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Municipal Live markets, Slaughterhouses and Waste Systems in Developing Countries, final report feb 2009

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The World Bank published this final report in 2009. The main aim of the Study is to develop global guidance for potential Bank interventions in the livestock market and slaughter sector. …

The World Bank published this final report in 2009. The main aim of the Study is to develop global guidance for potential Bank interventions in the livestock market and slaughter sector.

Due to population growth, urbanization, and increased per capita demand for meat products, livestock and poultry production is projected to grow four times faster in developing countries than in high-income countries, with growth in pork and poultry more than twice the growth in the production of ruminate meat.

It is estimated that 800 million people worldwide still suffer chronic under-nutrition and hunger; thus, the growth in livestock and poultry production is expected to continue to escalate with a resulting increase in the quantity of livestock wastes generated.


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  • 1. WORLD BANK STUDY - CONTRACT 7142400GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESANDRELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFINAL REPORTFebruary 2009in association with
  • 2. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal ReportWORLD BANK STUDY - CONTRACT 7142400GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESANDRELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFINAL REPORTFebruary 2009
  • 3. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 1EXECUTIVE SUMMARY1. Introduction(a) BackgroundSolid waste management, and to a lesser extent wastewater management, has been given a relatively highpriority in developing countries over the past 15-20 years, often with great success. However, one particulararea of neglect has been wastes generated by urban livestock markets, slaughterhouses, and relatedfacilities. In developing countries these are typically municipal facilities that are often old, in poor condition,and operating well beyond their original design capacity. If not appropriately treated and disposed, wastesfrom such facilities pose a high risk to public health and the environment.Due to population growth, urbanization, and increased per capita demand for meat products, livestock andpoultry production is projected to grow four times faster in developing countries than in high-incomecountries, with growth in pork and poultry more than twice the growth in the production of ruminate meat.Figure 1 shows the historical and projected meat production in developed and developing countries for theperiod 1980 to 2030. Between 1980 and 2004 the consumption of meat and poultry in developing countriesincreased three-fold, see Figure 2. Nevertheless, it is estimated that 800 million people worldwide still sufferchronic under-nutrition and hunger; thus, the growth in livestock and poultry production is expected tocontinue to escalate with a resulting increase in the quantity of livestock wastes generated.Approximately 675 million rural poor are sustained by livestock-related income or ownership; however,large-scale production is now responsible for most of the growth in livestock and poultry production andrural small holders have seen little benefit. Large-scale intensive livestock production is growing at six-timesthe annual growth of grazing production and the majority of this growth is around urban areas, wheredemand is greatest and infrastructure and resources are available for the distribution of animal products andby-products.In addition to the settlement of large-scale livestock production close to urban areas, there is often extensiveinformal rearing of domestic animals and birds in peri-urban households and urban slums. This situation isunregulated and a potential source of disease and its spread. It is estimated that more than 60% of allhuman infectious diseases originate from animal sources and, in the past two decades, 75% of all emerginghuman diseases originated from livestock (Cointreau, 2007). Recent diseases that have been widelyreported include SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), avian influenza, encephalopathy from madcow disease, West Nile, Lyme disease, and Ebola. There is a growing recognition that animal health is veryclosely linked to human health and, as yet, these emerging diseases remain incurable. Exposure to livestockand particularly livestock wastes, therefore, provides conditions for emerging diseases and the vectorsFigure 2 – World Meat Consumption(Source FAO)Figure 1 – World Meat Production(Source FAO)
  • 4. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 2needed for the transmission of disease. In addition the globalization of trade and ease of travel onlyexacerbate this situation. This paper describes the main fieldwork findings with respect to urban livestockand slaughter wastes and their potential implications on public health and the environment. Proposedoutline solutions are also discussed.(b) The StudyThe study is was undertaken for the World Bank, through a Japan country-tied fund, to identify whatlivestock and slaughter wastes are generated in developing countries and how they are treated and/ordisposed. The main aim of the Study is to develop global guidance for potential Bank interventions in thelivestock market and slaughter sector. The main objectives of the Study are to:Gather data on livestock markets, municipal slaughter facilities (abattoirs), meat processing, andrelated systems of waste management;Examine the prevalence, handling, treatment, disposal, and recycling of wastes;Collect and examine available data on related bio-security and food safety issues;Identify and report on the problems and needs of the facilities; andIdentify appropriate technical options to develop guidance for use by municipalities.The main issues pertinent to the Study comprise the following:Waste generation, treatment, and disposal.Physical infrastructure.Animal welfare.Cultural and religious issues.Disease and disease control.Animal feeds and use of antibiotics.Of particular interest, is the re-use and recycling of animal wastes; a business that can often be as large asthe slaughter business itself, and yet is unregulated in developing countries.(c) Data CollectionWhilst much data is available for the livestock sector in general, few data have been recorded about thelivestock and slaughter wastes generated, nor the methods for treatment and disposal of such wastes. Thislack of published data has made the collection of new primary data essential and a main task of the Study.As such, the Study included country reconnaissance visits to five developing countries to collect data firsthand from actual facilities in order to bridge this huge knowledge gap. The countries were selected from fiveof the World Bank’s six geographical regions and one major city was selected in each for the collection ofprimary data. Selection criteria for the reconnaissance visits included, amongst other items, the following:Two countries to be Muslim or have a large Muslim population.Both middle and low-income countries are to be represented.Each selected city must be the capital or another large city.Whilst this methodology does not provide a fully representative profile for each country, let alone a profileof each region, it does provide sufficient opportunity to identify and highlight the main practices and areasof concern in developing countries within a fixed study budget.The country reconnaissance visits included meetings with national government agencies (for agriculture,animal production, animal health, public health, and the environment) and local authorities responsible formunicipal facilities and services. The main focus for data collection, however, was on field visits to facilitieswhere the wastes are generated, treated, and/or disposed. Such facilities comprised livestock markets,slaughterhouses, meat processing plants, and waste treatment and disposal facilities. To complete thepicture, visits to public markets, supermarkets, and retail butchers where also undertaken. Due to the
  • 5. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 3sensitive nature of the report material the countries and locations visited must remain confidential, asrequested by the World Bank.2. Livestock and Slaughter WastesThe definition of livestock and slaughter wastes can vary based on the perspective of the industry inquestion, the country involved, and local cultural and religious practices. For example, the slaughter andmeat processing industries utilize many parts of the animal, not just the meat, and as such all parts of theanimal that can be used are considered by-products and not wastes. In fact, within this industry, theprocessing and sale of these “by-products” are essential for commercial viability and reducing the quantityof waste for final disposal. Animal products, therefore, only become a waste if they have no commercialvalue or incur a cost to the business; hence, it is difficult to establish an exact definition.For the purposes of this Study, however, a simpler waste management perspective has been employed, withlivestock and slaughter wastes being defined as any product that is not the meat tissue. Thus bones, hides,hooves, horns, and the multitude of offal products are also considered as wastes, even though they areoften consumed, re-used, or recycled in various ways. Based on this definition of slaughter waste typicallyaccounts for 45 to 60% of an animal’s weight, as illustrated in Table 1 for each of the main species farmedfor consumption.Table 1 – Typical Quantity of Waste per Species(Source: ProAnd Associates Australia Pty Ltd)* Estimated because normally sold as a carcass (bone-in).3. Main Fieldwork Findings(a) GeneralThe following general observations were made which can have a significant impact on the quantity of wastegenerated and how it is disposed; these are common to all of the developing countries visited:There is a general consumer preference for ‘fresh’ meat (i.e. no refrigeration or cold-chain)purchased at local markets or butcher shops each morning. The practice of buying freshlyslaughtered meat and edible offal for cooking and consumption the same day currently negates theneed for refrigeration.In contrast to high-income countries, edible offal products are in high demand, whether asexpensive delicacies or simply as a source of low-cost protein for those that cannot afford meatproducts.There is generally a high incidence of informal slaughter; either at household level (mainly poultryand small-stock) or illegally by local retail butchers (small-stock and large ruminants). This presentsa significant problem for the local authorities with respect to the control of waste, public health, anddisease. It also reduces the income of the municipal slaughter facilities.Poultry suppliers have been most successful at intensification of slaughter and processing activitiesand the establishment of modern slaughter facilities. However, live poultry is still preferred in mostdeveloping countries, whether slaughtered at the public market or at household level.(b) Waste ManagementThe main findings relating to the management of livestock and slaughter wastes are:The high incidence of informal and illegal slaughtering results in many livestock and slaughterSpecies Weight (kg) Carcass(%)Meat (%) Waste (kg)Cattle 350 55 40 210.0Pig 70 72 55 31.5Sheep/Goat 30 47 40* 18.0Poultry 2 66 56* 0.88
  • 6. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 4wastes products being dumped illegally or disposed with municipal wastes resulting in public healthrisks and increasing the number of scavenging animals.The proportion of wastes re-used or recycled is generally high because almost every item has afinancial value, due to low processing costs and low-incomes. This means that little waste is actuallydisposed to the formal waste management sector. Processing and treatment of these wastes,however, is a major concern with respect to public health, environmental pollution, and occupationalhealth and safety; see Photos 1 and 2.There is little, if any, treatment of wastewater or contaminated stormwater runoff at livestockmarkets or slaughterhouses. Liquid wastes are typically discharged untreated to drains and localwatercourses irrespective of other water users downstream, often affecting the urban poor who mayuse the water for bathing, washing clothes, cooking, and even drinking.Although blood is potentially a valuable commodity produced during the slaughter process, there isoften no market demand or cultural/religious beliefs may prevent its collection. In othercircumstances, however, poor slaughtering facilities and lack of process control prevent the effectivecollection of blood. Therefore, blood is often wasted to drains and local watercourses contaminatingthem with high organic load and providing a vector for disease, see Photo 3.Photo 1 – Processing of cattle slaughterwastes on the floor of a slaughter facility.Photo 2 – Processing of goat heads and feetin very poor and unsanitary workingPhoto 4 – Emergency slaughter wastedumped in the road outside thePhoto 3 – Blood, unborn calves, and otherslaughter wastes discharging to the public
  • 7. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 5Unwanted animal wastes are often disposed at municipal disposal sites. These sites are typicallyopen dumpsites with few facilities, where municipal staff, waste-pickers, and scavenging animals arein abundance and are directly exposed to animal wastes, see Photos 4 and 5. The sites have nofacilities for hazardous or special wastes and present significant disease risks. In some casesunwanted animal wastes are dumped in the street, see Photo 6.Large quantities of animal manure and poultry litter are used as fertilizer without any compostingprocess, providing potential routes for disease spread through crops.Biogas production and composting are not commonplace in urban areas because there is generallyno local demand for the gas and space for composting is very limited. Also, the supply of biogas andcompost products to rural customers from the city is not financially viable due to high transportcosts.(c) Conditions at Municipal Livestock Markets and SlaughterhousesThe main findings at municipal facilities are as follows:Most municipal slaughterhouses and many urban livestock markets are located in densely populatedurban areas, creating nuisance in terms of traffic congestion, odours, and pollution (noise, air, andwater). Slaughterhouses typically operate during the night and noise can be a significant problem.Vehicular access at most livestock markets and slaughterhouses is very poor, with little or no parkingand limited loading / unloading space. This creates severe congestion in some cases, stressinglivestock further.Security of sites, particularly slaughterhouses, can be wholly inadequate allowing access to manynon-facility personnel, stray animals, and even children who are directly exposed to animal wastesand provide uncontrolled vectors for livestock related diseases. The private sector is generally muchstricter.Physical infrastructure at urban markets and slaughterhouse is typically old and in need of urgentrehabilitation. Infrastructure and equipment at municipal slaughterhouses, in particular, are verypoor and in many cases new facilities may be the only option for medium to long-term solutions, seePhotos 7 and 8.Hygiene and sanitation facilities are poor or non-existent at livestock markets and slaughterhousesand open defecation is practiced in and around these facilities by staff of the facilities, visitors, andthe general public.Utility services are inadequate and, as such, water supply and lighting are poor; hot water is rarelyprovided and slaughter utensils are not properly cleaned and sterilized.Photo 5 – Putrefying slaughter wastedisposed at a municipal dumpsite amidstPhoto 6 – Cattle scavenging amongstmunicipal solid waste and animal wastes at
  • 8. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 6Occupational health and safety is given a low priority and at slaughterhouses, in particular, safetyequipment and protective clothing are inadequate and in most cases non-existent. Given the poorconditions at these facilities and the current working practices, it is believed that minor accidents andpossibly more serious accidents occur on a regular basis.There is little or no formal training of workers or professional staff at slaughter facilities; so existing,and often inappropriate, working practices remain unchanged.Slaughter facilities and working procedures are often poor and obsolete; although the workersthemselves are often highly-skilled.Process control at slaughterhouses is inadequate, with most municipal facilities operating on a batchslaughter system with many activities taking place at the same location with no proper separation ofclean and dirty areas; hence contamination of carcasses is commonplace, see Photos 9 and 10.Ante and post mortem inspections by veterinary staff or trained meat inspectors are typicallynon-existent and, where inspection is carried out, it is inadequate and hampered by poor lightingconditions. This creates a significant food safety risk, as meat from diseased animals can easily bedistributed for human consumption.Municipal slaughter facilities are typically old and operating significantly over capacity, with little ifany space for upgrading or expansion. Reduction of the thriving informal sector in some countries isunlikely to materialize without significant changes and new facilities to provide the additionalcapacity needed.Photo 7 – Front of a pig slaughterhouseshowing poor physical infrastructure.Photo 8 – Rear of the same pigslaughterhouse.Photo 10 – Batch slaughter of cattle withother animals in close proximityPhoto 9 – Overcrowded goat slaughterhouseduring slaughtering (batch slaughter)
  • 9. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 7Slaughterhouses often only work one-shift to satisfy the market demand for “fresh” un-refrigeratedmeat each morning. Many facilities operate only 5-days per week to suit local religious and culturalpractices.Slaughter waste material is most often sold to third parties for processing or rendering; although insome countries the edible offal accompanies the carcass from the slaughterhouse to theowner/butcher.Handling and transport of edible and inedible offal products are generally poor and contamination ofedible material is normal.(d) Animal WelfareTypical findings from the reconnaissance visits include the following:Animal welfare at all facilities requires significant improvement, with major changes to transport,treatment, and facilities needed.Livestock are often not watered, even on long journeys, arriving at markets and slaughterhousesdehydrated, in poor physical condition, and severely stressed. A high proportion of “downers”(collapsed animals) were observed at some livestock markets and slaughterhouses, see Photos 11and 12.Loading and unloading facilities at markets are often poor or non-existent and thus livestock can beinjured easily as they are man-handled off trucks.Livestock are often tied and left without food and water at markets; and control by herders is usuallywith sticks with which they hit or sometimes beat the animals.Livestock are often already severely stressed as they make there way to slaughter. This isexacerbated by entrances to slaughter areas that are dark, narrow, slippery, and often up inclines.It is not natural for animals to enter such spaces; therefore, it is not unusual for the animals to beforced in and often animals panic and become injured in the process.Stunning and slaughter practices vary, but all are inadequate in terms of animal welfare and workersafety. Where stunning is used, the methods employed, for cattle in particular, often only paralyzethe animal, rather than rendering it unconscious. This leaves the animal in serious pain and distressuntil the slaughter cut is made, which is often not carried out immediately.In the majority of slaughterhouses visited, batch slaughtering is practiced and animals are in closeproximity to others being slaughtered and in distress; from stunning through to decapitation,skinning, and evisceration. This practice can be extremely stressful to the animals.Photo 11 – Animal collapsed after unloading,severely stressed and dehydrated.Photo 12 – Emaciated animal, unable towalk, for emergency slaughter.
  • 10. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 8(e) Cultural and Religious IssuesObservations during the reconnaissance visits included the following:Differing interpretations were seen between Muslim countries with respect to the handling andphysical condition of animals for slaughter.Interpretations of halal slaughter practices differed, of which some are detrimental to animalwelfare.In some Muslim countries blood is collected, yet in others it is disposed to the drainage system.Some countries operate slaughterhouses everyday whilst others operate only five days per week,mainly for religious reasons.Home slaughter is normal practice in some countries and is almost universal for certain holidays,festivals, and other special occasions.(f) Related IssuesThe Study has identified several areas which can have a significant impact on livestock wastes but arebeyond the main scope of the Study; these include:Disease and Disease Control: Lack of planning, coordination, and regulation by governments isevident, leaving developing countries in a poor position to cope if a major disease outbreak occurs.As a result, the disposal of diseased animal carcasses during disease outbreaks is a very significantwaste management issue, posing very serious public health and disease spread.Animal Feeds and Antibiotic Use: More intensive farming of animals is evident and as such the useof animal feeds and supplements is increasing. A significant area of concern, however, is theincreasing and unregulated use of growth promoters and the non-therapeutic use of antibiotics inanimal production. Residuals contained in livestock wastes are therefore becoming a significant areaof concern.Institutional Issues: Although legislation is often in place, poor regulation, enforcement, andcorruption are commonplace resulting in an extensive informal / illegal slaughtering sector (up to80% in one country visited).4. Development of SolutionsTo improve the existing livestock and slaughter waste situation in developing countries there are a numberof key areas that need to be addressed. These will require improvement and often significant changes, notonly to physical infrastructure for waste management facilities but also to working practices, facilitymanagement, regulations, and enforcement. It is important, therefore, to adopt a holistic approach tosolving current animal waste related problems and to consider cost effective and appropriate technologiesand practices that will be sustainable into the future.Core areas that the Study addresses with respect to improving the environment and public health are:Waste management;Physical infrastructure and processes;Animal welfare; andCultural and religious practices.Other related, but non-core study areas, such as disease control; legislation, regulation, and enforcement;and capacity building and institutional strengthening, where significant deficiencies have been identified bythe Study, will require additional funding and studies to identify appropriate solutions and interventions.
  • 11. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 9(a) Waste ManagementDue to the potential risks associated with livestock and slaughter wastes, appropriate handling, treatment,and disposal are essential; not dissimilar to the disposal of hospital pathogenic waste, which can be verycostly. In contrast to hospital wastes, market and slaughter wastes are generated in much greater volumesand economically viable methods must be considered for the disposal of diseased animals, pathogenicmaterial, and other unwanted animal wastes, all of which pose serious public health concerns. Inhigh-income countries, there are numerous categories of animal wastes that must be disposed according totheir disease risk. Some high-risk wastes infected with BSE will require high-temperature incineration, whilstother low-risk materials can be rendered to produce animal feeds and pet food. All of this, however, requiresstrict regulation, effective veterinary inspection, high capital and operational expenditure, and theavailability of technology and capability; none of which are readily available in developing countries.For developing countries, with limited capacity and funds, it is important to consider local conditions verycarefully and identify key areas for specific and targeted improvements aimed at minimizing the quantitiesof waste generated that require collection and off-site disposal. Waste minimization and managementsolutions being considered include:Livestock MarketsImprove facilities for the collection of animal waste (dung) and reducing pollution of localwatercourses through the provision of appropriate hard-standing areas and drainage.Encourage waste collection and re-use, e.g. dung cakes for fuel, composting, and fertilizer.SlaughterhousesEncourage the collection and processing of blood, to remove it from waste systems.Improve collection facilities for animal wastes, in particular for blood and stomach contents.Improve storage areas for solid wastes.Improve wastewater collection systems and introduce appropriate treatment technologies that arenot dependent on chemicals and expensive electro-mechanical equipment.Formalize and regulate the slaughter waste re-use and recycling sector to improve occupationalhealth and safety, public health, and minimize waste quantities for disposal.Provide simple education and awareness training for all related industries with respect to waste,disease, and disease risks.Waste Collection and DisposalImprove solid waste disposal facilities with separate areas for livestock/slaughter wastes.Formalize existing waste picking activities at disposal sites and improve site fencing/security.Encourage the use of composting techniques for livestock and slaughter wastes.(b) Physical Infrastructure and processesConditions at municipal livestock markets and slaughterhouses in developing countries can varyconsiderably but, in general, physical infrastructure is old and in need of urgent rehabilitation and in manycases replacement. This is particularly the case with municipal slaughterhouses where lack of investmentover the past 25-30 years coupled with high population growth over the same period has resulted in facilitiesthat are obsolete and unable to process the number of animals demanded by the market. Denseurbanization around many livestock markets and slaughterhouses now prevents their expansion /improvement and focuses the community on their activities. Private slaughter facilities, on the other hand,are generally located outside urban areas and are often modern and hygienic. These typically service exportor niche markets, however, as they are unable to compete on price for the mass market.
