inadequate allowing access to manynon-facility personnel, stray animals, and even children who are directly exposed to animal wastesand provide uncontrolled vectors for livestock related diseases. The private sector is generally muchstricter.Physical infrastructure at urban markets and slaughterhouse is typically old and in need of urgentrehabilitation. Infrastructure and equipment at municipal slaughterhouses, in particular, are verypoor and in many cases new facilities may be the only option for medium to long-term solutions, seePhotos 7 and 8.Hygiene and sanitation facilities are poor or non-existent at livestock markets and slaughterhousesand open defecation is practiced in and around these facilities by staff of the facilities, visitors, andthe general public.Utility services are inadequate and, as such, water supply and lighting are poor; hot water is rarelyprovided and slaughter utensils are not properly cleaned and sterilized.Photo 5 – Putrefying slaughter wastedisposed at a municipal dumpsite amidstPhoto 6 – Cattle scavenging amongstmunicipal solid waste and animal wastes at
  8. 8. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 6Occupational health and safety is given a low priority and at slaughterhouses, in particular, safetyequipment and protective clothing are inadequate and in most cases non-existent. Given the poorconditions at these facilities and the current working practices, it is believed that minor accidents andpossibly more serious accidents occur on a regular basis.There is little or no formal training of workers or professional staff at slaughter facilities; so existing,and often inappropriate, working practices remain unchanged.Slaughter facilities and working procedures are often poor and obsolete; although the workersthemselves are often highly-skilled.Process control at slaughterhouses is inadequate, with most municipal facilities operating on a batchslaughter system with many activities taking place at the same location with no proper separation ofclean and dirty areas; hence contamination of carcasses is commonplace, see Photos 9 and 10.Ante and post mortem inspections by veterinary staff or trained meat inspectors are typicallynon-existent and, where inspection is carried out, it is inadequate and hampered by poor lightingconditions. This creates a significant food safety risk, as meat from diseased animals can easily bedistributed for human consumption.Municipal slaughter facilities are typically old and operating significantly over capacity, with little ifany space for upgrading or expansion. Reduction of the thriving informal sector in some countries isunlikely to materialize without significant changes and new facilities to provide the additionalcapacity needed.Photo 7 – Front of a pig slaughterhouseshowing poor physical infrastructure.Photo 8 – Rear of the same pigslaughterhouse.Photo 10 – Batch slaughter of cattle withother animals in close proximityPhoto 9 – Overcrowded goat slaughterhouseduring slaughtering (batch slaughter)
  9. 9. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 7Slaughterhouses often only work one-shift to satisfy the market demand for “fresh” un-refrigeratedmeat each morning. Many facilities operate only 5-days per week to suit local religious and culturalpractices.Slaughter waste material is most often sold to third parties for processing or rendering; although insome countries the edible offal accompanies the carcass from the slaughterhouse to theowner/butcher.Handling and transport of edible and inedible offal products are generally poor and contamination ofedible material is normal.(d) Animal WelfareTypical findings from the reconnaissance visits include the following:Animal welfare at all facilities requires significant improvement, with major changes to transport,treatment, and facilities needed.Livestock are often not watered, even on long journeys, arriving at markets and slaughterhousesdehydrated, in poor physical condition, and severely stressed. A high proportion of “downers”(collapsed animals) were observed at some livestock markets and slaughterhouses, see Photos 11and 12.Loading and unloading facilities at markets are often poor or non-existent and thus livestock can beinjured easily as they are man-handled off trucks.Livestock are often tied and left without food and water at markets; and control by herders is usuallywith sticks with which they hit or sometimes beat the animals.Livestock are often already severely stressed as they make there way to slaughter. This isexacerbated by entrances to slaughter areas that are dark, narrow, slippery, and often up inclines.It is not natural for animals to enter such spaces; therefore, it is not unusual for the animals to beforced in and often animals panic and become injured in the process.Stunning and slaughter practices vary, but all are inadequate in terms of animal welfare and workersafety. Where stunning is used, the methods employed, for cattle in particular, often only paralyzethe animal, rather than rendering it unconscious. This leaves the animal in serious pain and distressuntil the slaughter cut is made, which is often not carried out immediately.In the majority of slaughterhouses visited, batch slaughtering is practiced and animals are in closeproximity to others being slaughtered and in distress; from stunning through to decapitation,skinning, and evisceration. This practice can be extremely stressful to the animals.Photo 11 – Animal collapsed after unloading,severely stressed and dehydrated.Photo 12 – Emaciated animal, unable towalk, for emergency slaughter.
  10. 10. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 8(e) Cultural and Religious IssuesObservations during the reconnaissance visits included the following:Differing interpretations were seen between Muslim countries with respect to the handling andphysical condition of animals for slaughter.Interpretations of halal slaughter practices differed, of which some are detrimental to animalwelfare.In some Muslim countries blood is collected, yet in others it is disposed to the drainage system.Some countries operate slaughterhouses everyday whilst others operate only five days per week,mainly for religious reasons.Home slaughter is normal practice in some countries and is almost universal for certain holidays,festivals, and other special occasions.(f) Related IssuesThe Study has identified several areas which can have a significant impact on livestock wastes but arebeyond the main scope of the Study; these include:Disease and Disease Control: Lack of planning, coordination, and regulation by governments isevident, leaving developing countries in a poor position to cope if a major disease outbreak occurs.As a result, the disposal of diseased animal carcasses during disease outbreaks is a very significantwaste management issue, posing very serious public health and disease spread.Animal Feeds and Antibiotic Use: More intensive farming of animals is evident and as such the useof animal feeds and supplements is increasing. A significant area of concern, however, is theincreasing and unregulated use of growth promoters and the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics inanimal production. Residuals contained in livestock wastes are therefore becoming a significant areaof concern.Institutional Issues: Although legislation is often in place, poor regulation, enforcement, andcorruption are commonplace resulting in an extensive informal / illegal slaughtering sector (up to80% in one country visited).4. Development of SolutionsTo improve the existing livestock and slaughter waste situation in developing countries there are a numberof key areas that need to be addressed. These will require improvement and often significant changes, notonly to physical infrastructure for waste management facilities but also to working practices, facilitymanagement, regulations, and enforcement. It is important, therefore, to adopt a holistic approach tosolving current animal waste related problems and to consider cost effective and appropriate technologiesand practices that will be sustainable into the future.Core areas that the Study addresses with respect to improving the environment and public health are:Waste management;Physical infrastructure and processes;Animal welfare; andCultural and religious practices.Other related, but non-core study areas, such as disease control; legislation, regulation, and enforcement;and capacity building and institutional strengthening, where significant deficiencies have been identified bythe Study, will require additional funding and studies to identify appropriate solutions and interventions.