  • 12. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 10Solutions currently being considered for physical infrastructure and process improvements include:Livestock MarketsImprove drainage and provide catch-pits or interceptors for collecting solid material.Provide appropriate water and sanitation facilities, including health awareness training.SlaughterhousesImprove physical infrastructure, utility services, and provide appropriate levels of equipment andtraining to allow more new and more hygienic conditions to be maintained.Provide areas for the essential separation of “clean” and “dirty” processes.Provide new and/or improved areas for the re-use and recycling of slaughter wastes.(c) Animal WelfareThe welfare of animals is a very important issue and everything possible should be done to ensure thatanimals are handled, transported, protected from the elements, and watered from farm until slaughter.Good animal welfare is rewarded with healthy animals, less disease, and ultimately better quality meat. Pooranimal welfare, on the other hand, results in the opposite as is primarily the case in developing countries,though some fare better than others. Although little published data is currently available, recent evidencesuggests that, in addition to poor quality meat, diseased animals stressed prior to and during slaughterproduce pathogen levels at least 10 times the normal level and possibly more. This is a significant issue fordisease control and public health, especially in developing countries where many diseases are endemic andoccupational health and safety and control of wastes in slaughterhouses is very poor.Improvements currently being considered for animal welfare include:Improve animal welfare through education and training coupled with physical infrastructureimprovements to reduce stress on livestock.Improve pre-slaughter stunning and slaughter practices.Strengthen veterinary services/meat inspection and introduce more widespread use of ante and postmortem inspection at slaughterhouses.(d) Cultural and Religious PracticesCultural and religious practices vary from country to country and can have a significant effect on issues suchas animal welfare, stunning and slaughtering, and animal wastes. Some proposals include:Improve animal welfare and slaughter practices through education and training.Reduce and eventually eradicate informal slaughtering through public awareness campaigns,improved legislation, and strengthening inspection and regulation.Improve efficiency of existing slaughterhouses by extending operating hours and introducingrefrigeration. Requires a change in perception of what is considered “fresh meat” through publicawareness campaigns.5. ConclusionsThe overriding conclusion from the Study is that livestock and slaughter wastes represent a very significantrisk to public health and the environment. The current situation in developing countries provides idealconditions for the emergence of new diseases, particularly those that can be transmitted from animals tohumans. The increased movement of people and animals, through the globalization of trade and travel, alsoprovides an ideal vector for the rapid spread of disease, as we have seen in recent years with SARS and avianinfluenza.The livestock and slaughter waste sectors area are multi-faceted and cannot be considered simply as awaste problem in isolation. Other factors such as animal welfare, veterinary services, physical infrastructure,
  • 13. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 11hygiene and sanitation, cultural and religious practices, regulation, and institutional capacity need to becarefully considered. The re-use and recycling of slaughter wastes, in particular, is a very important areawhere interventions may prove to be useful in controlling and reducing waste quantities and for bringing itinto the formal sector. However, the businesses in this sector are very cost sensitive and too muchinterference could render them unviable, with the resulting social and environmental consequences.The complex relationship between all of the issues mentioned above requires a holistic approach thataddresses the waste management problems through a combination of improvements, rather thaninterventions targeting specific areas in isolation.6. Recommendations for Further Study / ActionWith respect to infrastructure improvements, another World Bank study has recently commenced a reviewof the existing infrastructure conditions based on the findings and data gathered during this study, entitled“Global Study on Reconstruction of Public Live Market, Slaughter and Meat Processing Facilities, includingRelated Cost Recovery and Economic Instruments” also funded through a JCTF grant. Recommendations onappropriate improvements to facilities and cost estimates for case study countries will be developed that canbe applied on a global scale to plan and implement appropriate interventions. This is the next step on theway to potential implementation of improvements to livestock markets, slaughterhouses, and relatedfacilities.In the meantime, however, worldwide awareness needs to be spread, particularly with international funding/ financing agencies and most importantly with developing country members, through dissemination ofappropriate knowledge, tools, and materials to the appropriate government departments in each of themember countries that could promote the implementation of initiatives at national and municipal level.The World Bank is already embarking on a number of international workshops to raise awareness of this veryimportant issue, with the aim of forming a global alliance of institutions; as the present study has shown,meaningful improvements will only be achieved when all the many issues and fields are addressedholistically, both in terms of technical approach and common budgets. Several institutions have beeninvolved in separate aspects of study identified within the present report (for example animal welfare,disease) and many already have some excellent results, guidelines and so forth. However, takenindependently they lack the punch, gravitas, and foresight to address all issues for the common good. Thejoining of forces between these agencies and institutions will be beneficial to all ends.The alliance outlined above would be of particular benefit in dealing with the softer issues such asoperational procedures and management, institutional reorganisation, and economic instruments.Facility, municipality and government-level recommendations have been provided throughout the report,and are summarised above, and these considerations should be adopted during future upgrade works.Below is a summary of areas requiring further study, potentially as distinct project preparation studies orpilot projects.The following further investigations, studies, and pilot projects are recommended in order to determineappropriate follow-on actions and fill some of the gaps in knowledge that have been identified by this study:Government structures with respect to enhancement of services and collaboration in the areas ofanimal welfare, veterinary services, public health, food safety, and disease control.Veterinary practices and meat inspection services appropriate for developing countries, includingtraining materials.Animal welfare appropriate to developing countries, including training materials.Stunning and slaughter practices appropriate for developing countries, including training materialsand home slaughter.Financial management of municipal livestock markets and slaughterhouses; how to improvefinancial sustainability and the role of the private sector.The informal sector and its complex interactions with the formal sector, cultural issues, andgovernment policy.
  • 14. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report ES - 12Professionalisation of the sector, and in particular the workers; through the creation of associationsusing an adaptation of the SWM model already developed by the World Bank.Public awareness programmes covering such issues as food hygiene and safety, animal welfare, safeand humane slaughter. Some of these could be accommodated with or linked to existing water,sanitation, and waste initiatives and could even be introduced at junior school level.Pilot projects for rehabilitation / reconstruction of livestock markets, slaughterhouses, and relatedinfrastructure and services specifically for developing countries. This should include thedevelopment of generic plans and designs (or design parameters) for small, medium, and largemunicipal facilities, which can be applied to suit the varying local conditions in developing countries.Safe disposal methods for livestock and slaughter wastes in developing countries.The use of antimicrobials and feed additives in developing countries, including the prevalence anduse of illegal or unregulated substances.The impact of livestock wastes discharged to aquaculture and its relevance to human and animalhealth, food safety, and disease control.Investigations into opportunities and constraints related to Carbon finance.Study of existing information gaps, such as:o Facility finances.o Actual prevalence of disease.o Livestock market management issues.o Basic working guidelinesDevelopment of model tender documents for encouragement of private sector involvement.Promotion of the public good issues associated with good practice within the slaughter industry.Development of a website devoted to the Global Alliance For Humane Sustainability.
  • 15. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (i)GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESAND RELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFINAL REPORTTABLE OF CONTENTSExecutive Summary1. Introduction.......................................................................................................11.1 Study Rationale and Objectives..............................................................................................11.2 Purpose of this Report ..........................................................................................................21.3 Background to the Study.......................................................................................................21.3.1 Overview .....................................................................................................................21.3.2 Human Diseases and Animal Sources .............................................................................41.3.3 Livestock Markets .........................................................................................................51.3.4 Slaughter Facilities........................................................................................................51.3.5 Livestock and Slaughter Wastes .....................................................................................61.4 Main Study Issues ................................................................................................................61.4.1 Waste Generation and Management...............................................................................61.4.2 Animal Welfare.............................................................................................................61.4.3 Epidemiology and Disease Control..................................................................................71.4.4 Facility Infrastructure....................................................................................................91.4.5 Animal Feeds and Use of Antibiotics ...............................................................................91.4.6 Cultural and Religious Issues .........................................................................................91.4.7 Environmental Issues..................................................................................................111.4.8 Institutional Issues .....................................................................................................121.5 Stakeholders ......................................................................................................................122. Livestock and Slaughter Wastes......................................................................132.1 Definitions .........................................................................................................................132.2 Waste Products ..................................................................................................................133. Methodology for Data Collection .....................................................................173.1 Country and City Selection ..................................................................................................173.2 Survey Instruments ............................................................................................................173.3 The Study Team.................................................................................................................183.4 Country Reconnaissance Visits.............................................................................................193.5 Facilities Surveyed ..............................................................................................................223.6 Collection of Additional Data on Infrastructure ......................................................................223.7 Difficulties Experienced During Country Reconnaissance Visits................................................224. Brief Country Overviews..................................................................................244.1 Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific).......................................................................24
  • 16. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (ii)4.2 Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia).....................................................................................244.3 Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)............................................................................................244.4 Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)........................................................254.5 Middle Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean) .......................................................254.6 Summary of Main Fieldwork Findings....................................................................................255. Waste Management .........................................................................................265.1 General .............................................................................................................................265.2 Overview of Municipal Solid Waste Management ...................................................................265.2.1 Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)...............................................................265.2.2 Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia) .............................................................................275.2.3 Low-Income Country 3 (Africa) ....................................................................................305.2.4 Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)................................................335.2.5 Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean) ...............................................355.3 Overview of Municipal Wastewater Management ...................................................................375.4 Overview of Wastes from the Livestock and Slaughter Sector .................................................395.4.1 Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)...............................................................395.4.2 Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia) .............................................................................415.4.3 Low-Income Country 3 (Africa) ....................................................................................445.4.4 Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)................................................455.4.5 Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean) ...............................................465.5 Wastes by Facility Type.......................................................................................................475.5.1 Livestock Market Wastes .............................................................................................475.5.2 Slaughterhouse Wastes...............................................................................................525.5.3 Meat Processing Wastes..............................................................................................655.5.4 Public Market Wastes..................................................................................................655.5.5 Retail Sector Wastes ...................................................................................................675.6 Estimate of Slaughter Waste Quantities ................................................................................685.7 Summary and Discussion of Issues.......................................................................................706. Infrastructure and Services.............................................................................736.1 Introduction to Issues.........................................................................................................736.2 General Findings.................................................................................................................736.3 Livestock Markets ...............................................................................................................746.3.1 Location and Access....................................................................................................746.3.2 Infrastructure and Services..........................................................................................776.4 Slaughterhouses.................................................................................................................866.4.1 Location and Access....................................................................................................866.4.2 Infrastructure and Services..........................................................................................916.5 Public Markets.................................................................................................................. 1156.6 Analysis of Infrastructure Issues ........................................................................................1177. Operational Issues at Facilities .....................................................................1197.1 Livestock Markets .............................................................................................................1207.1.1 General....................................................................................................................1207.1.2 Hygiene and Sanitation .............................................................................................1217.1.3 Occupational Health and Safety .................................................................................1227.1.4 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1237.2 Slaughterhouses...............................................................................................................124
  • 17. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (iii)7.2.1 Overview of Slaughter Operations ..............................................................................1247.2.2 Roles and Relationships.............................................................................................1257.2.3 Hygiene and Sanitation .............................................................................................1277.2.4 Process Control ........................................................................................................1307.2.5 Fifth-Quarter Processing............................................................................................1327.2.6 Occupational Health and Safety .................................................................................1337.2.7 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1337.3 Meat Processing Facilities ..................................................................................................1357.3.1 Hygiene and Sanitation .............................................................................................1357.3.2 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1367.4 Public Markets.................................................................................................................. 1367.4.1 General....................................................................................................................1367.4.2 Hygiene, Sanitation, and Safety .................................................................................1377.4.3 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1377.5 Retail Sector .................................................................................................................... 1387.5.1 General....................................................................................................................1387.5.2 Hygiene, Sanitation, and Safety .................................................................................1387.5.3 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1397.6 Informal Sector ................................................................................................................1397.6.1 General....................................................................................................................1397.6.2 Hygiene, Sanitation, and Safety .................................................................................1407.6.3 Disease Risks ...........................................................................................................1417.7 Summary and Analysis of Operational Issues ......................................................................1418. Animal Welfare and Transportation...............................................................1458.1 Background...................................................................................................................... 1458.2 Transportation .................................................................................................................1478.3 Livestock Markets .............................................................................................................1528.4 Slaughterhouses...............................................................................................................1568.4.1 General....................................................................................................................1568.4.2 Summary .................................................................................................................1608.5 Public Markets.................................................................................................................. 1628.6 Retail Butchers................................................................................................................. 1638.7 Informal Sector ................................................................................................................1638.8 Sugggested Actions for Animal Welfare Improvement..........................................................1649. Epidemiology, Disease Control and Public Health.........................................1669.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 1669.2 Overview of Epidemiology and Relevant Techniques............................................................1699.2.1 General....................................................................................................................1699.2.2 Understanding Disease Causes and Transmission ........................................................1709.2.3 Investigating Causes of Disease.................................................................................1719.2.4 Measuring Disease Levels..........................................................................................1719.2.5 Disease Monitoring and Surveillance...........................................................................1719.2.6 Evaluating Costs of Disease and Disease Control .........................................................1719.2.7 Developing Control Strategies....................................................................................1729.2.8 Monitoring Efficiency of Control Strategies. .................................................................1729.3 Disease Control Mechanisms..............................................................................................1729.3.1 Fundamental Principles of Disease Control ..................................................................1729.3.2 Limiting Disease Spread ............................................................................................1739.3.3 Endemic Disease Control and Outbreak Prevention ......................................................174
  • 18. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (iv)9.3.4 Waste Management ..................................................................................................1759.3.5 Interactive Control Mechanisms .................................................................................1769.4 Diseases Identified, Their Importance, and Global Distribution .............................................1769.5 Effectiveness of Disease Control, Monitoring, and Surveillance Techniques ............................1779.5.1 General....................................................................................................................1779.5.2 Disease Identification and Reporting ..........................................................................1779.5.3 On-Farm Activities ....................................................................................................1819.5.4 Market Activities .......................................................................................................1829.5.5 Market Hygiene ........................................................................................................1839.5.6 Slaughterhouse Activities...........................................................................................1839.5.7 Public Markets..........................................................................................................1859.5.8 Retail Outlets ...........................................................................................................1859.5.9 Supermarkets...........................................................................................................1869.5.10 Informal Sector ........................................................................................................1869.5.11 Waste Management ..................................................................................................1879.6 Public Health Issues..........................................................................................................1889.7 Summary......................................................................................................................... 18910. Environmental Issues ....................................................................................19110.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 19110.2 In-Country Status and Observations...................................................................................19110.2.1 Background..............................................................................................................19110.2.2 Solid Wastes ............................................................................................................19210.2.3 Liquid Wastes...........................................................................................................19410.3 Summary of Impacts and Issues........................................................................................19510.3.1 Solid Wastes ............................................................................................................19510.3.2 Liquid Wastes...........................................................................................................19610.3.3 Impact of Religious Considerations.............................................................................19610.3.4 Potential solutions ....................................................................................................19710.3.5 The Environmental trade-off ......................................................................................19811. Feed Additives and Anti-Microbials ...............................................................19911.1 Introduction..................................................................................................................... 19911.2 Agents of Concern ............................................................................................................19911.3 Accidental Contamination ..................................................................................................20111.4 Mechanisms for Control.....................................................................................................20111.5 Regional Observations ......................................................................................................20112. Technical Options...........................................................................................20312.1 General ........................................................................................................................... 20312.2 Overview of Livestock Markets in High-Income Countries .....................................................20312.3 Overview of Meat Plant Waste Management in High-Income Countries..................................20412.3.1 Legislation ...............................................................................................................20412.3.2 Waste Products, Treatment, and Disposal ...................................................................20512.3.3 Seldom Used Technologies ........................................................................................22212.4 Technical Options for Developing countries.........................................................................22212.4.1 Overview .................................................................................................................22212.4.2 Waste Treatment and Disposal ..................................................................................22412.4.3 Technical Options by Facility Type..............................................................................22612.5 Planning and Implementation ............................................................................................230
  • 19. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (v)13. Institutional Issues and Financial & Economic Situation..............................23313.1 Institutional Issues ...........................................................................................................23313.1.1 Government Issues...................................................................................................23313.1.2 Animal Health...........................................................................................................23413.1.3 Devolution ...............................................................................................................23413.1.4 Local Government Issues...........................................................................................23513.1.5 Informal Slaughter....................................................................................................23513.2 Finance and Economics.....................................................................................................23513.2.1 Background..............................................................................................................23513.2.2 The Economics of Meat Quality and Disease................................................................23613.2.3 Municipal Livestock Market and Slaughter Fees ...........................................................23613.2.4 Meat and Offal Prices................................................................................................23713.2.5 Financial and Economic Analyses................................................................................23813.2.6 Economic Instruments and Benefitting from the Solid Waste Management Experience....23814. Conclusions and Recommendations ..............................................................24214.1 Conclusions...................................................................................................................... 24214.2 Recommendations ............................................................................................................24714.2.1 General Recommendations ........................................................................................24714.2.2 Recommendations for Further Study / Action ..............................................................252
  • 20. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (vi)List of TablesTable 2.1 – Typical Wastes Generated by the Livestock Markets.....................................................13Table 2.2 – Typical Wastes Generated by Slaughterhouses ............................................................14Table 3.1 – Schedule of Country Visits .........................................................................................19Table 3.2 – Fieldwork Responsibility Matrix...................................................................................20Table 5.1 – Poultry Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1) ......................................................52Table 5.2 – Pig Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1)............................................................53Table 5.3 – Cattle Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1)........................................................53Table 5.4 – Poultry Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 2) ......................................................54Table 5.5 – Ruminant Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 2)...................................................54Table 5.6 – Ruminant Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 3)...................................................55Table 5.7 – Pig Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 3)............................................................56Table 5.8 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - Poultry ...........................69Table 5.9 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight – Sheep and Goats ............69Table 5.10 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight– Cattle .............................70Table 5.11 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - Pigs................................70Table 5.12 – Present Slaughter and Livestock Waste Related CDM Projects.......................................71Table 7.1 – Number of Facilities Visited by Country .....................................................................119Table 7.2 - Estimated Size of Informal Slaughter Sector..............................................................140Table 8.1 – Level of Welfare Score............................................................................................. 146Table 8.2 – Transportation Techniques ......................................................................................148Table 8.3 – General Animal Handling Techniques........................................................................148Table 8.4 – Transportation Problems Identified...........................................................................151Table 8.5 – Market Techniques and Facilities ..............................................................................153Table 8.6 – Market Problems Identified ......................................................................................155Table 8.7 – Slaughterhouse Design and Facilities ........................................................................157Table 8.8 – Slaughterhouse Practices Affecting Welfare of Poultry ................................................157Table 8.9 – Slaughterhouse Practices Affecting Welfare of Pigs ....................................................158Table 8.10 – Slaughterhouse Practices Affecting Welfare of Cattle..................................................159Table 8.11 – Slaughterhouse Practices Affecting Welfare of Sheep and Goats..................................160Table 8.12 – Suggested Actions to Enable Improvements in Animal Welfare....................................165Table 9.1 – Criteria for Diseases to be included in OIE List for a given country ..............................167Table 9.2 – OIE List of Diseases ................................................................................................ 168Table 9.3 – Confirmed and Suspected Cases of Livestock Diseases of the Different Regions............178Table 9.4 – Summary of Hygiene and Disease Control Efficiency ..................................................189Table 12.1 - Indicative Blood Protein Meal Revenue .....................................................................206Table 12.2 – Composting Cost Examples for Three Operators in Michigan, USA (US units)................210Table 12.3 – Typical High-Income and Developing Country Disposal Routes....................................211Table 12.4 – Alternative Processes for Rendering Certain Waste Products .......................................212Table 12.5 – Typical Business Structures for Rendering in High-Income Countries ...........................214Table 12.6 – Indicative Capital Costs for Rendering Plants in High-Income Countries .......................214Table 12.7 – Indicative Rendered Product Revenue.......................................................................215Table 12.8 – Common Wastewater Treatment Systems .................................................................219Table 12.9 – Indicative Australian Water/Wastewater Costs...........................................................220
  • 21. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (vii)Table 12.10 – Indicative Wastewater Costs ....................................................................................220Table 12.11 – Summary of Most Used Technologies in High-Income Countries..................................221Table 12.12 – Improvements for Livestock Markets ........................................................................227Table 12.13 – Improvements for Slaughterhouses ..........................................................................228Table 12.14 – Categories for Selection of Slaughterhouses Upgrading ..............................................231Table 13.1 – Comparison of Typical Municipal Market and Slaughter Fees.......................................237Table 13.2 – Initial Observations of Costs Items, Actions, and Potential Benefits .............................239
  • 22. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (viii)List of FiguresFigure 1.1 – World Meat Production 1980 – 2030...............................................................................3Figure 1.2 – World Meat Consumption 1980 – 2030 ...........................................................................3Figure 2.1 – Diagram of Typical Slaughterhouse Inputs, Processes, and Outputs in High-IncomeCountries ...................................................................................................................16Figure 3.1 – Study Organisation Chart.............................................................................................18Figure 5.1 – Small Quantities of Animal Wastes Collected by MSWM Company at PigSlaughterhouse...........................................................................................................27Figure 5.2 – Solid Waste Strewn Across a Large Urban Area (Dairy Cattle Colony) adjacent toMunicipal Waste Collection Vehicles..............................................................................27Figure 5.3 – Cattle Bathing in Waste Contaminated Water Amongst Piles of Solid Waste .....................28Figure 5.4 – Collection of Cattle Manure for Distribution to Local Farms .............................................28Figure 5.5 – Typical Photos at Main City Dumpsite Showing Scavenging and Animal Wastes ................29Figure 5.6 – Municipal and Animal Wastes Only a Few Hundred Metres from the Main CityDumpsite ...................................................................................................................29Figure 5.7 – Modern Composting Plant Adjacent to the Main City Dumpsite........................................30Figure 5.8 – Waste-Pickers Scavenging for Metal Products at Dumpsite..............................................31Figure 5.9 – Waste-Pickers Scavenging ‘Fresh’ Waste at the Dumpsite (left) and One PickerCarrying a Scavenged Carcass Leg (right) .....................................................................31Figure 5.10 – Poisoned Stray Dogs Outside the Main Livestock Market Destined for Disposal at theDumpsite ...................................................................................................................32Figure 5.11 – Slaughter Waste from Main Slaughterhouse Arriving at the Dumpsite ..............................32Figure 5.12 – Cattle Grazing amongst slaughter waste at Dumpsite (left) and Leachate Runninginto the Road Below the Dumpsite (right) .....................................................................34Figure 5.13 – First Completed Cell (left) and the Future MRF (right) at New Sanitary Landfill.................34Figure 5.14 – Sheep and Goats Scavenging Food from Illegally Dumped MSW......................................35Figure 5.15 – Operational Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant .......................................................38Figure 5.16 – Crude Screening of Wastewater from Private Slaughterhouse .........................................38Figure 5.17 – Evidence of Open Defecation at Drainage Canal Adjacent to Slaughterhouse....................41Figure 5.18 – On-Site Facility for Open Defecation at a Slaughterhouse (left) and the Channel towhich it Discharges (right)...........................................................................................41Figure 5.19 – Cattle Truck Wastes Dumped adjacent to the Local River ...............................................42Figure 5.20 – Fifth-Quarter Wastes Being Collected from the Slaughterhouse Drain ..............................42Figure 5.21 – Collection of Blood from Open Drains at the Cattle Slaughterhouse .................................43Figure 5.23 – Recycled Slaughter Products at a Slaughterhouse ..........................................................47Figure 5.24 – Disposal of Poultry Wastes to Fish Ponds, Either Directly (left) or Via Market Drainage(right)........................................................................................................................48Figure 5.25 – Removal of dead birds (left) and animal wastes in truck (right).......................................48Figure 5.26 – Drainage channel upstream (left) and alongside (right) Urban Poultry Market ..................49Figure 5.27 – Manure and Bedding Waste .........................................................................................49Figure 5.28 – Emergency Slaughter Waste in the Street Outside the Slaughterhouse ............................50Figure 5.29 – Typical Informal Market for Sheep and Goats ................................................................50Figure 5.30 – Litter and Animal and Human Wastes at Livestock Markets.............................................51Figure 5.31 – Slaughter Waste Piled Outside Local Slaughterhouses ....................................................57Figure 5.32 – Poor SWM Practices at Local Slaughterhouse.................................................................58Figure 5.33 – Stockpiled Hides and the Incinerator ............................................................................59
  • 23. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (ix)Figure 5.34 – White Offal Collection (left) and Incinerator (right) ........................................................60Figure 5.35 – Slaughter Waste Storage cage (left) and Liquid Waste Screening (right) at aProcessing Facility.......................................................................................................61Figure 5.36 – Ruminant Waste at a Dumpsite (left), Rendering at a Slaughterhouse (centre) andDogs Scavenging by the outlet from a Slaughterhouse (right).........................................62Figure 5.37 – Collection of Feathers after Slaughter (left), and Storage of Chicken Viscera Prior toCollection (right).........................................................................................................64Figure 5.38 – Informal Sheep Slaughter, Municipality-Provided Drums, River Disposal, and DogsScavenging (left) and a Hydatid Cyst Found on the Ground (right) ..................................64Figure 5.39 – Slaughtering of Poultry at Public Market (left) and Adjacent Fish Ponds Where Wasteis Discharged..............................................................................................................66Figure 5.40 – Blood from Retail Market Seeps Under Other Stalls (left), Market Waste CollectionPoint at a Fifth-Quarter Market (centre), and the Interior of the Central Market (right).................................................................................................................................66Table 5.8 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - Poultry .............................69Table 5.9 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight – Sheep and Goats ..............69Table 5.10 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight– Cattle ...............................70Table 5.11 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - Pigs..................................70Table 5.12 – Present Slaughter and Livestock Waste Related CDM Projects.........................................71Figure 6.1 – Narrow Access Road to and through the Poultry Market .................................................74Figure 6.2 – Poor Quality and Congested Access Road to the Main Cattle Market ................................75Figure 6.3 – Location of the Poultry Market in Car Park of Market Building .........................................75Figure 6.4 – Access to the Main Market (top left) and to Three Peri-Urban Markets.............................76Figure 6.5 – Control Check Point at the Poultry Market and Spraying of Arriving Poultry ......................77Figure 6.6 – Typical Structures at the Poultry Market........................................................................78Figure 6.7 – Main Ruminant Market on Old Dumpsite .......................................................................79Figure 6.8 – Poultry Market and Market Building (slaughtering).........................................................79Figure 6.9 – Electrical Installation at the Main Poultry Market............................................................80Figure 6.10 – Main Livestock Market.................................................................................................81Figure 6.11 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 1......................................................................................81Figure 6.12 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 2......................................................................................81Figure 6.13 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 3.....................................................................................82Figure 6.14 – Outlet for Drainage at Main Market (left) and Covered Drain at One Peri-UrbanMarket (right).............................................................................................................82Figure 6.15 – Outlet for Drainage at Peri-Urban Market (left) and Area Reserved for a RetentionPond at Another (right) ...............................................................................................83Figure 6.16 – Examples of Livestock Market Layouts from Middle Income Country 1 .............................83Figure 6.17 – Very Basic Infrastructure Typical of Livestock Markets in Middle Income Country 1...........84Figure 6.18 – Differing standards of infrastructure and layout observed in Middle Income Country 2.................................................................................................................................85Figure 6.19 – Typical Access Roads to a Pig Slaughterhouse...............................................................86Figure 6.20 – Cattle Slaughterhouse Location (left) and Narrow Access for Cattle from the Street(right)........................................................................................................................87Figure 6.21 – Poor Condition of Road and Congestion at the Main Ruminant Slaughterhouse.................88Figure 6.22 – Access Roads to the Two Small Ruminant Slaughterhouses ............................................88Figure 6.23 – Poor Access to the Poultry Slaughter ............................................................................89Figure 6.24 – Excellent Access Arrangement at Private Facilities..........................................................90
  • 24. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (x)Figure 6.25 – Security Measures (or Lack Thereof) at the Facilities......................................................91Figure 6.26 – Fifth-Quarter Processing in Front of Slaughter Units and Typical Unit Layout....................92Figure 6.27 – Processing Units at the Larger Pig Slaughterhouse and Typical Unit Layout......................92Figure 6.28 – Processing Units at Urban Poultry Slaughterhouse / Market ............................................92Figure 6.29 – Modern Poultry Slaughter Line .....................................................................................93Figure 6.30 – Cattle Slaughterhouse Processing Area (left) and Holding Area (right) .............................93Figure 6.31 – Modern Private Pig Slaughter Facilities (left) and Evisceration Room (right)......................94Figure 6.32 – Typical Buildings at Smaller Pig Slaughterhouse.............................................................94Figure 6.33 – Typical Building at Large Pig Slaughterhouse (left) and Fifth-Quarter Processing Area(right)........................................................................................................................94Figure 6.34 – Main Cattle Slaughterhouse (Exterior and Interior).........................................................96Figure 6.35 – Main Sheep and Goat Slaughterhouse (Empty and During Operation)..............................96Figure 6.36 – Older Local Slaughterhouse for Cattle (left) and Sheep/Goats (right)...............................97Figure 6.37 – Newer Local Slaughterhouse for Cattle (left) and Sheep/Goats (right) .............................97Figure 6.38 – Main Poultry Slaughter / Market - Slaughtering and Processing at Rear............................98Figure 6.39 – Main Poultry Slaughter / Market - Typical unit (left) and Retail at the Front (right) ...........98Figure 6.40 – Roof and Floor in Poor Condition at Older Local Slaughterhouse......................................99Figure 6.41 – Yards, Lairage, and Abattoir Building at Peri-Urban Municipal Slaughterhouse ................ 101Figure 6.42 – Main Municipal Slaughterhouse Facilities 1 ..................................................................102Figure 6.43 – Main Municipal Slaughterhouse Facilities 2 ..................................................................103Figure 6.44 – Private Ruminant Slaughterhouse...............................................................................104Figure 6.45 – Rear Access Road at the Main Municipal Slaughterhouse ..............................................105Figure 6.46 – Small Municipal Slaughterhouse Site and Discharge to Local Creek................................ 106Figure 6.47 – Electric Saws Used at the Main Slaughterhouse, in the European Hall (left) and theNon-religious Hall (right) ...........................................................................................106Figure 6.48 – Typical Motorised Lifting Equipment at Main Slaughterhouse Non-Religious Hall (left)and the Small Municipal Slaughterhouse (right) ...........................................................107Figure 6.49 – Simple Interior Layouts at Local Slaughterhouses in Middle-Income Country 1 ............... 108Figure 6.50 – Municipal Slaughterhouse Site Layout in Middle-Income Country 1................................108Figure 6.51 – Layout Plan for Modern Slaughterhouse in City 2 of Middle-Income Country 1................ 109Figure 6.52 – Older Local Slaughterhouse (left) and City 2 Slaughterhouse (right) ..............................109Figure 6.53 – The City 1 Municipal Slaughterhouse Internal Infrastructure ......................................... 110Figure 6.54 – The City 2 Municipal Slaughterhouse External Infrastructure......................................... 110Figure 6.55 – Slaughter Equipment in City 1 (left) and City 2 (right) Slaughterhouses .........................111Figure 6.56 – Layouts of Small Chicken Slaughterhouses ..................................................................112Figure 6.57 – Typical Slaughterhouse Drainage ...............................................................................113Figure 6.58 – Slaughterhouse Interior (left) and Construction of New Wing (right)..............................114Figure 6.59 – Exterior and Interior of a Municipal Slaughterhouse .....................................................114Figure 6.60 – Cattle Lairage at a Modern Private Facility and at a Municipal Facility ............................115Figure 6.61 – Typical Buildings Public Market 1 (East Asia and Pacific)............................................... 116Figure 6.62 – Typical Buildings at Public Market 2 (East Asia and Pacific)...........................................116Figure 6.63 – Typical Stalls at Public Markets (Middle East and North Africa)......................................117Figure 7.1 - Drainage Conditions at African Livestock Markets.........................................................122Figure 7.2 – Example Pathway and Relationships ...........................................................................125
  • 25. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (xi)Figure 7.3 – Poor Hygiene Conditions: Municipal Abattoirs in Africa and North Africa followingWash-down Operations .............................................................................................128Figure 7.4 – Dressing Operations on Slaughterhouse Floor in Africa and MENA.................................129Figure 7.5 – Hygiene and Cleanliness Levels at a Municipal Facility (left) and at a Modern PrivateFacility (right) in the LAC region.................................................................................130Figure 7.6 – Inadequate Poultry Slaughter and Processing Facilities.................................................131Figure 7.7 – Slaughter Waste Adjacent to On-Floor Fifth-Quarter Preparation and in Public AreaAdjacent to Slaughterhouses in MENA Region..............................................................134Figure 7.8 – High Standards at Low Volume Red Meat Processing Facilities in the LAC and MENARegions ...................................................................................................................135Figure 7.9 – Informal Small-Stock Markets in Africa........................................................................140Figure 7.10 – Informal Slaughter Carried Out by Youths in North Africa ............................................. 141Figure 8.1 - Transport of Cattle in South Asia................................................................................149Figure 8.2 - Transport of Poultry and Goats in South Asia...............................................................149Figure 8.3 - Typical Transport for Poultry in South-East Asia...........................................................149Figure 8.4 - Typical Livestock Transport in Africa...........................................................................150Figure 8.5 - Loading / Unloading Facilities at a Livestock Market in Africa ........................................ 150Figure 8.6 - Head-Leg Hobble (left) & Hobbled Chickens & Turkeys (right) ......................................150Figure 8.7 - Sheep Lifted by One Leg (Left) and Manhandling Cattle (Right) ....................................152Figure 8.8 - Unloading of Cattle at a Market in South Asia..............................................................152Figure 8.9 - Results of Ill-Fitting Harness (left) and Poor Condition in Harness (right) .......................152Figure 8.10 - Livestock handling at a Livestock Market in North Africa...............................................153Figure 8.11 - Chickens Stacked in Cages Next to the Transport Vehicle (left) and the Unloading ofCattle at a Market (right) in South America .................................................................154Figure 8.13 - Head Tether, Horn Damage (left) and Poor Handling of Goat kids (right).......................154Figure 8.14 – Slaughter Case Study A ............................................................................................. 161Figure 8.15 – Slaughter Case Study B ............................................................................................. 162Figure 10.1 – Wastes at a Cattle Market in South Asia......................................................................192Figure 10.2 – Wastes Collected for Disposal at Smaller Slaughterhouses ............................................193Figure 10.3 – Poor Solid Waste Management Leading to Environmental and Public health Concerns................................................................................................................................193Figure 10.4 – Failure to Treat Liquid Wastes Prior to Discharge Causing Environmental Impacts andAdditional Cleanup Work ...........................................................................................194Figure 12.1 – Rendered Co-Product Price Trends (in AU$/tonne).......................................................207Figure 12.2 - Processing/Disposal Options for Rendering Raw Material ..............................................213Figure 12.3 – Impact on Rendering Sector of BSE Category 1 and 2 Wastes....................................... 213Figure 12.4 – Rendering Plant Operating Costs in High-Income Countries (AU$).................................215Figure 12.5 – Overall Logic Decision Tree........................................................................................ 217Figure 12.6 – Appropriate Disposal Route Decision Tree ...................................................................218Figure 12.7 – Flowchart for Selection of Upgrading Category ............................................................232
  • 26. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report (xii)ACRONYMSAFD Agence France de DeveloppementASPCA American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to AnimalsBCCDC British Columbia Centre for Disease ControlBOD Biological Oxygen DemandBSE Bovine Spongiform EncephalopathyCBPP Contagious Bovine PleuropneumoniaCDM Clean Development MechanismCJD Creutzfeldt-Jakob DiseaseCOD Chemical Oxygen DemandCWF Compassion in World FarmingDEFRA Department for Environment, Food, and Rural AffairsEIA Environmental Impact AssessmentEMS Environmental Management SystemEU European UnionFMD Foot and Mouth DiseaseGATT General Agreement on Tariffs and TradeGPS Global Positioning SystemHACCP Hazard Analysis Critical Control PointsHGPs Hormonal Growth PromotantsHPAI Highly Pathogenic Avian InfluenzaHSA Humane Slaughter AssociationIFC International Finance CorporationJCTF Japan Country-Tied FundKfW Kreditanstalt für WiederaufbauLAC Latin America & CaribbeanMENA Middle East & North AfricaMM Metropolitan MunicipalityMRF Materials Recovery FacilityMRL Maximum Residue LevelMSW Municipal Solid WasteNEC National Environmental CouncilNVS National Veterinary ServiceOIE World Organisation for Animal HealthPVS Performance of Veterinary ServicesSARS Severe Acute Respiratory SyndromeSOP Standard Operating ProceduresSRM Specific Risk MaterialSWM Solid Waste ManagementTOR Terms of ReferenceTSE Transmissible Spongiform EncephalopathyWASA Water and Sewerage Authority
  • 27. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 1 of 253GLOBAL STUDY OFLIVESTOCK MARKETS, SLAUGHTERHOUSESAND RELATED WASTE MANAGEMENT SYSTEMSFINAL REPORT1. INTRODUCTION1.1 STUDY RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVESIn June 2007, Nippon Koei Co. Ltd. was contracted to undertake a study for the World Bank entitled“Livestock and Slaughter Waste Management”, under a Japan Country-Tied Fund (JCTF) grant, hereinafterreferred to as “the Study”. The purpose of the Study was to investigate the prevailing conditions withrespect to livestock and slaughter wastes in developing countries (both low and middle-income countries).Five member countries were selected for the Study; one in each of the World Bank’s geographical regions,excepting the Europe and Central Asia region.To provide additional expertise in the livestock and meat processing sector, the services of ProAndAssociates Australia Pty. Ltd. were engaged as a sub-consultant in accordance with the terms of the JCTFgrant.The principal rationale for the Study is the World Bank’s recognition that the private investment andcooperation that was expected to have developed in the livestock and slaughter sector over the past 25years has not taken place, following the World Bank’s departure from the sector some at that time. As aresult many developing countries have grossly outdated, decrepit and overloaded facilities, which have seenlittle investment or improvement over this period. This has created far-reaching impacts in terms of wastemanagement, public health, animal welfare, and disease. The present study has the overall aim, therefore,of providing a snapshot of the magnitude of the problems, and setting in motion the steps necessary toaddress the issues on the ground.Based on the Terms of Reference (TOR) the primary objectives of the Study are to:Gather data on livestock markets, municipal slaughter facilities (abattoirs), meat processing, andrelated systems of waste management;Examine the prevalence, handling, treatment, disposal, and recycling of wastes;Collect and examine available data on related bio-security and food safety issues;Identify and report on the problems and needs of the facilities; andIdentify appropriate technical options to develop guidance for municipalities.The main focus of the Study was originally waste management and all work pertaining to slaughtering orlivestock issues was to be related to the safe management of wastes only. However, as identified during thecourse of the Study and as described in this report, the issues involving livestock and slaughter wastes aremore complex and multi-faceted and often cannot easily be delineated. A major concern of the Study wasalso the protection of human health, particularly in relation to the recycling of wastes for animal feeds.In addition, the Study was to focus on the assessment of options for municipal facilities only. During thestudy, however, it was found that the private slaughter sector had a significant presence in some countriesand, as such, the impact of this could not be ignored. Furthermore, the informal sector was consideredpotentially too large and elusive to be covered within the scope of the Study and thus was generallyexcluded. It is appreciated, however, that there are often close links between the informal sector andmunicipal facilities and thus the Study addressed those situations where waste is re-used / recycled; such aswhere waste recyclers obtain their materials from municipal facilities and the informal disposal of animalhides.
  • 28. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 2 of 253Outputs from the Study also included the collection of professional-grade raw video footage, where possible,from each of the countries visited. This footage, for a proposed Bank video production, includes interviewswith stakeholders and footage of facilities and associated operations. Hand-held video footage andextensive photography taken by the Study Team would provide raw data for an additional study entitled“Global Study on Reconstruction of Public Live Market, Slaughter and Meat Processing Facilities, includingRelated Cost Recovery and Economic Instruments” also through a JCTF grant.1.2 PURPOSE OF THIS REPORTThe purpose of this report is to present the findings of the Study and provide a basis for the selection ofappropriate technical options for the treatment and disposal of livestock and slaughterhouse wastes indeveloping countries. The report is based primarily on the findings of the Study Team during its visits to thefive selected member countries, as contained in the Interim Report (January 2008); however a certainamount of discussion is contained herein, backed up where possible by citations from published literature.The report is arranged as follows:Chapter 1 – IntroductionChapter 2 – Livestock and Slaughter WastesChapter 3 – Methodology for Data CollectionChapter 4 – Brief Country OverviewsChapter 5 – Waste ManagementChapter 6 – Infrastructure and ServicesChapter 7 – Operational Issues at FacilitiesChapter 8 – Animal Welfare and TransportationChapter 9 – Epidemiology, Disease Control and Public HealthChapter 10 – Environmental IssuesChapter 11 – Feed Additives and Anti-MicrobialsChapter 12 – Technical OptionsChapter 13 – Institutional Issues and Financial & Economic SituationChapter 14 – Conclusions and RecommendationsGiven the large amount of data collected during the field visits, and the study as a whole, and to maintainclarity and ease of reference the report has been compiled using figures, tables, bullet points, andphotographs as much as possible.Whilst this report cannot provide solutions to specific site or country conditions, its purpose is to provide asummary of issues and findings, and more importantly direction on the most appropriate courses of actionin the selection of technical options and their implementation.1.3 BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY1.3.1 OverviewSolid waste management, and to a lesser extent wastewater management, has been given a relatively highpriority in developing countries over the past 15-20 years, often with great success. However, one particulararea of neglect has been wastes generated by urban livestock markets, slaughterhouses, and relatedfacilities. In developing countries these are typically municipal facilities that are often old, in poor condition,and operating well beyond their original design capacity. If not appropriately treated and disposed, wastesfrom such facilities pose a high risk to public health and the environment.Due to population growth, urbanization, and increased per capita demand for meat products, livestock andpoultry production is projected to grow four times faster in developing countries than in high-incomecountries, with growth in pork and poultry more than twice the growth in the production of ruminate meat.