  11. 11. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 9(a) Waste ManagementDue to the potential risks associated with livestock and slaughter wastes, appropriate handling, treatment,and disposal are essential; not dissimilar to the disposal of hospital pathogenic waste, which can be verycostly. In contrast to hospital wastes, market and slaughter wastes are generated in much greater volumesand economically viable methods must be considered for the disposal of diseased animals, pathogenicmaterial, and other unwanted animal wastes, all of which pose serious public health concerns. Inhigh-income countries, there are numerous categories of animal wastes that must be disposed according totheir disease risk. Some high-risk wastes infected with BSE will require high-temperature incineration, whilstother low-risk materials can be rendered to produce animal feeds and pet food. All of this, however, requiresstrict regulation, effective veterinary inspection, high capital and operational expenditure, and theavailability of technology and capability; none of which are readily available in developing countries.For developing countries, with limited capacity and funds, it is important to consider local conditions verycarefully and identify key areas for specific and targeted improvements aimed at minimizing the quantitiesof waste generated that require collection and off-site disposal. Waste minimization and managementsolutions being considered include:Livestock MarketsImprove facilities for the collection of animal waste (dung) and reducing pollution of localwatercourses through the provision of appropriate hard-standing areas and drainage.Encourage waste collection and re-use, e.g. dung cakes for fuel, composting, and fertilizer.SlaughterhousesEncourage the collection and processing of blood, to remove it from waste systems.Improve collection facilities for animal wastes, in particular for blood and stomach contents.Improve storage areas for solid wastes.Improve wastewater collection systems and introduce appropriate treatment technologies that arenot dependent on chemicals and expensive electro-mechanical equipment.Formalize and regulate the slaughter waste re-use and recycling sector to improve occupationalhealth and safety, public health, and minimize waste quantities for disposal.Provide simple education and awareness training for all related industries with respect to waste,disease, and disease risks.Waste Collection and DisposalImprove solid waste disposal facilities with separate areas for livestock/slaughter wastes.Formalize existing waste picking activities at disposal sites and improve site fencing/security.Encourage the use of composting techniques for livestock and slaughter wastes.(b) Physical Infrastructure and processesConditions at municipal livestock markets and slaughterhouses in developing countries can varyconsiderably but, in general, physical infrastructure is old and in need of urgent rehabilitation and in manycases replacement. This is particularly the case with municipal slaughterhouses where lack of investmentover the past 25-30 years coupled with high population growth over the same period has resulted in facilitiesthat are obsolete and unable to process the number of animals demanded by the market. Denseurbanization around many livestock markets and slaughterhouses now prevents their expansion /improvement and focuses the community on their activities. Private slaughter facilities, on the other hand,are generally located outside urban areas and are often modern and hygienic. These typically service exportor niche markets, however, as they are unable to compete on price for the mass market.
  12. 12. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 10Solutions currently being considered for physical infrastructure and process improvements include:Livestock MarketsImprove drainage and provide catch-pits or interceptors for collecting solid material.Provide appropriate water and sanitation facilities, including health awareness training.SlaughterhousesImprove physical infrastructure, utility services, and provide appropriate levels of equipment andtraining to allow more new and more hygienic conditions to be maintained.Provide areas for the essential separation of “clean” and “dirty” processes.Provide new and/or improved areas for the re-use and recycling of slaughter wastes.(c) Animal WelfareThe welfare of animals is a very important issue and everything possible should be done to ensure thatanimals are handled, transported, protected from the elements, and watered from farm until slaughter.Good animal welfare is rewarded with healthy animals, less disease, and ultimately better quality meat. Pooranimal welfare, on the other hand, results in the opposite as is primarily the case in developing countries,though some fare better than others. Although little published data is currently available, recent evidencesuggests that, in addition to poor quality meat, diseased animals stressed prior to and during slaughterproduce pathogen levels at least 10 times the normal level and possibly more. This is a significant issue fordisease control and public health, especially in developing countries where many diseases are endemic andoccupational health and safety and control of wastes in slaughterhouses is very poor.Improvements currently being considered for animal welfare include:Improve animal welfare through education and training coupled with physical infrastructureimprovements to reduce stress on livestock.Improve pre-slaughter stunning and slaughter practices.Strengthen veterinary services/meat inspection and introduce more widespread use of ante and postmortem inspection at slaughterhouses.(d) Cultural and Religious PracticesCultural and religious practices vary from country to country and can have a significant effect on issues suchas animal welfare, stunning and slaughtering, and animal wastes. Some proposals include:Improve animal welfare and slaughter practices through education and training.Reduce and eventually eradicate informal slaughtering through public awareness campaigns,improved legislation, and strengthening inspection and regulation.Improve efficiency of existing slaughterhouses by extending operating hours and introducingrefrigeration. Requires a change in perception of what is considered “fresh meat” through publicawareness campaigns.5. ConclusionsThe overriding conclusion from the Study is that livestock and slaughter wastes represent a very significantrisk to public health and the environment. The current situation in developing countries provides idealconditions for the emergence of new diseases, particularly those that can be transmitted from animals tohumans. The increased movement of people and animals, through the globalization of trade and travel, alsoprovides an ideal vector for the rapid spread of disease, as we have seen in recent years with SARS and avianinfluenza.The livestock and slaughter waste sectors area are multi-faceted and cannot be considered simply as awaste problem in isolation. Other factors such as animal welfare, veterinary services, physical infrastructure,
  13. 13. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 11hygiene and sanitation, cultural and religious practices, regulation, and institutional capacity need to becarefully considered. The re-use and recycling of slaughter wastes, in particular, is a very important areawhere interventions may prove to be useful in controlling and reducing waste quantities and for bringing itinto the formal sector. However, the businesses in this sector are very cost sensitive and too muchinterference could render them unviable, with the resulting social and environmental consequences.The complex relationship between all of the issues mentioned above requires a holistic approach thataddresses the waste management problems through a combination of improvements, rather thaninterventions targeting specific areas in isolation.6. Recommendations for Further Study / ActionWith respect to infrastructure improvements, another World Bank study has recently commenced a reviewof the existing infrastructure conditions based on the findings and data gathered during this study, entitled“Global Study on Reconstruction of Public Live Market, Slaughter and Meat Processing Facilities, includingRelated Cost Recovery and Economic Instruments” also funded through a JCTF grant. Recommendations onappropriate improvements to facilities and cost estimates for case study countries will be developed that canbe applied on a global scale to plan and implement appropriate interventions. This is the next step on theway to potential implementation of improvements to livestock markets, slaughterhouses, and relatedfacilities.In the meantime, however, worldwide awareness needs to be spread, particularly with international funding/ financing agencies and most importantly with developing country members, through dissemination ofappropriate knowledge, tools, and materials to the appropriate government departments in each of themember countries that could promote the implementation of initiatives at national and municipal level.The World Bank is already embarking on a number of international workshops to raise awareness of this veryimportant issue, with the aim of forming a global alliance of institutions; as the present study has shown,meaningful improvements will only be achieved when all the many issues and fields are addressedholistically, both in terms of technical approach and common budgets. Several institutions have beeninvolved in separate aspects of study identified within the present report (for example animal welfare,disease) and many already have some excellent results, guidelines and so forth. However, takenindependently they lack the punch, gravitas, and foresight to address all issues for the common good. Thejoining of forces between these agencies and institutions will be beneficial to all ends.The alliance outlined above would be of particular benefit in dealing with the softer issues such asoperational procedures and management, institutional reorganisation, and economic instruments.Facility, municipality and government-level recommendations have been provided throughout the report,and are summarised above, and these considerations should be adopted during future upgrade works.Below is a summary of areas requiring further study, potentially as distinct project preparation studies orpilot projects.The following further investigations, studies, and pilot projects are recommended in order to determineappropriate follow-on actions and fill some of the gaps in knowledge that have been identified by this study:Government structures with respect to enhancement of services and collaboration in the areas ofanimal welfare, veterinary services, public health, food safety, and disease control.Veterinary practices and meat inspection services appropriate for developing countries, includingtraining materials.Animal welfare appropriate to developing countries, including training materials.Stunning and slaughter practices appropriate for developing countries, including training materialsand home slaughter.Financial management of municipal livestock markets and slaughterhouses; how to improvefinancial sustainability and the role of the private sector.The informal sector and its complex interactions with the formal sector, cultural issues, andgovernment policy.