  • 29. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 3 of 253Figure 1.1 overleaf shows the historical and projected meat production in developed and developingcountries for the period 1980 to 2030. Between 1980 and 2004 the consumption of meat and poultry indeveloping countries increased three-fold, see Figure 1.2 below. Nevertheless, it is estimated that 800million people worldwide still suffer chronic under-nutrition and hunger; thus, the growth in livestock andpoultry production is expected to continue to escalate with a resulting increase in the quantity of livestockwastes generated.Figure 1.1 – World Meat Production 1980 – 2030Figure 1.2 – World Meat Consumption 1980 – 2030
  • 30. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 4 of 253Approximately 675 million rural poor are sustained by livestock-related income or ownership; however,large-scale production is now responsible for most of the growth in livestock and poultry production andrural small holders have seen little benefit. Large-scale intensive livestock production is growing at six-timesthe annual growth of grazing production and the majority of this growth is around urban areas, wheredemand is greatest and infrastructure and resources are available for the distribution of animal products andby-products.1.3.2 Human Diseases and Animal SourcesIn addition to the settlement of large-scale livestock production close to urban areas, there is often extensiveinformal rearing of domestic animals and birds in peri-urban households and urban slums. This situation isunregulated and a potential source of disease and its spread. It is estimated that more than 60% of allhuman infectious diseases originate from animal sources and, in the past two decades, 75% of all emerginghuman diseases originated from livestock (Cointreau, 2007). Recent diseases that have been widelyreported include SARS (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome), avian influenza, encephalopathy from madcow disease, West Nile, Lyme disease, and Ebola. There is a growing recognition that animal health is veryclosely linked to human health and, as yet, these emerging diseases remain incurable. Exposure to livestockand particularly livestock wastes, therefore, provides conditions for emerging diseases and the vectorsneeded for the transmission of disease. In addition the globalization of trade and ease of travel onlyexacerbate this situation.Globalisation of trade and travel mean that a person crosses an international boundary every 25 secondsand millions of animals are traded live, or as meat products, each year. As populations increase and humandevelopment activities change traditional habitats there is less ecological containment of species and thusanimals that were never previously in contact are now increasingly exposed to new species and theirdiseases, thus new vectors for transmission of disease are being created.In the case of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), the disease agent is a prion protein and as suchcannot be treated using antibiotics. These prions are resistant to any treatment other than incineration andhave lead to the banning of animal body parts that contain prions from recycling for animal feed or soilamendment application to grazing lands.Aside from human infections related to animals, there has been a huge toll of animal disease on livestock.Millions of cattle have been culled due to foot-and-mouth disease and hundreds of millions of poultry culleddue to the highly pathogenic avian influenza1. Loss of livelihood has been significant for these and otherdiseases, including Newcastle, swine fever, bovine tuberculosis, and rabbit hemorrhagic fever. Such losseshave a particularly detrimental effect in developing countries, where compensation from government orelsewhere is lacking.Some of the new disease pathogens are particularly hardy and able to survive in the environment forextended periods of time. The virus of highly pathogenic avian influenza which has already lead to the deathof over 220 million birds world-wide is able to live in cool moist soils for days and possibly weeks, and in coollake water for months. Once infected, birds excrete the virus for several weeks, unless they die before.Asymptomatic birds, such as wild ducks that are the reservoir host, shed the virus even though they showno signs of infection.There is significantly more availability and human use of antibiotics throughout the world, with discharges tosewers and waste disposal sites increasing the presence of such substances in the environment. Increasedintensive livestock production widely uses antibiotics and direct discharge of blood and excreta to theenvironment exists in many developing countries. Inadequate control over waste from slaughter and deadcarcass disposal allows wild animals to forage directly on meat that contains antibiotics. More than 70% ofthe solid waste in developing countries is discharged to open dumps where foraging birds, dogs, cats,1HSA comments (Feb 2009) - The mass culling of infectious livestock presents serious animal welfare problem,particularly where humane methods of mass disposal are not readily available, as is the case in developing countries. Forcountries where the main method of killing animals is slaughter without pre-stunning, welfare in disease controlsituations may be further compromised due to economic restrictions.
  • 31. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 5 of 253rodents, and domestic livestock are normally present.Waste pickers typically work at these open disposal sites, taking home food for their domestic animals (andsometimes for themselves), as well as looking for secondary materials to sell for recycling. There are as fewas a couple of dozen waste pickers at some sites, and over 10,000 at others. These are the poorest of thepoor, vulnerable to a wide range of diseases, human parasites, diarrhoeas, respiratory distress, elevatedlead and other heavy metal levels in blood, and subject to contact with livestock manures and disposedanimal wastes that can cause human diseases.1.3.3 Livestock MarketsMunicipalities in developing countries are commonly responsible for livestock markets. The livestockproduce at these markets usually includes farmed animals (including ruminants, small stock, and poultry),and captured wild or bush animals. Often animals of different species and from different origins are kepttogether, with poultry frequently densely stacked from the floor up in baskets. Animals that are not sold arecommonly taken back to their place of origin at the end of the day and mixed with the livestock kept at theowners’ premises. Livestock markets, therefore, create a mixing bowl for many species that normally wouldnot come into contact, and for diseases to spread to species that have no resistance. It is through livestockmarkets that SARS was widely spread, with bats infecting the civet cat and raccoon dog (both of which arefarmed in East Asia), and these animals infecting other species. While some of the animals sold in livestockmarkets are also slaughtered there, some customers prefer to do the slaughtering themselves at home. Thelivestock manure, bedding, and slaughter wastes from livestock markets are typically disposed of tomunicipal waste bins and hauled to open dumps, along with other wastes – given that many livestockvendors are in the same general public market as produce vendors, foodstuff vendors, and general retailvendors.1.3.4 Slaughter FacilitiesIn developing countries, slaughter management and control over slaughter waste is typically theresponsibility of municipalities. Licensed slaughterers use these facilities and pay fees for their use.Because it is understood that slaughtering might proceed outside the facilities if the fees are not acceptableto the slaughterers, they often cover only a portion of the facility costs. While there was a desire andexpectation that the private sector would invest in slaughter facilities over the past 25 years, this has notbecome the reality, in part because of the limited revenues, in part because of the lack of a regulatoryframework that minimized private sector investment risk, and in part because of risks in any municipalcontract venture in countries where political intervention in contracting is common.In many of the developing world’s poorest cities, slaughter facilities are often more than 50 years old and arebadly in need of repair and reconstruction, if not replacement. Even where more modern facilities arepresent, these are often poorly designed, constructed, and maintained and can even be misused. Thehandling of livestock often involves inhumane treatment, such as crowded tie-ups, heat stress and lack ofwater during holding, pathways of access to slaughter points that cause the animal to panic, and abuse fromthe handlers who use wooden prods and other brutal methods to move the animals forward. There is oftenno clean running water for each slaughterer, whilst daily drainage, waste removal, and cleaning are poor.The municipalities usually have too little budget to maintain sanitary conditions and to enforce municipalordinances for animal husbandry, veterinarian, slaughtering, and general public health.In cities where cost recovery enables more modern facilities, more mechanised technologies may actuallydecrease the segregation of various body parts and thus increase the potential for more materials to becross-contaminated during slaughtering activities, if the animal is diseased. Only the facilities associateddirectly with trade to high-income countries with strong laws and monitoring, such as the EU provides in itsfarm-to-fork program, is their likely to be careful waste segregation for disease control that matches currentknowledge of how animal diseases are transmitted.Many of the slaughter facilities in developing countries do not have any specific meat processing facilities,although some basic butchering may occur on the floor or on a table in the slaughtering area. There areoften no facilities for rendering animal waste materials that are not suitable for human consumption. It iscommon that informal sector waste gatherers pay a small fee for the rights to take the animal wastematerials and process them as they like into animal feed. Ruminate heads and spinal materials are included
  • 32. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 6 of 253in this informal sector recycling and there is no veterinary involvement or inspection.1.3.5 Livestock and Slaughter WastesIn developing countries, most waste from slaughtering facilities, as well as from informal livestock providers,public live markets, and from home slaughtering is typically either recycled into animal feed, or dischargedto open dumps. The cooking temperatures used by the informal sector recyclers are not consideredadequate for destruction of all disease agents, particularly for the protein prions that cause transmissiblespongiform encephalopathies such as mad cow disease.Excreta and urine-contaminated litter from livestock production farms are typically stored in unlined holdingponds and surrounding horticulture farmers are usually allowed to take whatever amount they want, oftenat no cost. Some pathogens are hardy and may re-infect grazing animals, which is why pig waste isfrequently not taken by farmers concerned about the Trichinosis parasite. To date, chicken excreta hasbeen most desired by farmers for land application; however the hardiness of the H5N1 virus should lead tosevere restrictions on land application of untreated chicken excreta in the future, especially if more poultrybecomes resistant to developing systems. There are livestock holding pens at livestock markets andslaughter facilities and some of the manure and bedding from these holding pens is taken to open dumpsoperated by municipalities, but some is allowed to be taken by farmers to their agriculture lands.Environmental and health regulation in developing countries is limited and resources are inadequate to stayabreast of the rapidly growing developments in zoonotic diseases. Veterinary services for inspection oflivestock production, live markets, and slaughter are very meagre and thus appropriate monitoring andregulation is not possible.1.4 MAIN STUDY ISSUESThis section of the report provides a general introduction to the main study issues under examinationthroughout the Study. Further detail on each individual issue is provided in later chapters.1.4.1 Waste Generation and ManagementThe worldwide trend of increasing meat consumption is having a significant effect on the generation oflivestock related wastes at: (1) farm level where livestock production is increasing the amount of urine andfaeces, (2) livestock markets where contaminated bedding adds to the urine and faeces, and (3)slaughterhouses where the increased throughput of animals is increasing the animal waste products to bedisposed. The latter two instances are those of particular relevance to this study as often they are locatedwithin urban areas or peri-urban areas of major cities; many of these facilities being municipal.This study therefore addresses, inter alia, the key questions of how much livestock and slaughter waste isgenerated, what it comprises, what and how wastes are re-used or recycled, and how non-value wastes aretreated and disposed of. For the purposes of the Study, livestock and slaughter wastes are defined as anyproduct that is not the muscle tissue; thus bones, hides, hooves, horns, and offal products are consideredas wastes (refer to Chapter 2).1.4.2 Animal WelfareAnimal welfare in developing countries is often poor due to lack of awareness, knowledge, facilities, andfunds; there are also cultural differences in different countries and regions that can exacerbate this problem.Improving animal welfare has a positive effect not only on the health of the livestock, but also on the qualityof animal products (Smith et al, 2001; Gottardo et al, 2003), the safety of workers, and a reduction in theprevalence of disease (Brown-Brandl, 2008). An additional bonus is the potential reduction in animal waste,due to a reduction in dead stock, sick animals, and pathological waste; all of which provide potential avenuesfor pollution and disease transfer. The Study, therefore, includes identification of animal welfare problemsbased on observations from the field visits.
  • 33. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 7 of 2531.4.3 Epidemiology and Disease Control(a) EpidemiologyEpidemiology is the study of factors that affect the level of health and disease in populations. It is abiological science that has focus from the organism level upwards towards the population. This is in contrastto disciplines such as pathology whose focus is from the whole organism down towards the microscopiclevel. Epidemiology studies how and why disease can enter, persist, and transmit in a population.Epidemiology has become the cornerstone of public health research as it provides the methods foridentifying and quantifying risk factors for disease and for evaluating the impact of various interventions andcontrols. Veterinary epidemiology and medical epidemiology have similar objectives except that veterinaryepidemiology can also be applied to identifying factors that influence the productivity of animals. Veterinaryand medical epidemiology practices and practitioners are essential to identify and control zoonotic diseases.(b) Zoonotic Diseases and ZoonosesA zoonosis is an infective disease that can be transferred from animals to humans. Zoonotic diseasesgenerally exist naturally in the animal population but can be transmitted to humans under certaincircumstances resulting in disease in humans. There are many zoonotic diseases, and many more areemerging. These include diseases that are capable of direct transmission between animals and humans(e.g. via nasal secretions) and those capable of indirect transmission to humans (e.g. via inanimate objectssuch as contaminated water).The contamination of (human) food obtained from animals (e.g. meat, milk, and eggs) with disease causingagents, such as salmonella, represents a special form of zoonoses. These zoonotic diseases are a majorfactor in this study. Some important zoonotic diseases include:Parasites (including protozoa, such as giardia, and helminths, such as tapeworm).Viruses (e.g. avian influenza, including H5N1).Bacteria (e.g. brucellosis, salmonellosis, and some forms of tuberculosis).Fungi (e.g. ringworm).Prions (e.g. BSE and Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease).(c) Limiting Disease Spread – Zoonotic and Animal diseaseAnimal disease outbreaks are a potential threat to human wellbeing. Whilst not resulting directly in diseaseas a zoonotic infection may, the subsequent loss of income and the reduction in animal protein availabilityas a result of animal disease outbreaks can produce suffering. The necessity to undertake mass slaughterof cattle in Botswana due to the outbreak of the cattle disease Contagious Bovine Pleuropneumonia (CBPP)resulted in increased rates of malnutrition in children under-five years as a result of reduced milk and meatconsumption (Boonstra et al. 2001).The marketing and processing of animals provides a mechanism for disease to spread and is especially truefor cities where the scale of these activities is great. The necessity to collect and aggregate animals for saleat live markets provides great opportunity for animal diseases to spread and then be disseminatedthroughout the farming population. The focus of live animals and potential animal buyers provides anopportunity for spread of zoonotic diseases.The processing of animals at slaughterhouses and the subsequent handling and dispersal of meat productsand slaughterhouse waste materials provides opportunity for the spread of animal diseases and forzoonoses. There are many risks for human disease exposure arising from slaughterhouses and thus theselection of animals and slaughtering, processing, handling, and distribution animal products can facilitatethe movement of disease from the animal population to the human population.Waste from slaughterhouses is in many respects the last link in a complex chain of events that can movedisease from animals to humans. The pathway can include: inappropriate transport and holding of animals
  • 34. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 8 of 253prior to slaughter, selection of diseased animals for slaughter, unhygienic slaughter practices, inadequatemeat inspection processes, inappropriate meat handling and distribution, and unsatisfactory plant andworker hygiene practices. The animal waste products from a slaughterhouse represent the major link backto the farmed and wild animal populations (as slaughtered animals do not return to farming districts).Suitable waste processing and disposal practices from these facilities are therefore essential to limit the riskof animal and human disease outbreaks, as well as to limit environmental damage from inadequateprocessing and disposal.Waste from livestock markets has similar importance to that from slaughterhouses. Whilst these wastes aregenerally less significant than those from slaughterhouses, the aggregation of animals can result insignificant build up of organic waste. The handling, processing, and distribution of these wastes can resultin the spread of animal and zoonotic diseases in a similar manner to slaughterhouse wastes. In some ways,this risk is greater than that for slaughterhouses because live markets usually involve a two-way movementof live animals (into and away from the market). The movement of live animals is a major method ofdissemination of animal disease.(d) Principles of Veterinary Control of Animal and Zoonotic DiseasesEffective animal disease control requires effective government animal health departments. Effectivefood-borne disease control also requires an operative animal health department, but also effective humanand environmental government health departments and effective linkages between these departments andprivate enterprise.Outbreak Detection and Control Principles SurveillanceThe primary objective of animal health authorities is to detect and eradicate animal disease as early aspossible when an outbreak occurs. There are many components to most early-warning and detectionsystems, including:1. Suitable and effective legislation controlling animal ownership, movement, and trade. In general,the legislation should be supported by producers and consumers to ensure maximum compliance.Legislation breaches need to be effectively detected and prosecuted to ensure high compliance.2. Effective disease control programs, adequate resources, and sufficient well-trained personnel toundertake the required functions. This generally requires effective epidemiology, laboratory,animal health, and outbreak response components within the department of agriculture.3. Property (farm) and animal identification systems. It is essential to know where animals are beingheld, where they may be moved to, and how owners can be contacted if an outbreak is to beprevented early.4. A programme of regular population sampling and testing for disease. This is essential to detectdisease outbreaks early and to monitor the population for changes in risk factors for outbreaks.Testing and sampling of animals at live markets may be a component, as are pre- and post-morteminspection of animals at slaughterhouses. The testing of animal products for residues represents apeculiarly veterinary use of epidemiology – detecting the ‘disease’ of product contamination.In order to function effectively, these systems depend upon an effective government animal health systemthat operates and can liaise with private enterprise in an effective and timely manner.Endemic Disease Control and Outbreak PreventionEndemic diseases are those diseases that naturally maintain themselves in a population. Theseever-present diseases can produce outbreaks in animals and in humans if the factors that promote thespread and dissemination of pathogens are present. The major endemic diseases of relevance to this Studyinclude naturally occurring diseases with oral transmission routes to the human populace, often throughcontact with animal waste products. These diseases produce illness in humans following consumption ofcontaminated meat and offal products.Such diseases include agents with complex lifecycles that require consumption of intermediate stages (inmeat and other products) to complete (and produce disease) and agents that can contaminate meat
  • 35. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 9 of 253products, multiply, and produce disease in consumers. Cysticercosis is an example of a complex lifecycledisease and E Coli O157 is an example of a product-contamination disease. Both can result in disease whencontaminated meat is consumed by humans.Control of these diseases is based upon identifying and limiting risk. This includes pre- and post-mortemmeat inspection (to prevent the inclusion of diseased animals in the human food chain), sample testing andmonitoring, and the conduct of good meat processing and handling practices (including slaughter,sectioning, storage, and distribution).The control of food-borne diseases is therefore the combined responsibility of animal health services, humanhealth services, environmental health services, and private enterprise. This complex mix can make theeffective delivery of services extremely difficult, particularly where regulation is poor and adequatemonetary and experienced human resources are not available.1.4.4 Facility InfrastructureThe survey and assessment of facility infrastructure and its condition, together with process control andequipment, is not a primary task of this Study and as such will not be covered in any detail in this report.However, as the collection of basic data through observation, available drawings, photographs, and videofootage was undertaken by the Study Team (to be used at a later date) a summary of the Study Team’s mainobservations is included for in this report for completeness.The detailed assessment of the data collected during this study pertaining to facility infrastructure is beingundertaken under a separate World Bank study entitled “Global Study on Reconstruction of Public LiveMarket, Slaughter and Meat Processing Facilities”.1.4.5 Animal Feeds and Use of AntibioticsThe Study included the collection of available data on animal feeds and their constituents and the antibioticsin general use within the livestock sector in each of the study countries.Particularly (but not exclusively) common in large scale livestock rearing is the addition of variousundesirable substances to animal feed which promote growth, increase disease resistance, kill parasites orsimply reduce feed costs. These potentially harmful additives are commonly in the form of antibiotics (asprophylaxis), heavy metals and reprocessed animal waste, and are often sold under misleading brandnames in order to mask the real contents from farmers and consumers alike. Dosages are generallyuncontrolled (exceeded) due to lack of knowledge and understanding by the farmers and poor advice fromthe suppliers. Their effects and impacts include:Concentration within the animal tissues, food chain and environment.Increased resistance of bacteria to antibiotics.Damage to those consuming contaminated meat (e.g. arsenic, frequently found in chicken meat,causes cancer).Animal welfare issues.It is only in recent years that high-income countries have begun to outlaw many of these substances;however, meat imports from abroad generally remain untested.1.4.6 Cultural and Religious IssuesCultural and religious beliefs and practices can have a significant impact on the generation of animal wastesfor disposal. Some religions deem a number of animal species and certain animal products as unclean andnot fit or lawful for consumption. As such, these often valuable animal products are disposed of as waste tolocal drainage and watercourses or with municipal solid waste.Many developing countries also have cultures that promote ritual slaughter (often in the home), and atcertain religious holidays and other special occasions when large numbers of animals are slaughtered athome or in the street generating large quantities of animal wastes. Because of the putrescible nature of
  • 36. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 10 of 253these wastes, and their sheer volume, they cannot be efficiently collected and processed; as such, they arewasted to the nearest point of disposal, legal or not, creating public health issues and attracting vermin andscavengers.Home slaughter is in many locations tolerated by the authorities and is not seen as serious an issue as ‘illegal’slaughter, whereby retail butchers slaughter on their premises or nearby on a regular basis for sale to thegeneral public, instead of using an official slaughterhouse. Meat and other products from illegallyslaughtered animals are then sold to the general public.In addition to the scenarios above, cultural and religious beliefs and practices, such as those in Islamiccountries, can have considerable implications for waste management operations in the slaughter and meatprocessing business, as well as several other important aspects of the industry, such as slaughter techniques(and therefore equipment and infrastructure design), consumer demand, animal welfare, hygiene, andepidemiology.Islam is spread across the globe and as such Islamic slaughter practices are of great significance to thisstudy. Whilst there are many other important religions and cultures with differing customs and practicesIslamic regulations are considered to be the most relevant to this study and as such some basic backgroundinformation on Islamic slaughter is provided below.Haram literally means “forbidden” and the word is applied to both foods (such as pork andwine) and conduct or actions (such as adultery) that are forbidden by Islam, and which shouldbe avoided by all Muslims.There is much ongoing discussion between Islamic scholars over the status of many types offood and drink; certain species, such as pork, are explicitly forbidden as haram in the Qu’ran,whereas some species, such as horse, are not explicitly classified as haram, and are said bysome to be halal and others as makruh . This is a third classification, neither halal nor haram,and literally meaning “hated.” In common with the term haram, makruh is applied to bothfoods and actions and to those which should be avoided but are not punishable if eaten orcarried out.Whether or not a certain piece of meat is halal or haram depends on a combination of factorsincluding animal species and butchery techniques. A halal animal species can be renderedharam through bad slaughter or hygiene practices, just as a haram species slaughtered inaccordance with Islam will remain haram. Some general guidelines include:The species of animal must be condoned by Islam as halal – pigs are haram, as arecarrion eaters such as crabs and crocodiles, and a whole host of other species.Pre-slaughter conditions:o Animals must be treated in such a way that they are not injured, stressed, orexcited before slaughter; therefore, transport vehicles must be well-designed,drivers must be careful, and animals must be well-rested after travel to theslaughterhouse.o All handling must be gentle, meaning no electric prods, metal rods, or knivesshould be used as goads.o Animals awaiting slaughter should be kept in suitable clean housing withplenty of space and shade.o Starving for long periods before slaughter is haram.o Water should be provided until just before slaughter.Slaughter conditions and methods, which are clearly defined in Islam:o Gentle restraint only should be employed.o The slaughterer must be an adult man and sane (not all Muslims require theslaughterer to be Muslim).
  • 37. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 11 of 253o An animal should not see other animals being slaughtered.o The animal must not see the knife being sharpened before it is slaughtered.o Animals must be correctly positioned (facing Mecca is an optional extra forsome – dying humans are turned to Mecca so they can pray one last time).o The knife must be long enough for the required incision (4 times the width ofthe neck) and the blade free from blemishes;o Animals must be alive (heart beating) when the cut is made. Contrary topopular belief, stunning is not forbidden in Islam providing that the basic halalcriteria are observed.o The slaughterer must make the invocation as he makes the cut (Bism’Allah,Allah al Akbar - “In the name of God, God is the greatest”).o The incision must be made with a single to-and-fro cut without lifting theblade, through the front of the neck cutting through the trachea andoesophagus plus the carotid arteries and jugular veins. The spinal cord mustnot be severed until the animal is dead.Post-slaughter:o As much blood as possible must be removed from the carcass.o Good hygiene must be maintained during preparation of the carcass.o No unlawful products must be used in the preparation of halal meat orproducts.o Processing should start when the heart has stopped beating and the animal isdead.o The knife should be cleaned and re-sharpened (if necessary) between everyslaughter.If any of the above criteria are not adhered to, the meat should be considered haram and, assuch, not consumed by a Muslim except in situations requiring it for survival.Eid al-Adha (known as Eid el-Kibir in North Africa) is a Muslim feast day that celebratesAbraham’s willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael (not Isaac, as per the Bible). Every familytraditionally sacrifices a sheep on this day, with the senior male family members performingthe slaughter and butchery. This yearly celebration means that a large amount ofun-inspected meat is consumed across the Muslim world on that day, and much uncontrolledanimal waste enters the municipal stream and is available for scavenging.1.4.7 Environmental IssuesIn addition to the environmental issues discussed above (such as human health, noise, concentration ofdrugs in the food chain, and cultural issues) chemical and biological pollution of the physical environmentshould also be considered. In the context of the present study, slaughter and livestock wastes can beresponsible for inter alia the following:De-oxygenation of water courses due to high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemicaloxygen demand (COD) loads and subsequent secondary impacts such as loss of aquatic ecology.Emission of greenhouse gases such as methane from manure and paunch content decomposition.Fats, hair, and other solids can cause blockages of public sewerage systems (with consequentenvironmental health issues), and encourage rats and other disease vectors.Accumulation of feed additives in the food chain / environment.Odours.Atmospheric pollution arising from poorly maintained or old incinerators and open burning of animalwastes.
  • 38. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 12 of 2531.4.8 Institutional IssuesSafeguarding countries and cities against the often complex issues touched on above is not possible withoutdirect involvement of national and local governments, municipalities, and other institutions. Their ability tooperate effectively, with adequate coordination between and within institutions, is a critical means ofmanaging the interrelated issues of human and animal health, the environment, and waste management. Aconscientious authority, working in close cooperation with other agencies as well as local stakeholders, andfree from the burdens of corruption or apathy, can do a lot to manage operations and promote safe andeffective market slaughter and waste management operations. Conversely a corrupt apathetic andill-organised system of governance will have the opposite effect, at best maintaining the status-quo.1.5 STAKEHOLDERSThe administrative systems for regulation, management, and control of the livestock and slaughterbusinesses can vary considerably between countries; hence, the number and role of stakeholders can vary.In some countries, the number of parties involved can be high and the interaction between these verycomplex, often leaving gaps in areas of responsibility.In general, the following parties are typically key stakeholders:Government ministries for animal health, human health, livestock production, agriculture,environment, and food safety who are generally responsible for setting policy.Local government departments mainly responsible for implementation of policy and regulation ofactivities.The municipality responsible for the ownership and operation of facilities (livestock markets andslaughterhouses) and/or regulation of private facilities within its boundaries.Livestock owners.Middlemen active at markets that provide buyers and sellers with various dealing and transactionservices.Market workers.Butchers (and flayers) are essential to the meat market. In some countries, they control thebusiness from purchase at markets through to selling at retail; however, this can often result innegative results for both the industry and the public.Slaughterhouse workers and middlemen.Fifth-quarter processors and middlemen.Buyers (retail and consumers).Waste collection and disposal operators (municipal and/or private).The general public / consumer.
  • 39. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 13 of 2532. LIVESTOCK AND SLAUGHTER WASTES2.1 DEFINITIONSThe definition of livestock and slaughter wastes can vary based on the perspective of the industry inquestion, the country involved, and local cultural and religious practices. For example, the slaughter andmeat processing industries utilise many parts of the animal, not just the meat, and as such all parts of theanimal that can be used are usually considered by-products and not wastes. In fact, within this industry,processing and/or sale of these “by-products” is essential for commercial viability and waste reduction.Animal products, therefore, only become a waste if they have no commercial value or represent a cost to thebusiness; hence, it is difficult to establish an exact definition that is applicable in all scenarios.For the purposes of this Study, however, a simpler waste management perspective shall be employed andlivestock and slaughter wastes are defined as any product that is not the muscle tissue. Thus bones, hides,hooves, horns, and the multitude of offal products are all considered as wastes (or fifth-quarter, see below),even though they are often consumed or utilised in various ways.The following are some useful terms that have been adopted and used throughout this report with respectto the slaughter industry:Fifth-quarter – Following the slaughter of large animals at a slaughterhouse the carcass is oftencut into four pieces (quartered) for ease of handling and transport, thus any non-carcass material,including offal, is often called “the fifth-quarter” by those in the industry. This term is can be usedfor all of the livestock waste products (including the bones) from slaughterhouses and thus is veryappropriate for use in this report.Small-stock - The term ‘small-stock’ typically refers to small ruminants such as sheep and goats;however, in some countries, it may also refer to other species traded and slaughtered locally.Rendering - Rendering is the process of using high temperature and pressure to convert wholeanimal and poultry carcasses or their by-products to safe, nutritional, and economically valuableproducts. The process comprises a combination of mixing, cooking, pressurising, fat melting, waterevaporation, and microbial and enzyme inactivation.Seizure or seized product - Seizure, or seized product, refers to those animal products that aredeemed unfit for human or animal consumption and must be destroyed. This is identified during thepost mortem inspection when the carcass and internal organs are checked for abnormalities /disease.Informal slaughter – this refers to any slaughtering conducted outside of an officially recognisedslaughterhouse or municipal facility. In many developing countries, home slaughter is widespreadand is accepted by the authorities; illegal slaughter being generally considered as slaughteringundertaken by local butchers for sale to the populace.2.2 WASTE PRODUCTSWaste products typically generated by livestock markets and slaughterhouses are listed in Tables 2.1 and2.2 respectively.Table 2.1 – Typical Wastes Generated by the Livestock MarketsWaste Product NotesManure (Dung)Animal feeds Including packing materials.BeddingWash-water and runoff May contain disinfectants or other chemicals, if used.Wastewater From toilets, kitchen, canteen, etc.Municipal solid waste General organic and inorganic wastes.Dead stockSlaughter wastes If slaughtering is practised on-site
  • 40. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 14 of 253Table 2.2 – Typical Wastes Generated by SlaughterhousesSpecies Waste Product NotesPoultry BloodFeathersHeadFeetBonesGibletsThoracic Offal (pluck) Comprised of oesophagus, trachea, lungs.Intestines Including contents.TrimSheep and Goats BloodSkin/hidesHead Skull, tongue, brain, etc.HornsFeet / HoovesThoracic offal (pluck) Heart, lungs, trachea, liver, etc.Abdominal offal Stomachs, runners, intestines, etc (including contents).Fat and trimmingsCattle BloodHideHead Skull, tongue, brain, etc.HornsFeet / HoovesThoracic offal (pluck) Heart, lungs, trachea, liver, etc. (including contents).Abdominal offal Stomachs, runners, intestines, etc. (including contents).Fat and trimmingsPigs BloodHairHead Typically with the carcass (half or whole).Feet/trotters Typically with the carcass (half or whole).Thoracic offal (pluck) Heart, Lungs, trachea, liver, etc. (including contents).Abdominal offal Stomachs, runners, intestines, etc. (including contents).Fat and trimmingsGeneral Wash-water and runoff May contain disinfectants or other chemicals as well assolids.Wastewater From toilets, kitchen, canteen, etc.Municipal solid waste General organic and inorganic wastes.Condemned productsDead StockAshes from incineratorManure / beddingCompostDead on arrival at the slaughterhouse or in lairageAlthough the livestock and meat sector is generally well documented in each country, the majority ofavailable data and literature on livestock slaughtering pertains to the final product (the carcass or meat) withlittle or no data on offal and waste products. The fifth-quarter is rarely wasted in developing countries, butis often ignored in official data as it is frequently “lost” to the recycling or informal sectors. Fifth-quarterprocessing is generally unregulated in developing countries, with the exception of the edible offal in somecountries only, and as such is a potential source of pollution and disease vector.
  • 41. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 15 of 253To illustrate what wastes are generated at slaughterhouses, Figure 2.1 overleaf shows the typical situationin high-income countries. Note that on the right-hand-side wastes and products outputs are differentiated;for this Study, however, all items on the right are classed as wastes with the exception of the “packed meatproducts” at the bottom.Not only is the Study concerned with the types of wastes generated but also how they are handled,managed, utilised and ultimately disposed of; hence observations were also needed at meat processingfacilities, final waste disposal facilities (solid and liquid), and public wet markets. To present as clear apicture as possible regarding waste products, related facilities such as retail butchers and supermarketswere also visited, where time and permission allowed.In each country, every effort was made to visit all major livestock, slaughter, and related facilities toobserve, identify, and record each and every waste stream from such facilities to provide a complete pictureof the waste products, where they go, and how they are used, recycled, or treated. Field visits weretherefore required during both the operational periods and non-operational periods of each facility, wheretime and permission allowed. For slaughterhouses this typically involved visits between 1.00 a.m. and 6a.m. to observe slaughtering and waste generation, followed by daytime visits to observe the buildings,physical infrastructure, and cleaning and disposal operations.
  • 42. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 16 of 253L ive sto c k H o ld in g A re aE visc e ra tio n , S p littin g ,T rim m in gB o n in g & F a b ric a tio nW h ite O ffa l &R u n n e rP ro c e ss in gD re ssin g (H e a d , h o o f,h id e /s k in re m o va l)S tu n n in g & B le e d in gE d ib le O ffa lP ro c e ssin gM e a t P ro d u c t P a c k in gC a rc a se C h illin gW A T E R &C L E A N IN GC H E M IC A L SP A C K A G IN GM A T E R IA L SL IV E S T O C KIN P U T S P R O C E S S E S W A S T E SG E N E R A T E DP R O D U C TO U T P U T SP A C K E D M E A TP R O D U C T SP A C K E DE D IB L E O F F A L `R E N D E R IN GR A W M A T E R IA LW A S T E W A T E R `O R G A N ICW A S T ES A L T E D S K IN SM A N U R EB L O O DC L E A N IN GC L E A N IN GH E A D S H O O V E S H O R N SS K IN SC L E A N IN GF A T T R IM M IN G SF A T & B O N EC L E A N IN GC L E A N IN GC L E A N IN GC L E A N IN GR U N N E R C O N T E N T SS T O M A C H S & T R IM M IN G ST R IM M IN G SIn sp e c tio nP A T H O L O G IC A LW A S T EP A C K A G IN GW A S T EP A C K A G IN G W A S T EH id e /S k inT rim m in g S a ltin gS A L TP rim a ryW a s te w a te rT re a tm e n tT R IM M IN G SFigure 2.1 – Diagram of Typical Slaughterhouse Inputs, Processes, and Outputs in High-Income CountriesSource: ProAnd Associates
  • 43. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 17 of 2533. METHODOLOGY FOR DATA COLLECTION3.1 COUNTRY AND CITY SELECTIONOne country was selected from five of the Bank’s six regions and one target city was selected from eachcountry; with the exception of one country, where the proximity of the two main cities provided theopportunity to gather data from two cities that were known to offer different problems.Whilst this methodology does not provide a fully representative profile of each country, let alone arepresentative profile of each region, it does provide sufficient opportunity to identify and highlight the mainpractices and areas of concern in developing countries and within the fixed study budget.To provide appropriate coverage, diversification, and data for the Study the following basic criteria wereused for the selection of the five countries and corresponding cities:Bank’s preliminary list of countries.Two of the five countries should have a large or significant Muslim population.Capital or other larger city.Combination of middle and low-income countries.Previous experience of the two firms and Study Team.Potential availability of data.Following discussions with the Study Team and understanding the objectives of the Study, the selectedcountries and cities were determined and agreed with the World Bank and included three low-incomecountries (in East Asia, South Asia, and Africa) and two middle-income countries (in North Africa and SouthAmerica).3.2 SURVEY INSTRUMENTSThe design and development of appropriate survey instruments for the country reconnaissance visits wasessential to ensure quality and consistency during the data collection exercise, as these would ultimatelydetermine the technical options developed and the outputs of the Final Report.The overall design/management of the survey instruments was tasked to the Project Manager, with detailedtechnical knowledge and contributions coming from the other Study Team members (veterinaryepidemiologist, livestock and meat processing expert, and agricultural economist). The instruments werebased on typical practices used in developed countries to ensure that an appropriate and standardisedcomparison could be made between the selected “developing” countries and typical international standards.The drafts were then circulated to the Study Team and the World Bank before being finalised for the firstcountry reconnaissance visit. Their use in the first country visit provided an opportunity to check theassumptions made and test the survey instruments to ensure that the specific requirements of the Studywere incorporated into the final version of the survey instruments for the remaining four countries.The survey instruments / reconnaissance checklists used cover the following main areas:Government and municipal officials.Livestock markets.Public markets.Slaughterhouses.Meat processing facilities.Waste collection and disposal.Although the survey instruments were comprehensive, they were not applicable to all situations and thus
  • 44. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 18 of 253additional ad hoc instruments were developed to suit local conditions during the country reconnaissancevisits as required.3.3 THE STUDY TEAMTo undertake the country reconnaissance visits within the tight schedule two survey teams were required,each covering the four main disciplines (environment, livestock and meat processing, veterinary, andeconomic). Local consultants were also engaged as needed to provide local knowledge and technicalassistance, local contacts, and translation services. Figure 3.1 below illustrates the general organisationchart for the Study Team and its coordination links; although ultimately some changes were made betweenthe teams to accommodate timing of visits and the availability of personnel.Figure 3.1 – Study Organisation ChartWORLD BANKSolid Waste Management AdvisorS. CointreauPROJECT MANAGERMichael WhiteNATIONAL / LOCALGOVERNMENTSWORLD BANKRESIDENT MISSIONSPROJECT DIRECTORPaul DriverTEAM 1Low-Income Country 1Low-Income Country 2Low-Income Country 3Sanitary / Environmental EngineerMichael WhiteVeterinary EpidemiologistRichard ShephardLivestock Production and MeatProcessing ExpertJon Marlow / Winifred PerkinsAgricultural Micro-EconomistAndrew Lambert / Sim HaskerTEAM 2Middle-Income Country 1Middle-Income Country 2Sanitary / Environmental EngineerPirran DriverVeterinary EpidemiologistNigel BrownLivestock Production and MeatProcessing ExpertCharles EllisAgricultural Micro-EconomistSim HaskerFormal LinkCoordination LinkLocal Consultants Local Consultants
  • 45. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 19 of 2533.4 COUNTRY RECONNAISSANCE VISITSThe country reconnaissance visits focussed primarily on the collection of primary data using the surveyinstruments described earlier. The activities covered under this task included the following:(i) Pre-visit planning and initial coordination with the local World Bank offices.(ii) Where possible, an initial meeting with local World Bank officers, to obtain relevant informationand necessary correspondence to adhere to local protocols for meetings, visits to facilities, andphotography / filming.(iii) Initial meetings with city government officials to firstly introduce the Study objectives and gaintheir support and assistance; and secondly, to collect data on facilities and their locations, localpractices, and to obtain any necessary permission for facility visits and photography / filming.(iv) Surveys to collect primary data on existing facilities to identify the waste products produced, therecycling of wastes, and the locations and methods of disposal. Facilities generally included:livestock markets, public markets, slaughterhouses, and meat processing facilities. Otherfacilities found to be of particular relevance to the Study were also investigated. The surveyinstruments / reconnaissance checklists were used to ensure completeness and compatibility ofthe data collection task by the two teams and across all five study countries.(v) Identification of links for animal-to-human diseases relating to livestock handling and slaughterwastes.(vi) Collection of relevant data (primary and secondary) on chemical residuals used in animal feedsand anti-microbial substances in meat products that could be detrimental to humanconsumption; although it was found that few data were available.(vii) Identification and collection of other related and available secondary data, including economicand financial data, where available to the Study Team.(viii) Collection of basic data on the condition of facilities and related infrastructure, includingdrawings (if readily available) and photographic / video footage, where possible.(ix) Engagement and management of a local media / film company to capture professional footageof stakeholder interviews and facilities for a proposed Bank video production.Table 3.1 provides a schedule of the country reconnaissance visits undertaken by the Study Team.Table 3.1 – Schedule of Country VisitsVisit Location Region Dates1 Low-income country 1 East Asia and Pacific July 23 – August 10, 20072 Low-income country 2 South Asia August 18 – September 06, 20073 Low-income country 3 Africa September 29 – October 19, 20074 Middle-income country 1 Middle East and NorthAfricaAugust 17 – September 07, 20075 Middle-income country 2 Latin America andCaribbeanSeptember 22 – October 11, 2007A simple responsibility matrix is included in Table 3.2 overleaf indicating the primary responsibilities foreach of the fieldwork tasks as identified in the TOR relating to each of the Study Team disciplines.