  14. 14. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 12Professionalisation of the sector, and in particular the workers; through the creation of associationsusing an adaptation of the SWM model already developed by the World Bank.Public awareness programmes covering such issues as food hygiene and safety, animal welfare, safeand humane slaughter. Some of these could be accommodated with or linked to existing water,sanitation, and waste initiatives and could even be introduced at junior school level.Pilot projects for rehabilitation / reconstruction of livestock markets, slaughterhouses, and relatedinfrastructure and services specifically for developing countries. This should include thedevelopment of generic plans and designs (or design parameters) for small, medium, and largemunicipal facilities, which can be applied to suit the varying local conditions in developing countries.Safe disposal methods for livestock and slaughter wastes in developing countries.The use of antimicrobials and feed additives in developing countries, including the prevalence anduse of illegal or unregulated substances.The impact of livestock wastes discharged to aquaculture and its relevance to human and animalhealth, food safety, and disease control.Investigations into opportunities and constraints related to Carbon finance.Study of existing information gaps, such as:o Facility finances.o Actual prevalence of disease.o Livestock market management issues.o Basic working guidelinesDevelopment of model tender documents for encouragement of private sector involvement.Promotion of the public good issues associated with good practice within the slaughter industry.Development of a website devoted to the Global Alliance For Humane Sustainability.
  15. 15. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (i)GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESAND RELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFINAL REPORTTABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary1. Introduction.......................................................................................................11.1 Study Rationale and Objectives..............................................................................................11.2 Purpose of this Report ..........................................................................................................21.3 Background to the Study.......................................................................................................21.3.1 Overview .....................................................................................................................21.3.2 Human Diseases and Animal Sources .............................................................................41.3.3 Livestock Markets .........................................................................................................51.3.4 Slaughter Facilities........................................................................................................51.3.5 Livestock and Slaughter Wastes .....................................................................................61.4 Main Study Issues ................................................................................................................61.4.1 Waste Generation and Management...............................................................................61.4.2 Animal Welfare.............................................................................................................61.4.3 Epidemiology and Disease Control..................................................................................71.4.4 Facility Infrastructure....................................................................................................91.4.5 Animal Feeds and Use of Antibiotics ...............................................................................91.4.6 Cultural and Religious Issues .........................................................................................91.4.7 Environmental Issues..................................................................................................111.4.8 Institutional Issues .....................................................................................................121.5 Stakeholders ......................................................................................................................122. Livestock and Slaughter Wastes......................................................................132.1 Definitions .........................................................................................................................132.2 Waste Products ..................................................................................................................133. Methodology for Data Collection .....................................................................173.1 Country and City Selection ..................................................................................................173.2 Survey Instruments ............................................................................................................173.3 The Study Team.................................................................................................................183.4 Country Reconnaissance Visits.............................................................................................193.5 Facilities Surveyed ..............................................................................................................223.6 Collection of Additional Data on Infrastructure ......................................................................223.7 Difficulties Experienced During Country Reconnaissance Visits................................................224. Brief Country Overviews..................................................................................244.1 Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific).......................................................................24
  16. 16. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (ii)4.2 Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia).....................................................................................244.3 Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)............................................................................................244.4 Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)........................................................254.5 Middle Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean) .......................................................254.6 Summary of Main Fieldwork Findings....................................................................................255. Waste Management .........................................................................................265.1 General .............................................................................................................................265.2 Overview of Municipal Solid Waste Management ...................................................................265.2.1 Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)...............................................................265.2.2 Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia) .............................................................................275.2.3 Low-Income Country 3 (Africa) ....................................................................................305.2.4 Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)................................................335.2.5 Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean) ...............................................355.3 Overview of Municipal Wastewater Management ...................................................................375.4 Overview of Wastes from the Livestock and Slaughter Sector .................................................395.4.1 Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)...............................................................395.4.2 Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia) .............................................................................415.4.3 Low-Income Country 3 (Africa) ....................................................................................445.4.4 Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)................................................455.4.5 Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean) ...............................................465.5 Wastes by Facility Type.......................................................................................................475.5.1 Livestock Market Wastes .............................................................................................475.5.2 Slaughterhouse Wastes...............................................................................................525.5.3 Meat Processing Wastes..............................................................................................655.5.4 Public Market Wastes..................................................................................................655.5.5 Retail Sector Wastes ...................................................................................................675.6 Estimate of Slaughter Waste Quantities ................................................................................685.7 Summary and Discussion of Issues.......................................................................................706. Infrastructure and Services.............................................................................736.1 Introduction to Issues.........................................................................................................736.2 General Findings.................................................................................................................736.3 Livestock Markets ...............................................................................................................746.3.1 Location and Access....................................................................................................746.3.2 Infrastructure and Services..........................................................................................776.4 Slaughterhouses.................................................................................................................866.4.1 Location and Access....................................................................................................866.4.2 Infrastructure and Services..........................................................................................916.5 Public Markets.................................................................................................................. 1156.6 Analysis of Infrastructure Issues ........................................................................................1177. Operational Issues at Facilities .....................................................................1197.1 Livestock Markets .............................................................................................................1207.1.1 General....................................................................................................................1207.1.2 Hygiene and Sanitation .............................................................................................1217.1.3 Occupational Health and Safety .................................................................................1227.1.4 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1237.2 Slaughterhouses...............................................................................................................124
  17. 17. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (iii)7.2.1 Overview of Slaughter Operations ..............................................................................1247.2.2 Roles and Relationships.............................................................................................1257.2.3 Hygiene and Sanitation .............................................................................................1277.2.4 Process Control ........................................................................................................1307.2.5 Fifth-Quarter Processing............................................................................................1327.2.6 Occupational Health and Safety .................................................................................1337.2.7 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1337.3 Meat Processing Facilities ..................................................................................................1357.3.1 Hygiene and Sanitation .............................................................................................1357.3.2 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1367.4 Public Markets.................................................................................................................. 1367.4.1 General....................................................................................................................1367.4.2 Hygiene, Sanitation, and Safety .................................................................................1377.4.3 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1377.5 Retail Sector .................................................................................................................... 1387.5.1 General....................................................................................................................1387.5.2 Hygiene, Sanitation, and Safety .................................................................................1387.5.3 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1397.6 Informal Sector ................................................................................................................1397.6.1 General....................................................................................................................1397.6.2 Hygiene, Sanitation, and Safety .................................................................................1407.6.3 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1417.7 Summary and Analysis of Operational Issues ......................................................................1418. Animal Welfare and Transportation...............................................................1458.1 Background...................................................................................................................... 1458.2 Transportation .................................................................................................................1478.3 Livestock Markets .............................................................................................................1528.4 Slaughterhouses...............................................................................................................1568.4.1 General....................................................................................................................1568.4.2 Summary .................................................................................................................1608.5 Public Markets.................................................................................................................. 1628.6 Retail Butchers................................................................................................................. 1638.7 Informal Sector ................................................................................................................1638.8 Sugggested Actions for Animal Welfare Improvement..........................................................1649. Epidemiology, Disease Control and Public Health.........................................1669.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 1669.2 Overview of Epidemiology and Relevant Techniques............................................................1699.2.1 General....................................................................................................................1699.2.2 Understanding Disease Causes and Transmission ........................................................1709.2.3 Investigating Causes of Disease.................................................................................1719.2.4 Measuring Disease Levels..........................................................................................1719.2.5 Disease Monitoring and Surveillance...........................................................................1719.2.6 Evaluating Costs of Disease and Disease Control .........................................................1719.2.7 Developing Control Strategies....................................................................................1729.2.8 Monitoring Efficiency of Control Strategies. .................................................................1729.3 Disease Control Mechanisms..............................................................................................1729.3.1 Fundamental Principles of Disease Control ..................................................................1729.3.2 Limiting Disease Spread ............................................................................................1739.3.3 Endemic Disease Control and Outbreak Prevention ......................................................174
  18. 18. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (iv)9.3.4 Waste Management ..................................................................................................1759.3.5 Interactive Control Mechanisms .................................................................................1769.4 Diseases Identified, Their Importance, and Global Distribution .............................................1769.5 Effectiveness of Disease Control, Monitoring, and Surveillance Techniques ............................1779.5.1 General....................................................................................................................1779.5.2 Disease Identification and Reporting ..........................................................................1779.5.3 On-Farm Activities ....................................................................................................1819.5.4 Market Activities .......................................................................................................1829.5.5 Market Hygiene ........................................................................................................1839.5.6 Slaughterhouse Activities...........................................................................................1839.5.7 Public Markets..........................................................................................................1859.5.8 Retail Outlets ...........................................................................................................1859.5.9 Supermarkets...........................................................................................................1869.5.10 Informal Sector ........................................................................................................1869.5.11 Waste Management ..................................................................................................1879.6 Public Health Issues..........................................................................................................1889.7 Summary......................................................................................................................... 18910. Environmental Issues ....................................................................................19110.