  • 46. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 20 of 253Table 3.2 – Fieldwork Responsibility MatrixItem Task From TOREnvironmental /Sanitary EngineerVeterinaryEpidemiologistLivestock andMeat ProcessingExpertAgriculturalMicro-Economist1Examine the municipal live market, slaughter, meat processing andrelated livestock and slaughter waste management practices in at leastone large city of the 5 selected countries, including practices that addressthe special requirements of Muslim or other religious/cultural groups forslaughter, recycling of animal by-products and slaughter wastemanagement.WastemanagementLive marketsSlaughter, meatprocessing2Provide available information on the livestock suppliers to urban livemarkets and public slaughter facilities, indicating their size and incomelevel.Review live marketliterature3Examine the slaughterer fees charged and the level of cost recovery theyprovide for existing facilities.Collection of dataCollection of dataand analysis4Examine slaughterer willingness and ability to pay for improvedmunicipal slaughter conditions that address local markets (versus trademarkets).Collection of dataCollection of dataand analysis5Provide comparative country data on intensive livestock (large scale)production facilities and dedicated slaughter and rendering facilities thatqualify to sell to high-grade local supermarkets or export to OECDcountries.LivestockSlaughter &rendering6Describe the waste materials from live market, holding pen, slaughterand meat processing that are likely to be discharged to final disposal,including clandestine dumps, official open dumps, blood ponds,treatment works, rendering plants, and any recycling systems.Live market &holding pensSlaughter &rendering7Note any provision of materials to informal sector waste recyclers, anddiscuss any processing they provide prior to recycling, particularly foranimal feed recycling.RecyclingLive market &holding pens,mortalitiesSlaughter & meatprocessing8Further note the portion of waste, if any, which is discharged to officialsanitary landfills, compost facilities, anaerobic digesters, or wasteincinerators.Waste disposalfacilitiesProportions fromlive marketsProportions fromprocessing
  • 47. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 21 of 2539Describe the typical disposal practices for dead animals, including roadkills, dead pets, dead animals from routine urban poultry or domesticlivestock rearing, as well as any carcass management practices fromrecent or ongoing animal disease outbreaks.Handling of generaldead stockAnimal diseaseoutbreakmanagement10Describe the general flow of all materials to recycling/resource recovery,including recycling of hides and hoofs, but it is understood that therewould be no focus on reviewing the processing and environmental issuesof recycling (e.g. tanning) that does not have primary biosecurity impactpotential.All materials, e.g.hide trimmings,face pieces, heads,etc.11Describe the disposal conditions, including the activities of human wastepickers and the materials that they recover for recycling, particularlynoting the recovery of wastes for potential animal feed and any landapplication of certain materials, because of the bio-security issuesrelated to disease containment.Waste pickeractivity, transportsecurityProduct loss atslaughter &processing topublic12Describe the presence of animals and birds at the disposal sites,including domestic livestock, dogs, and rats. Survey local officials anddumpsite workers for disease incidences that have occurred in thevicinity of the dumpsites and believed locally to be potentially connectedto these sites.Non human wastepicker activity,transport securityHuman diseaseoutbreak incidents13Describe the parties involved, including the slaughterers, veterinarians,and informal sector waste collectors and recyclers, and describe thenature of the agreements for access to use and recycling of livestock andslaughter wastes.Livestock wastes(both directions)Slaughter wastes14Describe the oversight involved in controlling the disposal of diseasedanimals and animal by-products, including raising possible issues ofcorruption to supervisory officials, veterinarians, and slaughter wastestaff.All to Report15Conduct filming of interviews with key people being interviewed forpurposes of a planned documentary to be put together by the WorldBank. All raw footage will be provided to the Bank for their editing.Questions to be asked will be provided by the Bank, and the firm will alsoadd questions. Ideally, moderate level local film crews with microphoneand shoulder held video camera would conduct this work undersubcontract. The film format is to be informal and mostly shot outdoors,along the lines with the following film on waste management in Ghanathat is posted on the Bank’s solid waste website.Organisation andmanagement
  • 48. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 22 of 2533.5 FACILITIES SURVEYEDAlthough the Study TOR state that only municipal facilities should be included within the scope of the Study,it was found that in many cities there is either a combination of municipal and private facilities or a completeabsence of municipal facilities altogether. Neglecting the private sector, however, would have omitted partsof the local livestock and slaughter waste management sector intrinsic to the subject matter and the Study.Therefore, to ensure that the Study addresses the salient issues in each city and to enable suitablecomparisons between them, the definition of municipal facilities was amended to include private sectorfacilities falling within the municipality / city boundary or within the peri-urban areas adjacent to the city. Insome instances, other facilities were visited outside of these areas, where such facilities were found to havea possible link to the livestock products supplying the city.Where possible, and available, the following facilities (or a sample of them when too numerous) were visitedduring the visits to each city:Farms and rearing/production facilities (e.g. feedlots and feed mills).Livestock markets.Slaughterhouses.Meat processing facilities.Solid waste management facilities.Wastewater treatment facilities.Retail butchers.Supermarkets.Numerous other related facilities were also visited on an ad hoc basis and as time permitted. Most facilities,in particular the slaughterhouses, were visited on more than one occasion to view the facilities duringoperation (often during the night) and then again to view during non-operational periods during thedaytime. An example survey instrument and other example data are included in Appendix B.3.6 COLLECTION OF ADDITIONAL DATA ON INFRASTRUCTUREDuring the course of the country visits, the Study Team took photographs of waste management activitiesand facilities in the selected cities, to provide the Bank with some context for the collected data and theanalyses undertaken. In addition, and in accordance with the revised TOR, the Study Team also collectedvideo footage and photographic records of market and slaughterhouse facilities to enable additionalassessment of facilities and physical infrastructure to be undertaken under a subsequent study.To facilitate ease of location of facilities in each city, handheld Global Positioning System (GPS) devices wereused. The coordinates collected were used to locate the facilities in satellite imagery using GoogleEarthsoftware; thus enabling facility layouts, dimensions, and environs to be examined at a later date incombination with the abovementioned photographic and videographic information.3.7 DIFFICULTIES EXPERIENCED DURING COUNTRY RECONNAISSANCE VISITSWhen in the field it swiftly became clear that, in all countries, livestock and slaughter waste management isan element of a much wider chain, with all aspects inextricably linked. Studying waste and wastemanagement issues in isolation would have been a little short-sighted and as such we extended ourinvestigations beyond the Terms of Reference to ensure that we could provide as comprehensive a pictureas was possible within the given timeframe. On the whole, the country reconnaissance visits went very well,but some general difficulties experienced included:Drawings and design details for facilities were to be collected; however, these were rarely availablein any of the countries and it was difficult to obtain copies even if they were. Often new proposalsfor markets and slaughterhouses were at the final stages of being developed but information couldnot be released as the plans had not been officially approved.In general, few data are available concerning livestock and slaughter wastes and typically data arelimited to slaughter numbers and weights only.
  • 49. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 23 of 253Country specific issues are covered below:Low-Income Country 1The municipal slaughter sector is practically non-existent, meaning that the Study Team was relianton the generosity or otherwise of the private slaughterhouses and processing facilities. Through ourlocal consultants, the Team was able to find and gain access to many of these facilities; which, if theyhad been municipal facilities, may not have been accessible in the time available.In general, private facilities and business owners were unwilling to divulge financial information ordocumentation to the Team, as they were suspicious of our motives; this was not unexpectedhowever.Time constraints and procedural difficulties led to the Study Team being unable to obtain thenecessary permissions for official interviews with government officials on camera and theprofessional video footage of facilities. The media company secured for the filming could not workwithout a valid permit, thus no professional filming could be undertaken during the visit. Videofootage using the Study Team’s handheld video camera was possible, however.It was difficult to arrange meetings with some government departments and in particular with theagency responsible for municipal solid waste management, with whom the Study Team met only onthe penultimate day of the country visit. This meeting proved useful, but we were unable to meetwith technical staff and were not able to obtain permission to enter any of their facilities.Low-Income Countries 2 and 3There were no significant difficulties to report and access to municipal facilities and governmentofficials was relatively straightforward.Middle Income Country 1The bureaucratic culture prevalent meant that government officials were sometimes reluctant tocooperate with the Study Team, particularly where there was confusion of areas of responsibility.Few data are available and information is guarded very closely and as such it was difficult to obtain.Both municipal and private facilities were reluctant to share financial information.Confusion between government departments often resulted in visits being cancelled or disrupted,and the Study Team was sometimes followed by local police/security.Gaining permission to undertake the professional filming was particularly challenging, requiringmany meetings to organise the necessary permissions. Filming was curtailed at some locations.Middle Income Country 2The bureaucratic nature of government meant that much time was wasted prior to and during thevisit writing letters and attempting to gain access to facilities.Decentralised government and the cumbersome arrangement of departments made understandingthe system difficult and often there was confusion with data.The municipal slaughter sector is practically non-existent, meaning that the Study Team was relianton the generosity or otherwise of the private slaughterhouses and processing facilities.Only a handful of private operators cooperated with the Study Team and few private facilitiesgranted permission to photograph or video. Only one private facility showed the team drawings oftheir facility, however no photographs were permitted. Private facilities were also unwilling todivulge financial information.Waste management is generally handled by private companies, who were generally unwilling tocooperate with the Study Team.No government officials were willing to be interviewed on video.Many illegal dumps were reputed to be very dangerous, where armed gangs and other dangers werereported, and the Study Team was advised not to visit such locations.
  • 50. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 24 of 2534. BRIEF COUNTRY OVERVIEWSThe following overviews provide some scene-setting information on the general preferences and meatindustry-related conditions found in the study countries. These initial descriptions are followed withsummaries of fieldwork findings, prior to detailed examination of individual issues in subsequent chapters.4.1 LOW-INCOME COUNTRY 1 (EAST ASIA AND PACIFIC)There are generally no cultural and religious barriers that dictate what species can be slaughtered and eaten.Dogs in particular are a delicacy and many non-livestock species are eaten throughout the country, apractice which in the past has been the cause of the spread of diseases such as SARS.The livestock and slaughter industry, however, focuses on pigs, poultry, cattle, and fresh meat purchaseddaily from markets is the preference of the populace. The serious outbreak of avian influenza that occurredin 2002-03 had a severe impact on the poultry sector and how it is viewed by the consumers; since then,pork has been the main meat source, although poultry has made a significant comeback through thegovernment’s active intervention to control the disease. Isolated incidences of avian influenza still occur butswift action by the government has helped maintain the consumers’ confidence in poultry.The slaughter business makes very effective use of the entire animal for one purpose or another,predominantly due to the fact that labour is inexpensive and that there is a ready market for both edible andinedible offal and all “waste” products, excepting the wash-water. Often edible offal can be more expensivethan the meat itself.It is popular to use the raw blood of animals for various culinary dishes, but since the recent avian influenzaoutbreak much of the population now avoids raw poultry blood.4.2 LOW-INCOME COUNTRY 2 (SOUTH ASIA)It is estimated that some 96% of the population is Muslim and as such all livestock and slaughter issues arebased on religious requirements, thus halal meat products are demanded almost entirely.Similar to the other countries covered by this Study, consumer demand is primarily for freshnon-refrigerated meat; although there is a very small but growing demand for higher quality meatsproduced using modern slaughtering techniques with cold-chain. All ruminants are typically slaughteredfrom early evening and/or overnight to ensure fresh products early morning and official slaughter is only fivedays per week.Although illegal, there is still a vibrant informal slaughter sector for ruminants, predominantly sheep andgoats.Mutton (sheep and goats) is the preferred source of ruminant meat and as a consequence is often doublethe price of beef. Buffalo is the main animal used for beef products; cattle traditionally being reserved formilk production, and slaughtered once they have served this purpose. Camel meat is eaten but is lesspopular than in the past.Poultry consumption is almost entirely of chicken and provides the staple meat diet of most. Native chickenis much preferred over factory-produced chicken but comes at a higher price.4.3 LOW-INCOME COUNTRY 3 (AFRICA)The livestock and slaughter industry is conducted in accordance with the requirements of the two mainreligions of Christian Orthodox and Muslim, and their corresponding religious festivals. In fact, the mainslaughterhouse has three different slaughter halls to reflect this; one Orthodox Christian, one Muslim, andone non-religious hall. Wednesday and Friday are non-meat (or fasting) days.Pork is not consumed by the two main religious groups; therefore the pig industry is very small, beingreserved primarily for foreigners and mainly through supermarket outlets.
  • 51. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 25 of 253There is a cultural tradition of household slaughter and also for fresh meat purchased daily, withoutrefrigeration. Household slaughter is mainly restricted to poultry, goats, and sheep; although cattle are alsoslaughtered at household level for specific holidays and important family and religious celebrations.4.4 MIDDLE-INCOME COUNTRY 1 (MIDDLE EAST AND NORTH AFRICA)The population is believed to be more than 98% Muslim; therefore, demand is almost entirely for halal meatproducts and offal products are highly regarded, whilst blood is generally not used at all.Similar to many developing countries, the consumers’ preference is for fresh non-refrigerated meatpurchased from local butchers and markets or alternatively slaughtered at household level. Sheep and goatmeat is mostly preferred, in addition to freshly killed chicken. This situation, and the desire for the use oftraditional slaughtering techniques, results in a rampant and unregulated informal slaughter sector.Modern slaughter facilities are not always suited to the local culture; for example, owners often like to watchthe slaughter of their animals. The result is that it has been and will continue to be difficult to adopt newslaughtering techniques.In general, the populace of the capital city has a more European preference to meat cuts, due mainly to thelarge number of expats present.4.5 MIDDLE INCOME COUNTRY 2 (LATIN AMERICA AND CARIBBEAN)There exists a diverse mixture of cultures and more than 90% of the population is Christian, with some 89%being Roman Catholic.Due to its topography, there is very little pasture land and thus most ruminant supply is predominantly fromfeedlots. Bulls are much preferred to other types of cattle and gravid hens, freshly killed, are the preferredform of poultry. Traditional practices of eating Guinea pig, llama, and alpaca are typical in the mountains.During colonial rule local slaves were only permitted to eat offal; this is the likely reason that offal products,and particularly the heart, are still highly regarded.Previous political troubles caused destruction of private farms and capital investments in the foothills, wheresheep rearing was concentrated. Therefore, little mutton is now eaten in the city, and a large informal sheepslaughter sector exists, though mainly outside of the capital.4.6 SUMMARY OF MAIN FIELDWORK FINDINGSBased on the data obtained from and observations made in each of the five study countries, the main studyfindings from the Interim Report are summarised in tabular form in Appendix C, covering the mainheadings below, which are described in greater detail in the subsequent chapters of this report:Livestock markets.Slaughterhouses.Meat Processing.Public markets.Retail outlets and supermarkets.Waste management.Animal health.Disease epidemiology.
  • 52. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 26 of 2535. WASTE MANAGEMENT5.1 GENERALIn general, waste management practices in developing countries are poor, in terms of both municipal solidwaste (MSW) and municipal wastewater. Although not specifically included in the Study, municipal solidwaste management and wastewater facilities were investigated by the Study Team to ascertain if livestockwaste products are being collected and disposed of with, or alongside, municipal wastes. If so, this mayhave a significant impact on animal and human health and, in particular, on the health of waste industryworkers and the less privileged members of society who earn a living from waste-picking. Additional aimsof the investigations into waste management were to identify any environmental concerns resulting from thedisposal of slaughter wastes, to collect data on transport methods, security, disposal costs andresponsibilities.Given that municipalities are often the only organisations involved in large scale waste collection, treatment,and disposal in developing countries, it was important to observe their services and practices because, in theshort to medium-term, they may be the only capable bodies available to potentially accommodate thetreatment and disposal of livestock and slaughterhouse wastes. An overview of the current wastemanagement situation in the Study countries is therefore included below covering municipal solid waste,municipal wastewater, and livestock and slaughter waste, presented on a country-by-country basis for each.This is followed by an overview of waste and waste handling by facility type. A table summarising the mainwastes generated and their disposal / re-use in each study country is included in Appendix D.5.2 OVERVIEW OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENTIn all countries visited, it was generally found that the collection and transportation of municipal solid wastewas adequate and although many improvements could be made facilities were of a reasonable standard. Infact, in some countries visited (e.g. in Africa and East Asia) significant improvements had been made inexpanding the service and the streets and public areas were generally free from municipal solid waste. Abrief summary of the MSW situation in each of the countries visited is included below.5.2.1 Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)Municipal solid waste management is the responsibility of a state-owned company operating solid wastemanagement services throughout the city. In recent years, much progress has been made in the collectionand disposal of solid waste with regular collection, quality of vehicles and equipment, and investment intomanagement and training. This commitment has resulted in effective and appropriate methods beingimplemented and the provision of an efficient and regular collection service throughout the city; primarilythrough the use of pushcarts for local collection and modern compaction trucks.Although collection has improved significantly, disposal of solid waste is still a problem, with the city stillrelying on two managed landfill sites. The main disposal site is a sanitary landfill established in 1999 and isthe repository for almost all of the city’s waste. An older ‘managed’ landfill (not sanitary) receives theremainder of the city’s solid waste. No access was granted to any either of these facilities, but it was statedthat animal wastes are not collected / disposed by the company as these are mostly re-used or recycled byothers. Limited collection of animal wastes was observed, however, at one of the pig slaughterhousesremaining pig hair was being collected along with some carcass trimmings and other general municipalwaste, see Figure 5.1 overleaf.There are currently a number of interventions in place, from various funding sources, one being aJICA-funded pilot project into waste reduction, re-use, and recycling aimed at reducing the impact of thecity’s growing solid waste generation. Pilot projects are located at the two operational landfill sitesmentioned above.
  • 53. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 27 of 253Figure 5.1 – Small Quantities of Animal Wastes Collected by MSWM Company at PigSlaughterhouse5.2.2 Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)The collection and management of solid wastes is a municipal function and each town is responsible for thecollection of solid waste and its transport by truck for final disposal at the available city-owned and operateddumpsites; there are no sanitary landfills. There are three official dumpsites serving the city (together witha number of informal dumpsites); the largest of these being located on a bank of the main river, resulting insignificant pollution of this watercourse. Small informal dumpsites can also be found at various locationsacross the city.To address the growing solid waste disposal needs of the city, three new sanitary landfill sites and a transferstation are planned and use of the existing dumpsites will be terminated once these are in operation.In general, solid waste collection activities appear to be working reasonably well in most parts of the city asthere little solid waste was observed in the urban areas. In some peri-urban areas, however, collection ispoor and solid waste, together with livestock waste, is a significant problem. At one location in particular,this was observed even adjacent to the municipality’s waste collection vehicles, see Figure 5.2 below. Inthe same area, cattle were bathing in contaminated runoff water, see Figure 5.3 overleaf, and the wholearea drained to a large pond used for bathing large numbers of cattle. This large cattle colony produceslarge quantities of manure, which is collected by local farmers for spreading on crops without any priortreatment, see Figure 5.4 overleaf.Figure 5.2 – Solid Waste Strewn Across a Large Urban Area (Dairy Cattle Colony) adjacent toMunicipal Waste Collection Vehicles
  • 54. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 28 of 253Figure 5.3 – Cattle Bathing in Waste Contaminated Water Amongst Piles of Solid WasteFigure 5.4 – Collection of Cattle Manure for Distribution to Local FarmsSince waste collection is generally good for most of the urban areas final disposal of waste is the main issue.The main official dumpsite was visited by the Study Team; it serves six of the nine towns of the City andaccepts some solid waste from other sources. During the rainy season, some of the solid waste bound forthis dumpsite is diverted to a large informal dumpsite on a bank of the main river due to access difficultiesat the existing site. It is assumed that this situation also occurs at the other dumpsites.Approximately 50 to 60 permanent waste pickers operate at the main dumpsite, although none live at thesite itself. Small numbers of dogs, cattle, and goats also scavenge at the site. The site was established in1994 and only has capacity for another year or two, if the current finished ground level is maintained. Thesite has no lining and is simply an open dumpsite, although filling is controlled as is access to the site forvehicles. There is no security fence and it is located alongside a trunk road that is still under construction.Facilities include two small offices and a weighbridge at the entrance to the site, alongside the new road.Typical photos of the site are shown in Figure 5.5 below, where waste pickers can be seen in operation(yellow bags contain clinical wastes) and there is evidence of livestock market wastes in the form of beddingand manure.