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 19110.2 In-Country Status and Observations...................................................................................19110.2.1 Background..............................................................................................................19110.2.2 Solid Wastes ............................................................................................................19210.2.3 Liquid Wastes...........................................................................................................19410.3 Summary of Impacts and Issues........................................................................................19510.3.1 Solid Wastes ............................................................................................................19510.3.2 Liquid Wastes...........................................................................................................19610.3.3 Impact of Religious Considerations.............................................................................19610.3.4 Potential solutions ....................................................................................................19710.3.5 The Environmental trade-off ......................................................................................19811. Feed Additives and Anti-Microbials ...............................................................19911.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 19911.2 Agents of Concern ............................................................................................................19911.3 Accidental Contamination ..................................................................................................20111.4 Mechanisms for Control.....................................................................................................20111.5 Regional Observations ......................................................................................................20112. Technical Options...........................................................................................20312.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 20312.2 Overview of Livestock Markets in High-Income Countries .....................................................20312.3 Overview of Meat Plant Waste Management in High-Income Countries..................................20412.3.1 Legislation ...............................................................................................................20412.3.2 Waste Products, Treatment, and Disposal ...................................................................20512.3.3 Seldom Used Technologies ........................................................................................22212.4 Technical Options for Developing countries.........................................................................22212.4.1 Overview .................................................................................................................22212.4.2 Waste Treatment and Disposal ..................................................................................22412.4.3 Technical Options by Facility Type..............................................................................22612.5 Planning and Implementation ............................................................................................230
  19. 19. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (v)13. Institutional Issues and Financial & Economic Situation..............................23313.1 Institutional Issues ...........................................................................................................23313.1.1 Government Issues...................................................................................................23313.1.2 Animal Health...........................................................................................................23413.1.3 Devolution ...............................................................................................................23413.1.4 Local Government Issues...........................................................................................23513.1.5 Informal Slaughter....................................................................................................23513.2 Finance and Economics.....................................................................................................23513.2.1 Background..............................................................................................................23513.2.2 The Economics of Meat Quality and Disease................................................................23613.2.3 Municipal Livestock Market and Slaughter Fees ...........................................................23613.2.4 Meat and Offal Prices................................................................................................23713.2.5 Financial and Economic Analyses................................................................................23813.2.6 Economic Instruments and Benefitting from the Solid Waste Management Experience....23814. Conclusions and Recommendations ..............................................................24214.1 Conclusions...................................................................................................................... 24214.2 Recommendations ............................................................................................................24714.2.1 General Recommendations ........................................................................................24714.2.2 Recommendations for Further Study / Action ..............................................................252
  20. 20. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (vi)List of TablesTable 2.1 – Typical Wastes Generated by the Livestock Markets.....................................................13Table 2.2 – Typical Wastes Generated by Slaughterhouses ............................................................14Table 3.1 – Schedule of Country Visits .........................................................................................19Table 3.2 – Fieldwork Responsibility Matrix...................................................................................20Table 5.1 – Poultry Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1) ......................................................52Table 5.2 – Pig Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1)............................................................53Table 5.3 – Cattle Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1)........................................................53Table 5.4 – Poultry Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 2) ......................................................54Table 5.5 – Ruminant Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 2)...................................................54Table 5.6 – Ruminant Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 3)...................................................55Table 5.7 – Pig Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 3)............................................................56Table 5.8 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - Poultry ...........................69Table 5.9 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight – Sheep and Goats ............69Table 5.10 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight– Cattle .............................70Table 5.11 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - Pigs................................70Table 5.12 – Present Slaughter and Livestock Waste Related CDM Projects.......................................71Table 7.1 – Number of Facilities Visited by Country .....................................................................119Table 7.2 - Estimated Size of Informal Slaughter Sector..............................................................140Table 8.1 – Level of Welfare Score............................................................................................. 146Table 8.2 – Transportation Techniques ......................................................................................148Table 8.3 – General Animal Handling Techniques........................................................................148Table 8.4 – Transportation Problems Identified...........................................................................151Table 8.5 – Market Techniques and Facilities ..............................................................................153Table 8.6 – Market Problems Identified ......................................................................................155Table 8.7 – Slaughterhouse Design and Facilities ........................................................................157Table 8.8 – Slaughterhouse Practices Affecting Welfare of Poultry ................................................157Table 8.9 – Slaughterhouse Practices Affecting Welfare of Pigs ....................................................158Table 8.10 – Slaughterhouse Practices Affecting Welfare of Cattle..................................................159Table 8.11 – Slaughterhouse Practices Affecting Welfare of Sheep and Goats..................................160Table 8.12 – Suggested Actions to Enable Improvements in Animal Welfare....................................165Table 9.1 – Criteria for Diseases to be included in OIE List for a given country ..............................167Table 9.2 – OIE List of Diseases ................................................................................................ 168Table 9.3 – Confirmed and Suspected Cases of Livestock Diseases of the Different Regions............178Table 9.4 – Summary of Hygiene and Disease Control Efficiency ..................................................189Table 12.1 - Indicative Blood Protein Meal Revenue .....................................................................206Table 12.2 – Composting Cost Examples for Three Operators in Michigan, USA (US units)................210Table 12.3 – Typical High-Income and Developing Country Disposal Routes....................................211Table 12.4 – Alternative Processes for Rendering Certain Waste Products .......................................212Table 12.5 – Typical Business Structures for Rendering in High-Income Countries ...........................214Table 12.6 – Indicative Capital Costs for Rendering Plants in High-Income Countries .......................214Table 12.7 – Indicative Rendered Product Revenue.......................................................................215Table 12.8 – Common Wastewater Treatment Systems .................................................................219Table 12.9 – Indicative Australian Water/Wastewater Costs...........................................................220