  • 55. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 29 of 253Figure 5.5 – Typical Photos at Main City Dumpsite Showing Scavenging and Animal WastesAll of the municipal dumpsites operate seven days per week and have no tipping fee, yet significant illegaldumping still continues and can be seen only a few hundred metres from the dumpsite itself, see Figure5.6.Figure 5.6 – Municipal and Animal Wastes Only a Few Hundred Metres from the Main CityDumpsiteA private company has its modern composting plant located adjacent to the main city dumpsite and itreceives deliveries of appropriate wastes from the dumpsite, particularly those containing higher volumes oforganic material. One truck per day (five days out of seven) of animal waste is received at the compostingplant from one small slaughterhouse, as well as cattle dung from local livestock markets. The company has
  • 56. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 30 of 253an agreement with the city government to accept 500-1,000 tonnes of waste per day, delivered free, with10% of the profit being paid to the City; however, after 2.5 years no money has been received by the City.The design capacity of the plant is 500-1,000 tonnes/day, but due to limitations in capacity from both sidesonly 200-300 tonnes/day has been achieved. An expansion plan to increase the site area from 28,000 m2to60,000 m2is ongoing and expected to be implemented in 2008. Figure 5.7 shows a sorting area (left) andcomposting activities (right) at the composting plant.Figure 5.7 – Modern Composting Plant Adjacent to the Main City Dumpsite5.2.3 Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)The collection and disposal of solid waste is the primary responsibility of the City Administration. Solidwaste collection and transport to disposal is undertaken at sub-city level using a total of approximately 70trucks, mostly of the roll-arm type. There are ten sub-cities and collection is free for residents and smallbusinesses. In addition, there are five small private waste companies currently operating a total of 17 trucksthat generally collect from larger enterprises, hospitals, and hotels.For municipal solid waste, collection bins / skips are located around the City to serve local communities andsmall businesses, whom take their own waste to these bins; although it was observed that collection is alsomade on a door-to-door basis in some areas by private operators using pushcarts collecting from smallbusinesses, such as butcher shops. In general, the City appears to be reasonably well kept and is generallyfree from uncontrolled waste dumping. Whilst travelling around the city, there was little evidence of solidwaste in the streets; only a lack of communal bins / skips was observed as many bins were overflowing.Many people leave their bags of waste adjacent to the skips, allowing the informal sector to flourish (i.e.animal scavengers and waste-pickers). Overall, the solid waste collection service seemed to be workingreasonably well, and there are plans to improve this to keep up with the city’s expansion, through furtherprivatisation of the collection services.A single open dumpsite is managed by the City Administration and is the only official repository for finaldisposal of solid waste and all municipal waste collected by the sub-cities is deposited there. To encouragedisposal at this location and avoid illegal dumping, there are no dumping fees charged to the private sector.Illegal dumping does still occur, however; most likely to reduce fuel / transport costs.There is estimated to be approximately 500 waste-pickers operating at the dumpsite, all of which live closeto the facility. However, there are three distinct groups of waste-pickers:A small number of organised groups operating in the older parts of the dumpsite, close to the office,collecting mainly metal products. They use shovels to dig holes up to two metres deep to locate theirproducts, share tasks, and share the profits once sold. These are generally young men from outsidethe City and operate in groups of 7 to 10, see Figure 5.8 overleaf.Individual or small groups of waste-pickers that operate in the ‘fresh’ dumping area and await eachand every delivery of waste as it is discharged from the trucks. In addition to scavenging for plastics,metals, etc., they also scavenge for food and can sometimes be seen taking away parts of dumped
  • 57. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 31 of 253carcasses, see Figure 5.9. These scavengers are mainly women, children, and older people;although there is also a contingent of young men who can become aggressive (security guards wererequired for a second visit to the site).A small number of individual waste pickers that scavenge what they can from the whole of the site.Figure 5.8 – Waste-Pickers Scavenging for Metal Products at DumpsiteFigure 5.9 – Waste-Pickers Scavenging ‘Fresh’ Waste at the Dumpsite (left) and One PickerCarrying a Scavenged Carcass Leg (right)The waste arriving at the site is said to be 80% organic and there is evidence of animal wastes, bones, skulls,feet, etc. from both small and large ruminants across the site. It is reported that dead animals are dumpedat the site, including dogs and donkeys, but no freshly dumped animals were visible during the Team’s visits.The City has a severe problem with stray dogs (and rabies) and often cracks-down, poisoning large numbersof stray dogs2(see Figure 5.10 overleaf) and disposing of them at the dump site; although it was reported2HSA Comments (Feb 2009) – Poisoning is likely to present a significant risk to the health of local people (especiallychildren), livestock, and wildlife that also share these areas; it is also unlikely to be a humane killing method. Adviceshould be sought from appropriate animal welfare organisations on this issue.
  • 58. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 32 of 253that in such instances, the carcasses were typically dumped in a pit, burned, and covered at the site.The dumpsite is unfenced, although there is some security provided for the site workers, which numberabout 26. Within the Sanitation Department there are a total of 46 staff in three teams: transport, solidwaste, and landfill. The main issues with the current facility are:Unhygienic conditions.Pollution (soil, water, and air).Lack of machinery (four bulldozers, two awaiting repair).Figure 5.10 – Poisoned Stray Dogs Outside the Main Livestock Market Destined for Disposal atthe DumpsiteDumping of industrial and hospital wastes.Dumping of animal wastes (including one skip per day of rotting material from the main municipalslaughterhouse, see Figure 5.11 below).The site becomes too wet during the rainy season.No cell system or proper covering / capping of dumped material.Human and animal (mainly dogs and goats) scavengers at the site.A lack of skills and capacity within the agency.Figure 5.11 – Slaughter Waste from Main Slaughterhouse Arriving at the Dumpsite
  • 59. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 33 of 253There are detailed plans for a new 78 hectare sanitary landfill to be constructed, although funding forconstruction is still an issue. The work was previously funded through the development agency of theFrench government (AFD) and design and draft drawings are comprehensive. It is estimated that thecurrent dumpsite will be operated for another five years and will then be converted to a sorting, recycling,and composting facility.5.2.4 Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)Lack of good waste management is acknowledged as being a serious environmental problem, and thecountry is far behind its North African neighbours in terms of modern and effective solid waste management.However, it was accepted that the lack of proper waste management collection and disposal systems wascontributing to the prevention of development of the country as a whole, and in recent years a number ofnationally and internationally funded waste management projects and initiatives have been implemented.Whilst some of these projects relate to physical infrastructure, the most important development has beenthe encouragement of private sector involvement and investment.Currently around 95% of the country’s Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) is disposed of to open dumps. Whilstscavenging both at dumpsites and in the city MSW containers is common, no formal recycling industry existsat present; recyclables are generally sold by scavengers to dealers who then export most materials forre-processing abroad. There are currently no special disposal sites or methods for the country’s medical,industrial, and hazardous wastes, and these, in addition to most wastes from the meat processing sector,are disposed of into MSW dumps.A waste management law has recently been passed, the key articles of which are as follows:Polluter/producer pays, and is responsible for SWM in accordance with subsequent articles.With the exception of vegetable matter, all open burning of wastes is prohibited.Preparation of a national waste management master plan, with each region being held to prepareregional master plans.Agricultural wastes and inert industrial wastes may not be disposed of with MSW, other thanfollowing a detailed analysis of the materials in question.Hazardous wastes may only be disposed of in specially designated facilities according to thehazardous wastes disposal master plan.Medical and pathological wastes may only be disposed of in specially designated facilities accordingto the hazardous wastes disposal master plan.Import and export of wastes is prohibited.Fines and custodial sentences for infractions to the law.Evidence on the ground suggests that little implementation or abiding by the law occurs. Two cities werevisited by the Study Team in this country and brief summaries for each are as follows:City 1Since 2001, MSW collection has been carried out by six private companies, each of whom has a seven-yearcontract for a particular area of the city. These companies make daily collections and are paid by the Cityaccording to the mass of solid waste delivered to the city dump. The collection system appears to beworking reasonably well and the City is very pleased with the decision to involve the private sector.Currently all waste collected and formally disposed of ends up at the city dump, some 10 km south of the citycentre. This facility, which is also operated by a private company on behalf of the City, represents a severeenvironmental concern in many aspects; hundreds of animals of various species graze on the wastes, manyunprotected human scavengers sift through the site, which has been observed to contain slaughter wastes,dead pets and stock, medical waste, and hazardous wastes. The leachate generated by the dump is blackin colour, grossly offensive in odour and it runs in an open culvert through the village in which the pickerslive. Beyond the waste-pickers’ village, the leachate is discharged directly into the adjacent river at a veryhigh rate, and is clearly causing enormous environmental impact, as it appears to have a very high Biological
  • 60. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 34 of 253Oxygen Demand (BOD) of somewhere in the region of 12,000, see Figure 5.12.Figure 5.12 – Cattle Grazing amongst slaughter waste at Dumpsite (left) and LeachateRunning into the Road Below the Dumpsite (right)Fortunately, this dump is soon to be closed, and the construction of a sanitary landfill some 10 km or so tothe south west, is almost complete. The operators of the existing dump will also be operating the newlandfill, and it was encouraging that they will be providing the pickers currently operating at dumpsite witha dedicated materials recovery facility (MRF), equipped with sanitation facilities, in which to continue theirbusiness in a far safer and more efficient environment than they presently do. In addition to the MRF (seeFigure 5.13 below), the new landfill will be completely fenced and secured, and will be equipped with aleachate collection and treatment system, a rainwater collection system, offices, maintenance workshops,and a recyclables storage yard.Figure 5.13 – First Completed Cell (left) and the Future MRF (right) at New Sanitary LandfillThe new landfill will not accept all types of waste, as the current facility does; however, the authorities havean increasingly urgent issue in that they have yet to decide how these special wastes will be disposed. TheStudy Team learnt of plans to establish a national centre for toxic waste disposal, possibly in cooperationwith German funding via KfW, but the latest details on this are unfortunately unknown.Once the new landfill is operational, the City plans to implement a post-closure plan for the dumpsite,understood to comprise of capping, gas collection and flaring, leachate collection and treatment, andlandscaping.
  • 61. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 35 of 253City 2The Study Team was not granted a meeting to discuss the waste management situation in the City. Aproposed visit to the City’s landfill was not granted, and as a result, the background to the solid wastemanagement situation in the City provided below is based on local observations, a meeting with a privatewaste collection and disposal company operating locally, and through discussions with the local consultantsthat formed a part of the Study Team.City 2 is less affluent and more densely populated than City 1 above, and an immediately obvious differencebetween the two cities in terms of solid waste management is street cleanliness. Whereas City 1 isreasonably well kept, with streets cleaned from time to time and with frequent MSW collections, the streetsof City 2 are strewn with litter and municipal waste, and any pockets of unused land or wasteland havebecome illegal dumping sites where animals scavenge for food (see Figure 5.14). Although not evident tothe visitor, there has apparently been a recent drive to clean up the streets of the City, understood to bedriven by the desire to increase tourism.Figure 5.14 – Sheep and Goats Scavenging Food from Illegally Dumped MSWAs urbanization continues the solid waste management pressures are worsening. The City, which isresponsible for waste collection and disposal in the area, has awarded concessions to private companies forthe collection of MSW in much the same manner as City 1; however, the coverage and setup of thesecontracts is unknown.The vast majority of the City’s 3,000 or so tonnes per day of solid waste are disposed of at the City’s landfill,which is, according to all reports, a similarly poor site as the City 1 dumpsite described above, withuncontrolled access by pickers and scavengers, animals grazing on the wastes, and uncontrolled dischargeof leachate causing contamination of local water bodies. It is understood that plans exist to replace thedump with a sanitary landfill; however, these plans could not be confirmed by the Study Team.Medical, industrial, and hazardous wastes are all understood to be predominantly disposed of at thedumpsite with the MSW.5.2.5 Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)The waste management policy and systems of the city visited are complex, due in principal to thecumbersome institutional setup prevalent in the country; a relic of earlier devolution. SWM policy in thecountry is set out in the General Solid Waste Law which, inter alia, sets out responsibilities and stipulatesthat:Setting policy and standards with respect to SWM is the responsibility of the National EnvironmentalCouncil (NEC).The NEC is also responsible for coordination of those bodies responsible for implementation of thelaws (see below) and for the promotion of integrated SWM plans.
  • 62. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 36 of 253The Environmental Health Directorate within the Ministry of Health, is responsible for regulatingtechnical and sanitary aspects of solid waste management, and approving environmental impactassessments (EIAs) for new facilities (although all EIAs and site selection for landfills are alsounderstood to be approved by the Ministry of Agriculture).Within the Ministry of Health, the Basic Sanitation Unit is responsible for registering MSW operators,and providing an inspection service for the City’s many illegal uncontrolled dumps, declaringhazardous zones in a state of emergency to municipalities as necessary.Actual SWM services are the responsibility of individual municipalities, who must also develop andimplement SWM strategies and ensure a decent level of street cleaning.Municipalities must approve all SWM infrastructure.Dangerous wastes are defined as those that have a detrimental effect to either human health or theenvironment.All producers of dangerous wastes must employ a dedicated SWM contractor that has beenapproved by the Ministry of Health.The dumping of MSW in unmanaged dumps is illegal.Each of the City’s 43 municipalities is responsible for providing solid waste management services to itsinhabitants; however, the individual municipalities are overseen by the Metropolitan Municipality (MM).Whilst the individual municipalities are free to decide to some extent on their budgets, collection anddisposal methods, and numbers of workers, the MM develops regulations, issues authorisations and permits,and also acts as a policing body with the power to fine municipalities for contraventions.The principal disposal technique is to use open (illegal) dumps, managed landfills, or sanitary landfills. Thenumber of sanitary landfills varies according to source, and is generally said to be five; however, a reliablesource suggested that in fact only one landfill serving the city is actually sanitary. This was confirmed by theStudy Team to some degree in visiting a landfill that was claimed to be sanitary, which was a well managedlandfill but would not qualify to be called sanitary in the common acceptance of the word.In addition to the main five landfills, of which two are owned and operated by the MM and three are ownedand operated by private waste management firms, the City is host to many open dumps, large (of whicharound 25 exist) and small. Whilst municipalities are, in theory, held to the waste management law and areobliged to dispose of their waste at one of the landfills, the Study Team observed municipal collectionvehicles dumping waste at informal dump sites and pig colonies on more than one occasion, and it is widelyaccepted that some of the poorer municipalities cannot afford to dispose of their wastes properly. Onemunicipality visited has a privately operated landfill within the municipality; however, they cannot afford todispose of their wastes at the landfill.Despite the legislation, no overall solid waste strategy or master plan is understood to exist for the City, andwith Municipalities having free reign over where they dispose of their wastes, and with partial private sectorinvolvement, the system is far from efficient in terms of transport, with many municipalities disposing oftheir waste in each other’s municipality instead of disposing of their waste to the nearest controlled dump orlandfill.Around 50% of the City’s MSW remains uncollected, principally in the poorer municipalities. In these areas,waste is generally disposed of by residents in illegal dumps, where there are no security controls and whichare usually frequented by scavengers, many of whom keep pigs on the site, feeding them on organic wastes.The City’s landfills and dumps all accept slaughter wastes, and the one landfill visited by the team has a setfee for slaughterhouse waste tipping of US$10 per tonne, and provided confirmation that slaughter waste isreceived there daily. Contracts and financial arrangements vary between municipalities; however, the MMcurrently pays US$3 per tonne for MSW disposal.Whilst all five sanitary landfills in the area will accept medical and slaughter wastes, there apparently existsa dedicated facility for disposal of industrial and hazardous wastes some 60 km from the City. The tippingfee at this facility is US$200 per tonne for hazardous wastes.
  • 63. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 37 of 253According to the MM:The National Environment Council is responsible for slaughterhouse waste;The Ministry of Health is responsible for medical waste; andThe Ministry for Production is responsible for Industrial waste.As previously mentioned, the MM has the capacity to sanction other municipalities if they fail to meet theirSWM obligations or are caught dumping illegally. The MM has its own policing division, consisting of 20officers, and around 300-500 fines per year of US$2,000 are issued.If a municipality is seen to be grossly neglecting its responsibilities for SWM, MM has the power to relieve themunicipality in question of its responsibility and associated funds.5.3 OVERVIEW OF MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER MANAGEMENTMunicipal wastewater collection and disposal is poor to very poor in all countries visited, and these aresummarised for each country below:Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)Municipal wastewater mainly comprises domestic sewage, industrial wastewater, and septage. A stateowned company is responsible for the collection and treatment of these wastes, but at present very little ofthese wastes are collected and treated, with most finding their way directly into the local drainage and riversystem. In 2003, it was estimated that only 4% (18,410 m3/day from a total of 458,000 m3/day) of thesewastes were being treated. Ongoing urban upgrading and drainage projects will improve this situation overthe next 5-10 years and will provide collection systems and treatment plants for a large proportion of thecity.Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)The Water and Sewerage Authority (WASA) is responsible for the overall collection and disposal of liquidwastes in the City, in conjunction with each town. There is little wastewater collection across the City andthere are no treatment facilities for either municipal or industrial waste. All wastewater discharges to theCity’s drainage system and into the watercourses in and around the City.According to the Study Team’s findings here are few qualified staff at WASA and capacity is very weak;however, a World Bank assisted urban development project is in progress that is assessing the appropriatedepartments and how they can be improved.Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)Liquid wastes are the responsibility of the Water and Sewerage Authority (WSA). Only about 3% of the Cityis served by a sewerage system, the remainder using either septic tanks or more commonly latrines that areemptied by both WSA and private vacuum tankers.Trunk sewer lines are not widespread and the sewage collection system covers only the centre of the City,but there are plans to extend the system starting in 2008; however, no information was available for theStudy Team. Access to services depends on location; if in the city, it may be possible to connect to thesewerage system, if not vacuum truck is the only solution, collecting from either septic tanks or morecommonly latrines. The main municipal slaughterhouse is close to the sewerage system but is notconnected to it.WSA trucks provide the collection service for individual households, government facilities, hospitals, andeducational facilities; all private enterprises, however, are served by the private sector. The WSA has 18trucks and are planning to purchase another 20 in the near future. The private sector comprises 20 trucksoperated by ten small firms.The cost of emptying latrines is US$8 for a residential household and US$20 from other institutions by WSAtrucks; in contrast private firms charge approximately US$20. Expansion of the truck collection system is
  • 64. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 38 of 253also planned for the private sector, with the government offering incentives to encourage the private sectorand reduce illegal dumping, by fixing the treatment charge at approximately US$2 / truck and offeringtax-free spare parts for vehicles.There are two wastewater treatment plants, only one of which is currently operational due to new roadconstruction works which are restricting access to the other. The main wastewater treatment plant acceptsall of the flows from the sewerage system in the City by gravity flow. The main wastes treated, however, arethe contents of latrines brought to the plant each day by vacuum tanker and seasonally from septic tanks.Both treatment plants use lagoon systems and when operational are reported to operate very effectively,mainly due to actual biological loading being only about half of the design loading. The current treatmentcapacity of the operational plant (Figure 5.15) is 7.5 MLD and the site area is 177 hectares; averageretention period is 30 days, this being 12.7 days in a facultative pond, 5.9 days in a maturation pond, then5.9 days in each of two polishing ponds. Average influent BOD5 is 180 mg/l (plant design is 350 mg/l) andan effluent BOD5 of 21 mg/l. During the dry season there are four anaerobic ponds, which accept septagefrom septic tanks, for pre-treatment prior to treatment in the main ponds. Drying beds are also available atthe site for use during the dry season. In contrast, the second treatment plant has only facultative,maturation, and polishing ponds.Figure 5.15 – Operational Municipal Wastewater Treatment PlantNo livestock or slaughter wastes are treated at the main treatment plant; however, even though not fullyoperational, the second plant accepts 3 to 4 tanker loads per day from the waste storage tank at a privatelyowned slaughterhouse; comprising mainly wash-down water and blood with a minimum amount of solids.This waste is screened using very crude screens before discharging into the ponds, see Figure 5.16.Figure 5.16 – Crude Screening of Wastewater from Private Slaughterhouse
  • 65. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 39 of 253Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)The sewerage system of City 1 is very basic and also in a poor state of repair. There are no separatestormwater and sewage collection systems, and currently all of the City’s wastewater (estimated at 1.43m3/sec or 124 MLD) is discharged untreated to the sea via numerous coastal outfalls. As with the MSWcollection and disposal, the City has contracted a private company to rehabilitate, upgrade, and extend thesewerage and stormwater systems over the next thirty years, and part of the project includes the installationof wastewater treatment plants, the suppression of the coastal outfalls, and the construction of a sea outfall.As the Study Team were not granted permission to visit any sites in City 2, by the local authority, thewastewater collection and treatment systems cannot be described.Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)The responsibility for liquid wastes in the country is more complicated than for solid waste, with differentagencies assuming different functions according to an unusual model. The waste water collection andtreatment system is operated by a state-owned company that has some degree of control over what theyaccept into their sewers, and carry out some basic analyses of slaughterhouse effluent, but at the momentthe standards used are reasonably lax, with no biological parameters, and control and punishment ofcontraventions rare.At the present time, however, only 12% of the City’s domestic residences have connections to a reticulatedsewerage system, but there are plans to lift this to 25% in the future. Much of the present industrial effluentthat finds its way into the sewers is merely subjected to coarse screening, if any, and then discharged via seaoutfalls. Most of the wastewater streams from slaughterhouses and live markets contain heavy microbialloads and this deficiency in the legislation both hampers control of potentially dangerous discharges fromthese sites and reduces priority for control by the Ministry of Health.As the Study Team were not granted permission to visit any sites by the local authorities, the wastewatercollection and treatment systems cannot be described further.5.4 OVERVIEW OF WASTES FROM THE LIVESTOCK AND SLAUGHTER SECTORWastes from the livestock and slaughter sector are many and in each of the countries visited there weremany similarities, particularly with respect to the re-use and recycling of a large proportion of the animalwastes. However, there are significant differences in some areas, such as the collection and use of bloodand the handling of paunch wastes and hides. An overview of handling of these wastes is detailed in thesections below for each of the five countries visited.5.4.1 Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)Solid WastesDue to the extensive recycling of waste products (fifth-quarter) that occurs in the city, there is little wastethat is actually disposed to the municipal waste systems. From the Study Team’s observations anddiscussions with facility operators, veterinarians, and other industry stakeholders, solid wastes emanatingfrom legitimate urban livestock and slaughter facilities are negligible and comprise only limited floorsweepings and some mixed garbage.Using an arbitrary definition that “products” are those items that attract revenue and that waste attracts acost to be disposed, then it can generally be stated that solid waste from the live market, slaughter, andretail sectors are relatively small and principally consists of dung and intestinal contents. In general, allanimal tissue products from the slaughter of livestock are considered edible or useful, and as aconsequence, they have a value; this includes blood in either raw or coagulated form. Small quantities ofsoft tissue may not pass into edible consumption; however, these are utilised as supplementary feeds forpoultry or fish ponds.Solid waste is further minimised as intestinal contents often generate a neutral revenue/cost position, oreven a small revenue position, as they are considered satisfactory feedstock to support fish pond farming
  • 66. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 40 of 253activity through the supply of nutrients to the ponds.Possibly the second largest waste component is cooked bones, as these are generally disposed to themunicipal waste collection system. This falls outside the scope of this study, however, as such waste isgenerated by the consumer rather than the slaughter sector. Whilst beef animals are fully boned at theslaughter site, the bones continue to have a value for the preparation of soup stock for use with noodledishes and are sold on to restaurants and consumers for this purpose. It is believed that bones may evenbe collected from larger restaurants for further use/processing, although this could not be confirmed.Liquid WastesThe main waste stream from slaughterhouses is in liquid form, which comprises wash water, small amountsof spilt blood, and very small amounts of organic material. In urban areas, this wastewater is dischargeddirectly to the local drainage system and subsequently ends up in the local rivers mixed with the municipalwastewater. In peri-urban areas, this wastewater is discharged to farmland or more often to local fishponds.Liquid waste from the slaughter sector is relatively lightly contaminated as blood, which is a majorcontributor to organic load, is largely recovered as an edible product. There is very little use of hot water andtherefore oil and grease levels will be low as there is insufficient temperature to entrain fats from the carcassin the wastewater stream.The major component of organic load in the wastewater is spilled blood and intestinal material resultingfrom product washing and from surface wash-down operations. The wastewater from processing wasobserved to pass to three disposal routes:(i) Directly into pond systems where the nutrients are considered valuable for the production offish;(ii) Directly to market garden applications where the nutrients provide valuable fertiliser; and(iii) Directly into the local drainage system.The only wastewater treatment unit observed in operation was a simple ‘settling’ tank at the one of the pigslaughterhouses. In essence this tank was being utilised to recover solids for utilisation in fish ponds, thecontents being primarily pig hair, blood, and very small amounts of trimmings.In general, therefore, it would be considered that the quantity of water and the level of organiccontamination will be relatively low and, therefore, from an environmental perspective the impact is small.The potential for disease vectors via fish or via produce from market gardens is considered to havepotentially greater human impact than the direct impact of organic load on the environment.Perhaps the greatest concern observed at the slaughter sites was the uncontrolled disposal of human wastedue to inadequate sanitation facilities at the sites. Open defecation was observed at some sites, see Figure5.17 overleaf. Within the actual sites themselves, the human waste from open defecation appeared to beable to be entrained in the facility’s wastewater and therefore also pass directly to fish ponds, marketgardens, open drains, or sewers without any treatment; see Figure 5.18 overleaf. It is considered thatthere is potential for human disease vectors due to this scenario and that, as a priority, properly sanitationamenities should be considered for all slaughter and meat processing sites.