  21. 21. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (vii)Table 12.10 – Indicative Wastewater Costs ....................................................................................220Table 12.11 – Summary of Most Used Technologies in High-Income Countries..................................221Table 12.12 – Improvements for Livestock Markets ........................................................................227Table 12.13 – Improvements for Slaughterhouses ..........................................................................228Table 12.14 – Categories for Selection of Slaughterhouses Upgrading ..............................................231Table 13.1 – Comparison of Typical Municipal Market and Slaughter Fees.......................................237Table 13.2 – Initial Observations of Costs Items, Actions, and Potential Benefits .............................239
  22. 22. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (viii)List of FiguresFigure 1.1 – World Meat Production 1980 – 2030...............................................................................3Figure 1.2 – World Meat Consumption 1980 – 2030 ...........................................................................3Figure 2.1 – Diagram of Typical Slaughterhouse Inputs, Processes, and Outputs in High-IncomeCountries ...................................................................................................................16Figure 3.1 – Study Organisation Chart.............................................................................................18Figure 5.1 – Small Quantities of Animal Wastes Collected by MSWM Company at PigSlaughterhouse...........................................................................................................27Figure 5.2 – Solid Waste Strewn Across a Large Urban Area (Dairy Cattle Colony) adjacent toMunicipal Waste Collection Vehicles..............................................................................27Figure 5.3 – Cattle Bathing in Waste Contaminated Water Amongst Piles of Solid Waste .....................28Figure 5.4 – Collection of Cattle Manure for Distribution to Local Farms .............................................28Figure 5.5 – Typical Photos at Main City Dumpsite Showing Scavenging and Animal Wastes ................29Figure 5.6 – Municipal and Animal Wastes Only a Few Hundred Metres from the Main CityDumpsite ...................................................................................................................29Figure 5.7 – Modern Composting Plant Adjacent to the Main City Dumpsite........................................30Figure 5.8 – Waste-Pickers Scavenging for Metal Products at Dumpsite..............................................31Figure 5.9 – Waste-Pickers Scavenging ‘Fresh’ Waste at the Dumpsite (left) and One PickerCarrying a Scavenged Carcass Leg (right) .....................................................................31Figure 5.10 – Poisoned Stray Dogs Outside the Main Livestock Market Destined for Disposal at theDumpsite ...................................................................................................................32Figure 5.11 – Slaughter Waste from Main Slaughterhouse Arriving at the Dumpsite ..............................32Figure 5.12 – Cattle Grazing amongst slaughter waste at Dumpsite (left) and Leachate Runninginto the Road Below the Dumpsite (right) .....................................................................34Figure 5.13 – First Completed Cell (left) and the Future MRF (right) at New Sanitary Landfill.................34Figure 5.14 – Sheep and Goats Scavenging Food from Illegally Dumped MSW......................................35Figure 5.15 – Operational Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant .......................................................38Figure 5.16 – Crude Screening of Wastewater from Private Slaughterhouse .........................................38Figure 5.17 – Evidence of Open Defecation at Drainage Canal Adjacent to Slaughterhouse....................41Figure 5.18 – On-Site Facility for Open Defecation at a Slaughterhouse (left) and the Channel towhich it Discharges (right)...........................................................................................41Figure 5.19 – Cattle Truck Wastes Dumped adjacent to the Local River ...............................................42Figure 5.20 – Fifth-Quarter Wastes Being Collected from the Slaughterhouse Drain ..............................42Figure 5.21 – Collection of Blood from Open Drains at the Cattle Slaughterhouse .................................43Figure 5.23 – Recycled Slaughter Products at a Slaughterhouse ..........................................................47Figure 5.24 – Disposal of Poultry Wastes to Fish Ponds, Either Directly (left) or Via Market Drainage(right)........................................................................................................................48Figure 5.25 – Removal of dead birds (left) and animal wastes in truck (right).......................................48Figure 5.26 – Drainage channel upstream (left) and alongside (right) Urban Poultry Market ..................49Figure 5.27 – Manure and Bedding Waste .........................................................................................49Figure 5.28 – Emergency Slaughter Waste in the Street Outside the Slaughterhouse ............................50Figure 5.29 – Typical Informal Market for Sheep and Goats ................................................................50Figure 5.30 – Litter and Animal and Human Wastes at Livestock Markets.............................................51Figure 5.31 – Slaughter Waste Piled Outside Local Slaughterhouses ....................................................57Figure 5.32 – Poor SWM Practices at Local Slaughterhouse.................................................................58Figure 5.33 – Stockpiled Hides and the Incinerator ............................................................................59
  23. 23. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (ix)Figure 5.34 – White Offal Collection (left) and Incinerator (right) ........................................................60Figure 5.35 – Slaughter Waste Storage cage (left) and Liquid Waste Screening (right) at aProcessing Facility.......................................................................................................61Figure 5.36 – Ruminant Waste at a Dumpsite (left), Rendering at a Slaughterhouse (centre) andDogs Scavenging by the outlet from a Slaughterhouse (right).........................................62Figure 5.37 – Collection of Feathers after Slaughter (left), and Storage of Chicken Viscera Prior toCollection (right).........................................................................................................64Figure 5.38 – Informal Sheep Slaughter, Municipality-Provided Drums, River Disposal, and DogsScavenging (left) and a Hydatid Cyst Found on the Ground (right) ..................................64Figure 5.39 – Slaughtering of Poultry at Public Market (left) and Adjacent Fish Ponds Where Wasteis Discharged..............................................................................................................66Figure 5.40 – Blood from Retail Market Seeps Under Other Stalls (left), Market Waste CollectionPoint at a Fifth-Quarter Market (centre), and the Interior of the Central Market (right).................................................................................................................................66Table 5.8 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - Poultry .............................69Table 5.9 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight – Sheep and Goats ..............69Table 5.10 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight– Cattle ...............................70Table 5.11 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - Pigs..................................70Table 5.12 – Present Slaughter and Livestock Waste Related CDM Projects.........................................71Figure 6.1 – Narrow Access Road to and through the Poultry Market .................................................74Figure 6.2 – Poor Quality and Congested Access Road to the Main Cattle Market ................................75Figure 6.3 – Location of the Poultry Market in Car Park of Market Building .........................................75Figure 6.4 – Access to the Main Market (top left) and to Three Peri-Urban Markets.............................76Figure 6.5 – Control Check Point at the Poultry Market and Spraying of Arriving Poultry ......................77Figure 6.6 – Typical Structures at the Poultry Market........................................................................78Figure 6.7 – Main Ruminant Market on Old Dumpsite .......................................................................79Figure 6.8 – Poultry Market and Market Building (slaughtering).........................................................79Figure 6.9 – Electrical Installation at the Main Poultry Market............................................................80Figure 6.10 – Main Livestock Market.................................................................................................81Figure 6.11 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 1......................................................................................81Figure 6.12 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 2......................................................................................81Figure 6.13 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 3.....................................................................................82Figure 6.14 – Outlet for Drainage at Main Market (left) and Covered Drain at One Peri-UrbanMarket (right).............................................................................................................82Figure 6.15 – Outlet for Drainage at Peri-Urban Market (left) and Area Reserved for a RetentionPond at Another (right) ...............................................................................................83Figure 6.16 – Examples of Livestock Market Layouts from Middle Income Country 1 .............................83Figure 6.17 – Very Basic Infrastructure Typical of Livestock Markets in Middle Income Country 1...........84Figure 6.18 – Differing standards of infrastructure and layout observed in Middle Income Country 2.................................................................................................................................85Figure 6.19 – Typical Access Roads to a Pig Slaughterhouse...............................................................86Figure 6.20 – Cattle Slaughterhouse Location (left) and Narrow Access for Cattle from the Street(right)........................................................................................................................87Figure 6.21 – Poor Condition of Road and Congestion at the Main Ruminant Slaughterhouse.................88Figure 6.22 – Access Roads to the Two Small Ruminant Slaughterhouses ............................................88Figure 6.23 – Poor Access to the Poultry Slaughter ............................................................................89Figure 6.24 – Excellent Access Arrangement at Private Facilities..........................................................90
  24. 24. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (x)Figure 6.25 – Security Measures (or Lack Thereof) at the Facilities......................................................91Figure 6.26 – Fifth-Quarter Processing in Front of Slaughter Units and Typical Unit Layout....................92Figure 6.27 – Processing Units at the Larger Pig Slaughterhouse and Typical Unit Layout......................92Figure 6.28 – Processing Units at Urban Poultry Slaughterhouse / Market ............................................92Figure 6.29 – Modern Poultry Slaughter Line .....................................................................................93Figure 6.30 – Cattle Slaughterhouse Processing Area (left) and Holding Area (right) .............................93Figure 6.31 – Modern Private Pig Slaughter Facilities (left) and Evisceration Room (right)......................94Figure 6.32 – Typical Buildings at Smaller Pig Slaughterhouse.............................................................94Figure 6.33 – Typical Building at Large Pig Slaughterhouse (left) and Fifth-Quarter Processing Area(right)........................................................................................................................94Figure 6.34 – Main Cattle Slaughterhouse (Exterior and Interior).........................................................96Figure 6.35 – Main Sheep and Goat Slaughterhouse (Empty and During Operation)..............................96Figure 6.36 – Older Local Slaughterhouse for Cattle (left) and Sheep/Goats (right)...............................97Figure 6.37 – Newer Local Slaughterhouse for Cattle (left) and Sheep/Goats (right) .............................97Figure 6.38 – Main Poultry Slaughter / Market - Slaughtering and Processing at Rear............................98Figure 6.39 – Main Poultry Slaughter / Market - Typical unit (left) and Retail at the Front (right) ...........98Figure 6.40 – Roof and Floor in Poor Condition at Older Local Slaughterhouse......................................99Figure 6.41 – Yards, Lairage, and Abattoir Building at Peri-Urban Municipal Slaughterhouse ................ 101Figure 6.42 – Main Municipal Slaughterhouse Facilities 1 ..................................................................102Figure 6.43 – Main Municipal Slaughterhouse Facilities 2 ..................................................................103Figure 6.44 – Private Ruminant Slaughterhouse...............................................................................104Figure 6.45 – Rear Access Road at the Main Municipal Slaughterhouse ..............................................105Figure 6.46 – Small Municipal Slaughterhouse Site and Discharge to Local Creek................................ 106Figure 6.47 – Electric Saws Used at the Main Slaughterhouse, in the European Hall (left) and theNon-religious Hall (right) ...........................................................................................106Figure 6.48 – Typical Motorised Lifting Equipment at Main Slaughterhouse Non-Religious Hall (left)and the Small Municipal Slaughterhouse (right) ...........................................................107Figure 6.49 – Simple Interior Layouts at Local Slaughterhouses in Middle-Income Country 1 ............... 108Figure 6.50 – Municipal Slaughterhouse Site Layout in Middle-Income Country 1................................108Figure 6.51 – Layout Plan for Modern Slaughterhouse in City 2 of Middle-Income Country 1................ 109Figure 6.52 – Older Local Slaughterhouse (left) and City 2 Slaughterhouse (right) ..............................109Figure 6.53 – The City 1 Municipal Slaughterhouse Internal Infrastructure ......................................... 110Figure 6.54 – The City 2 Municipal Slaughterhouse External Infrastructure......................................... 110Figure 6.55 – Slaughter Equipment in City 1 (left) and City 2 (right) Slaughterhouses .........................111Figure 6.56 – Layouts of Small Chicken Slaughterhouses ..................................................................112Figure 6.57 – Typical Slaughterhouse Drainage ...............................................................................113Figure 6.58 – Slaughterhouse Interior (left) and Construction of New Wing (right)..............................114Figure 6.59 – Exterior and Interior of a Municipal Slaughterhouse .....................................................114Figure 6.60 – Cattle Lairage at a Modern Private Facility and at a Municipal Facility ............................115Figure 6.61 – Typical Buildings Public Market 1 (East Asia and Pacific)............................................... 116Figure 6.62 – Typical Buildings at Public Market 2 (East Asia and Pacific)...........................................116Figure 6.63 – Typical Stalls at Public Markets (Middle East and North Africa)......................................117Figure 7.1 - Drainage Conditions at African Livestock Markets.........................................................122Figure 7.2 – Example Pathway and Relationships ...........................................................................125
  25. 25. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (xi)Figure 7.3 – Poor Hygiene Conditions: Municipal Abattoirs in Africa and North Africa followingWash-down Operations .............................................................................................128Figure 7.4 – Dressing Operations on Slaughterhouse Floor in Africa and MENA.................................129Figure 7.5 – Hygiene and Cleanliness Levels at a Municipal Facility (left) and at a Modern PrivateFacility (right) in the LAC region.................................................................................130Figure 7.6 – Inadequate Poultry Slaughter and Processing Facilities.................................................131Figure 7.7 – Slaughter Waste Adjacent to On-Floor Fifth-Quarter Preparation and in Public AreaAdjacent to Slaughterhouses in MENA Region..............................................................134Figure 7.8 – High Standards at Low Volume Red Meat Processing Facilities in the LAC and MENARegions ...................................................................................................................135Figure 7.9 – Informal Small-Stock Markets in Africa........................................................................140Figure 7.10 – Informal Slaughter Carried Out by Youths in North Africa ............................................. 141Figure 8.1 - Transport of Cattle in South Asia................................................................................149Figure 8.2 - Transport of Poultry and Goats in South Asia...............................................................149Figure 8.3 - Typical Transport for Poultry in South-East Asia...........................................................149Figure 8.4 - Typical Livestock Transport in Africa...........................................................................150Figure 8.5 - Loading / Unloading Facilities at a Livestock Market in Africa ........................................ 150Figure 8.6 - Head-Leg Hobble (left) & Hobbled Chickens & Turkeys (right) ......................................150Figure 8.7 - Sheep Lifted by One Leg (Left) and Manhandling Cattle (Right) ....................................152Figure 8.8 - Unloading of Cattle at a Market in South Asia..............................................................152Figure 8.9 - Results of Ill-Fitting Harness (left) and Poor Condition in Harness (right) .......................152Figure 8.10 - Livestock handling at a Livestock Market in North Africa...............................................153Figure 8.11 - Chickens Stacked in Cages Next to the Transport Vehicle (left) and the Unloading ofCattle at a Market (right) in South America .................................................................154Figure 8.13 - Head Tether, Horn Damage (left) and Poor Handling of Goat kids (right).......................154Figure 8.14 – Slaughter Case Study A ............................................................................................. 161Figure 8.15 – Slaughter Case Study B ............................................................................................. 162Figure 10.1 – Wastes at a Cattle Market in South Asia......................................................................192Figure 10.2 – Wastes Collected for Disposal at Smaller Slaughterhouses ............................................193Figure 10.3 – Poor Solid Waste Management Leading to Environmental and Public health Concerns................................................................................................................................193Figure 10.4 – Failure to Treat Liquid Wastes Prior to Discharge Causing Environmental Impacts andAdditional Cleanup Work ...........................................................................................194Figure 12.1 – Rendered Co-Product Price Trends (in AU$/tonne).......................................................207Figure 12.2 - Processing/Disposal Options for Rendering Raw Material ..............................................213Figure 12.3 – Impact on Rendering Sector of BSE Category 1 and 2 Wastes....................................... 213Figure 12.4 – Rendering Plant Operating Costs in High-Income Countries (AU$).................................215Figure 12.5 – Overall Logic Decision Tree........................................................................................ 217Figure 12.6 – Appropriate Disposal Route Decision Tree ...................................................................218Figure 12.7 – Flowchart for Selection of Upgrading Category ............................................................232
  26. 26. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (xii)ACRONYMSAFD Agence France de DeveloppementASPCA American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to AnimalsBCCDC British Columbia Centre for Disease ControlBOD Biological Oxygen DemandBSE Bovine Spongiform EncephalopathyCBPP Contagious Bovine PleuropneumoniaCDM Clean Development MechanismCJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob DiseaseCOD Chemical Oxygen DemandCWF Compassion in World FarmingDEFRA Department for Environment, Food, and Rural AffairsEIA Environmental Impact AssessmentEMS Environmental Management SystemEU European UnionFMD Foot and Mouth DiseaseGATT General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeGPS Global Positioning SystemHACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control PointsHGPs Hormonal Growth PromotantsHPAI Highly Pathogenic Avian InfluenzaHSA Humane Slaughter AssociationIFC International Finance CorporationJCTF Japan Country-Tied FundKfW Kreditanstalt für WiederaufbauLAC Latin America & CaribbeanMENA Middle East & North AfricaMM Metropolitan MunicipalityMRF Materials Recovery FacilityMRL Maximum Residue LevelMSW Municipal Solid WasteNEC National Environmental CouncilNVS National Veterinary ServiceOIE World Organisation for Animal HealthPVS Performance of Veterinary ServicesSARS Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeSOP Standard Operating ProceduresSRM Specific Risk MaterialSWM Solid Waste ManagementTOR Terms of ReferenceTSE Transmissible Spongiform EncephalopathyWASA Water and Sewerage Authority
  27. 27. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 1 of 253GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESAND RELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFINAL REPORT1. INTRODUCTION1.1 STUDY RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVESIn June 2007, Nippon Koei Co. Ltd. was contracted to undertake a study for the World Bank entitled“Livestock and Slaughter Waste Management”, under a Japan Country-Tied Fund (JCTF) grant, hereinafterreferred to as “the Study”. The purpose of the Study was to investigate the prevailing conditions withrespect to livestock and slaughter wastes in developing countries (both low and middle-income countries).Five member countries were selected for the Study; one in each of the World Bank’s geographical regions,excepting the Europe and Central Asia region.To provide additional expertise in the livestock and meat processing sector, the services of ProAndAssociates Australia Pty. Ltd. were engaged as a sub-consultant in accordance with the terms of the JCTFgrant.The principal rationale for the Study is the World Bank’s recognition that the private investment andcooperation that was expected to have developed in the livestock and slaughter sector over the past 25years has not taken place, following the World Bank’s departure from the sector some at that time. As aresult many developing countries have grossly outdated, decrepit and overloaded facilities, which have seenlittle investment or improvement over this period. This has created far-reaching impacts in terms of wastemanagement, public health, animal welfare, and disease. The present study has the overall aim, therefore,of providing a snapshot of the magnitude of the problems, and setting in motion the steps necessary toaddress the issues on the ground.Based on the Terms of Reference (TOR) the primary objectives of the Study are to:Gather data on livestock markets, municipal slaughter facilities (abattoirs), meat processing, andrelated systems of waste management;Examine the prevalence, handling, treatment, disposal, and recycling of wastes;Collect and examine available data on related bio-security and food safety issues;Identify and report on the problems and needs of the facilities; andIdentify appropriate technical options to develop guidance for municipalities.The main focus of the Study was originally waste management and all work pertaining to slaughtering orlivestock issues was to be related to the safe management of wastes only. However, as identified during thecourse of the Study and as described in this report, the issues involving livestock and slaughter wastes aremore complex and multi-faceted and often cannot easily be delineated. A major concern of the Study wasalso the protection of human health, particularly in relation to the recycling of wastes for animal feeds.In addition, the Study was to focus on the assessment of options for municipal facilities only. During thestudy, however, it was found that the private slaughter sector had a significant presence in some countriesand, as such, the impact of this could not be ignored. Furthermore, the informal sector was consideredpotentially too large and elusive to be covered within the scope of the Study and thus was generallyexcluded. It is appreciated, however, that there are often close links between the informal sector andmunicipal facilities and thus the Study addressed those situations where waste is re-used / recycled; such aswhere waste recyclers obtain their materials from municipal facilities and the informal disposal of animalhides.
  28. 28. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 2 of 253Outputs from the Study also included the collection of professional-grade raw video footage, where possible,from each of the countries visited. This footage, for a proposed Bank video production, includes interviewswith stakeholders and footage of facilities and associated operations. Hand-held video footage andextensive photography taken by the Study Team would provide raw data for an additional study entitled“Global Study on Reconstruction of Public Live Market, Slaughter and Meat Processing Facilities, includingRelated Cost Recovery and Economic Instruments” also through a JCTF grant.1.2 PURPOSE OF THIS REPORTThe purpose of this report is to present the findings of the Study and provide a basis for the selection ofappropriate technical options for the treatment and disposal of livestock and slaughterhouse wastes indeveloping countries. The report is based primarily on the findings of the Study Team during its visits to thefive selected member countries, as contained in the Interim Report (January 2008); however a certainamount of discussion is contained herein, backed up where possible by citations from published literature.The report is arranged as follows:Chapter 1 – IntroductionChapter 2 – Livestock and Slaughter WastesChapter 3 – Methodology for Data CollectionChapter 4 – Brief Country OverviewsChapter 5 – Waste ManagementChapter 6 – Infrastructure and ServicesChapter 7 – Operational Issues at FacilitiesChapter 8 – Animal Welfare and TransportationChapter 9 – Epidemiology, Disease Control and Public HealthChapter 10 – Environmental IssuesChapter 11 – Feed Additives and Anti-MicrobialsChapter 12 – Technical OptionsChapter 13 – Institutional Issues and Financial & Economic SituationChapter 14 – Conclusions and RecommendationsGiven the large amount of data collected during the field visits, and the study as a whole, and to maintainclarity and ease of reference the report has been compiled using figures, tables, bullet points, andphotographs as much as possible.Whilst this report cannot provide solutions to specific site or country conditions, its purpose is to provide asummary of issues and findings, and more importantly direction on the most appropriate courses of actionin the selection of technical options and their implementation.1.3 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY1.3.1 OverviewSolid waste management, and to a lesser extent wastewater management, has been given a relatively highpriority in developing countries over the past 15-20 years, often with great success. However, one particulararea of neglect has been wastes generated by urban livestock markets, slaughterhouses, and relatedfacilities. In developing countries these are typically municipal facilities that are often old, in poor condition,and operating well beyond their original design capacity. If not appropriately treated and disposed, wastesfrom such facilities pose a high risk to public health and the environment.Due to population growth, urbanization, and increased per capita demand for meat products, livestock andpoultry production is projected to grow four times faster in developing countries than in high-incomecountries, with growth in pork and poultry more than twice the growth in the production of ruminate meat.
  29. 29. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 3 of 253Figure 1.1 overleaf shows the historical and projected meat production in developed and developingcountries for the period 1980 to 2030. Between 1980 and 2004 the consumption of meat and poultry indeveloping countries increased three-fold, see Figure 1.2 below. Nevertheless, it is estimated that 800million people worldwide still suffer chronic under-nutrition and hunger; thus, the growth in livestock andpoultry production is expected to continue to escalate with a resulting increase in the quantity of livestockwastes generated.Figure 1.1 – World Meat Production 1980 – 2030Figure 1.2 – World Meat Consumption 1980 – 2030

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