  • 67. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 41 of 253Figure 5.17 – Evidence of Open Defecation at Drainage Canal Adjacent to SlaughterhouseFigure 5.18 – On-Site Facility for Open Defecation at a Slaughterhouse (left) and the Channelto which it Discharges (right)5.4.2 Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)Solid WastesThe largest volume of solid waste generated by the meat products sector appears to be from the livestockmarket facilities where significant volumes of dung, contaminated straw, and bedding are generated. Thestraw and bedding is utilised in the live animal transport trucks and at the market this waste materialappears to be dumped almost at random anywhere from where the animals are unloaded to alongside theopen channel near the market. Truck ingress and egress from the market site is extremely difficult and itappears that when a truck gets stuck in the traffic this becomes an opportunity to offload the waste material.The Municipality cleans the area up on a weekly basis and transports the solid material to an open dumpsitesite near the river.
  • 68. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 42 of 253Figure 5.19 – Cattle Truck Wastes Dumped adjacent to the Local RiverWhile there appears to be significant volumes of waste material being generated at the slaughter facilities,the appearance is somewhat misleading as many of the piles of material are intended for food, fat recovery,or poultry meal production. One ‘fifth-quarter’ employee was situated at the main drain of the goatslaughterhouse to recover pieces of animal tissue coming down the drain, for sale to poultry mealmanufacturers, see Figure 5.20. The most significant solid waste material generated at the slaughterfacility is the stomach contents of the cattle, buffalo, sheep, and goats and the complete small intestines ofthe buffalo (which are difficult to empty and therefore the intestine is difficult to recover).Figure 5.20 – Fifth-Quarter Wastes Being Collected from the Slaughterhouse DrainWhilst the level of recovery of all livestock wastes for use as food, fat recovery, or poultry feed is very highat the large slaughter facilities, it was observed that the volumes of material wasted to disposal at the twosmaller slaughterhouses were higher. This was due to lower economies of scale, on one hand, and the lackof skills to recover some material (e.g. omasum – a portion of the stomach) on the other. Where these
  • 69. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 43 of 253materials were not being recovered for edible purposes they were often being downgraded to fat recoveryor poultry meal raw material.Whilst the owners of the livestock at slaughter are many, as each animal is owned by the retailer orwholesaler at this stage, the more “exotic” animal waste materials recovered, such as intestines, omasum,bladder, etc., find their way back to a small number of traders via a range of intermediaries. Theseintermediaries often provide upfront finance to the people who recover the items in order to secure supply.It was observed that while many people were involved in these activities, the finance stream acted to makethe supply chains work reasonably efficiently.Whilst hair and wool is often generated during the processing of feet and heads, due to the local scaldingand de-hairing processes, it appears that all the feet and heads are singed and recycled, therefore resultingin no solid waste of this type going to disposal.A small portion of the solid waste from the live markets (straw) and the cattle and mutton slaughter activity(stomach contents) is rerouted to a private composting site adjacent to the main municipal solid wastedumpsite. The composting operation is very selective, however, regarding the material it will accept, toensure the quality of its product.Solid waste from the poultry sector is generally small in volume but dominated by material from the live birdtransport vehicles themselves, e.g. dead stock, feathers, bedding, etc. All of the solid waste from theslaughter of poultry was being collected by the local poultry meal manufacturers.A significant proportion of the fat rendering and poultry meal production is performed using extremely basictechnology in local warehouses in the area surrounding the main municipal slaughterhouse. Some wastematerial results from these processes; in particular we were advised that solid residues from the recovery ofthe fat is disposed to landfill, i.e. a municipal or illegal dumpsite, though this could not be confirmed. It isassumed that these volumes would be small and reasonably inert as they are cooked at boiling point to driveoff the moisture and release the fat.The retail sector does not appear to generate any solid waste material from livestock, it is all sold.The livestock market and slaughterhouse solid wastes are collected on a regular basis (daily at theslaughterhouse; weekly at the livestock market) and transported for disposal at a landfill site (localdumpsite). Any pathological waste is reported to be pit burnt with kerosene, though this was not evident atany of the slaughterhouse sites.Liquid WastesThe most important contaminant of meat sector wastewater is blood due to its very high organic andnutrient loading potential. At the main cattle slaughterhouse, rudimentary efforts were in place to recoverthe blood and remove it from the wastewater stream, see Figure 5.21.Figure 5.21 – Collection of Blood from Open Drains at the Cattle Slaughterhouse
  • 70. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 44 of 253An entrepreneur had set up a system where the main blood collection drains were sandbagged and the rawblood collected from the drain into tubs and tanks for transport to a nearby cooking kettle. At the cookingkettle the blood was coagulated and cooked until much of the water had evaporated. The resultingcoagulant was then spread in the open air to dry further. The resulting meal was being used as an animal(mostly poultry) feed ingredient. Due to the lower volumes available, this practice was not in place at thesmaller slaughterhouses, or for the sheep and goat slaughter, and the full volume of blood at these sites wasentrained in the wastewater.The second largest organic load in the wastewater is the liquid portion draining from the intestinal contents.These contaminants do not have an extremely high BOD load, like blood, but are high in suspended solidsand nutrients (particularly phosphorous). All slaughter wastewater appeared to discharge to waterways viathe municipal drainage systems. The contaminants entrained from slaughter operations would contribute tothe generation of anoxic conditions due to BOD load and to eutrophication due to nutrient load. Improvedrecovery and utilisation of blood would reduce the impacts considerably.An unsightly impact of direct flow to open waterways, is that large waste components often becomeentrained in the wastewater and are very obvious once they appear in the waterway. While there does notappear to be great amounts of waste lost in this manner, a simple screening system would eliminate itsoccurrence and would recover recyclable waste that is likely to be acceptable as raw material for poultry feedmanufacturers.The other sources of liquid waste from the meat products sector are:Contaminated stormwater, particularly from the extensive live market areas: andWash-down water from retail operations.5.4.3 Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)Solid WastesSolid waste from the slaughtering sector is generally confined to bones, paunch material, and largeintestines. There was not observed to be the same imperative to wrestle value from every part of thecarcass as was observed in other countries (such as the other two low-income countries), possibly becauseof the populace’s clear preference for meat (i.e. non-offal) products. Overall, there is little livestock wastedisposed of at the municipal facilities, particularly since the enterprise has commenced a series of initiativesin the past three years to develop some other revenue streams from wastes to supplement the slaughterfees.At the processing site, solid wastes falls into the following main categories:Heads.Inedible offal.Hides/skins.Spines/ long bones.Hooves.Horns.Tails.At the retail level too, it was observed that there was little material wasted. The main spinous process(protrusions composed of ligament, cartilage and other dense bone-like matter protecting the spinal cord) isremoved from the beef carcass at the slaughterhouse. Brisket and rib cuts are normally boned-out at retaillevel and there is virtually no trimming of meat muscle. Some stores seem to follow European cuttingguidelines, but this is not common. The small amount of waste generated at retail level is either sold as petfood in plastic bags or, if beyond sale, disposed of with the municipal waste collection system via hand-cartswhich are brought around by the city workers, or sometimes the private sector, periodically through the day.The cart contents are brought to a central point in each neighbourhood and collected by the City sanitation
  • 71. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 45 of 253vehicles. Waste from the retail sector generally comprises unsold product including bones and a smallamount of peripheral and paper waste.Waste from the informal slaughtering of livestock is likely to be similar to the above, but is difficult toquantify. These wastes are likely to find their way into the municipal solid waste and /or illegal dumping.The sheer size of the informal slaughtering sector makes this a significant issue.Liquid WastesLiquid wastes from the livestock markets are mainly generated during the rainy season, when the dung fromlivestock cannot be collected and is washed into the local watercourses with the site runoff.Liquid waste from the slaughtering sector is heavily contaminated with organic material and invariably hasa high BOD because of the content of blood disposed with the wash-down water. The wastewater producedis mostly untreated and is discharged to local watercourses, with the exception of the one privateslaughterhouse which holds wastewater in a storage tank, the contents of which are transported daily to amunicipal wastewater treatment plant (lagoon system), see Figure 5.16 earlier in this section. Blood is notsaved in either the formal or informal sector, with the exception of the small pig slaughtering operation andthe cattle slaughter at the main municipal slaughterhouse, where the blood is retrieved for pharmaceuticaluse once per week, mainly for a long-term tsetse fly eradication programme, see Figure 5.22. Most otherwastes from the beef and sheep carcasses are either considered edible or are processed intorevenue-earning items.Figure 5.22 – Collection of Pig Blood for Pharmaceutical UseAt retail level, liquid waste is minimal and comprises only water used for wash-down or cleaning. Manyshops lack chillers or refrigerators that require cleaning, nor is it common practice for tiled areas or floors tobe scrubbed daily. As a result, any liquid waste from the butcher shop sector would be regarded asinconsequential.5.4.4 Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)Solid WastesSolid waste from the slaughter and processing sector is generally confined to:Inspection seizure (condemned material).Some bone.Horns.Paunch material.Foetuses.
  • 72. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 46 of 253Feathers.Some white offal.Large intestines.Blood is considered as waste in all sectors and is not even retrieved for uses other than consumption, but issimply washed away with water to the local drainage system or nearest watercourse, where present. Allother items have a market and are consumed.Unlike the majority of countries in the Study, many of the non-edible items mentioned above are trulyconsidered as wastes, and are not recycled or rendered into other products but are simply disposed of in avariety of methods.Whilst the country is renowned for its tanning industry, due to a change in national legislation part-tannedsheep and cattle hides are no longer competitive on the international market and thus are increasinglybecoming a waste product that is stockpiled or disposed of to dumpsites.At the retail level very little waste was observed, and consisted principally of bone. Vendors order their meatshrewdly so as to avoid excesses, but supermarkets inevitably have some expired product, which is oftenreturned to origin for disposal. Scraps, trimmings, and some bones are commonly sold for use as pet foods.Liquid wastesLiquid waste from the processing sector is heavily contaminated with organic material and invariably has ahigh BOD because of the content of blood disposed with the wash-down water to the local drainage systemor nearest watercourse.At retail level, liquid waste is minimal and only comprises water used in wash-down or cleaning. Many shopslack chillers or refrigerators (which would require cleaning), and it is not common practice for tiled areas orfloors to be scrubbed daily. As a result of the above, any liquid waste from the retail sector is regarded asinconsequential and is disposed of to the local drainage system.5.4.5 Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)Solid WastesThe meat products sector in the city produces little livestock waste requiring disposal, as the vast majorityof wastes from the processes are recycled in some way, either on site by the slaughterhouse or processor,or by dedicated companies producing one or two products.Livestock wastes from the industry that are generally recycled are as follows:Feathers.Viscera.Some white offal.Trimmings / screenings.Rumen contents.Pork blood.Fat.Figure 5.23 overleaf shows recycled slaughter wastes at one slaughterhouse.
  • 73. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 47 of 253Figure 5.23 – Recycled Slaughter Products at a SlaughterhouseWastes from the industry that are generally for disposal comprise:Cattle Blood.Veterinary inspection seizures.Horns.Hooves.Wash water.At the retail level, despite seemingly excessive trimming of cuts, very little waste was observed for disposal,and there appears to be a ready market for the cheaper cuts and trimmings for use in stocks and as aflavouring agent. Vendors order their meat shrewdly so as to avoid excesses, but supermarkets inevitablyhave some expired product, which is generally simply disposed of to the main MSW collection.Liquid WastesLiquid waste from the processing sector is often heavily contaminated with organic material despite thecollection and use of some blood and is generally disposed of to local watercourses.At retail level, conditions are similar for Middle-Income Country 1 and any liquid waste from the retail sectoris regarded as inconsequential and of low concentration so is discharged to the local drainage system.5.5 WASTES BY FACILITY TYPE5.5.1 Livestock Market Wastes(a) Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)There are few livestock markets close to the Study City and the markets in and around the city are primarilyfor poultry; all of which are required to be outside the city limits, since avian influenza became a seriousproblem, around 2003. At one market, however, live piglets (2.5 months old) are traded every three daysor so, compared to the daily trade of poultry. Livestock market wastes are therefore related mainly topoultry with some pig waste.Waste management at the poultry live markets visited comprises only the discharge of wash-down waterand a little split blood into adjacent fish ponds, in addition to any small trimmings and bird droppings thatcould not be sold. There is no formal collection of waste materials and each stall owner looks after theupkeep of their own area and wastes produced. Bird droppings are mostly trodden into dirt floors, butwhere there are paved they are washed away into the local drainage system and fish ponds. Where thereis sufficient material to be collected, this is disposed to the local fish ponds (see Figure 5.24).
  • 74. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 48 of 253Figure 5.24 – Disposal of Poultry Wastes to Fish Ponds, Either Directly (left) or Via MarketDrainage (right)At the pig market, manure only (no bedding or feed) from about 200 pigs per session is collected and usedas crop fertiliser. Small biogas plants are currently being trialled in certain parts of the country for thetreatment of pig wastes at farms and small villages, which may be applied countrywide if found to besuccessful.(b) Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)PoultryThe major solid waste material from the urban poultry market is dead birds. Each consignment of birds isheld for a short period (without food, water, or bedding) and therefore manure, bedding, and other solidwaste is not significant. The variable mortality rate meant that many dead birds were removed from thetrucks; these were collected by the market association and sold for rendering, see Figure 5.25 below.Individual slaughterers/traders sell their waste to renderers under contracts.Figure 5.25 – Removal of dead birds (left) and animal wastes in truck (right)
  • 75. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 49 of 253At the rear of the urban poultry market, where the poultry slaughter takes place, wash-down water is theonly liquid waste produced; and it drains to the municipal open drainage channel at the rear of building. Thischannel contains much municipal solid waste from the surrounding area; little waste comes from the marketitself and there appeared to be no evidence of carcasses, dead birds, or other poultry products in the channelduring several site visits; see Figure 5.26.Figure 5.26 – Drainage channel upstream (left) and alongside (right) Urban Poultry MarketCattle, Buffalo, Sheep, and GoatsManure and bedding from trucks are left in-situ at the main market, see Figure 5.27, although once a weekit is reported that the excess waste bedding is collected for disposal at a municipal dumpsite at the edge ofthe city. The site appears to be an old dumpsite and is still in operation, although unofficially. No activerecycling of organic material is practised besides the odd truck driver placing recycled bedding in truckswhen opportunistic back-loads of livestock were secured.Figure 5.27 – Manure and Bedding WasteFallen stock appear to have one of two fates; if still alive, immediate (emergency) slaughtering at theassociated slaughterhouse (and introduction into the human food chain), or if dead, removal to nearbyrenderers for processing. Emergency slaughter is most common and the results can be seen outside themain cattle slaughterhouse where wastes are simply dumped in the street, see Figure 5.28 overleaf.
  • 76. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 50 of 253Figure 5.28 – Emergency Slaughter Waste in the Street Outside the Slaughterhouse(c) Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)PoultryThere are no formal live poultry markets in the city and live birds are sold at the public markets only forslaughter at home, waste therefore becomes a domestic solid waste and is covered by the MSW system.Sheep and GoatsSheep and goat manure is scattered wherever they graze at the many small informal markets around thecity, see Figure 5.29, and wherever they are kept at the formal markets. Yard sweepings are used asfertiliser if collected from the stone floors at the formal markets; however, quantities are low as there is littlefeed or bedding available at the markets.Figure 5.29 – Typical Informal Market for Sheep and GoatsDuring the rainy season, manure waste is washed away untreated with runoff at the formal markets and intolocal watercourses, causing significant problems with water pollution. At one market visited there is nooutfall point to a local watercourse and thus a holding pond at the lowest part of the site is reportedly beingconstructed; however, the capacity of the storage pond is unlikely to be adequate and polluted water will stillescape from the site during the rainy season.CattleCattle manure is collected, dried, and used for fuel pats during the dry season at the formal markets. Thereis little feed or bedding used at the markets or on the trucks used for transporting the animals. Dead stockis minimal and taken away for disposal, if encountered; but this is reportedly infrequent. Manure waste and
  • 77. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 51 of 253polluted runoff during the rainy season at the formal markets is the same for sheep and goats above.PigsThere is no formal or informal live market for pigs in the city; marketing is conducted at the farm orwholesale at the point of slaughter, i.e. at the main municipal slaughterhouse.(d) Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)Municipalities are responsible for the operation of municipal live markets and slaughterhouses, and receivefees from vendors. In return, municipalities should be providing at least some basic forms of facilities andservices, including cleaning and waste management.All live markets visited were strewn with litter and other wastes (see Figure 5.30), and cleaning servicesare clearly not provided; any reduction in wastes is believed to be through scavenging. Some markets hadskips provided, but these appeared not to be emptied with any regularity.Meetings with officials suggested that cleaning of live markets and removal of wastes occur on the dayfollowing the market; however, a visit to one such market on a non-market day showed that no cleaning ofthe site had taken place, and no solid waste collection had been made. The municipality, therefore,appeared more interested in collecting fees that providing any service to the market, as the Study Team wasapproached very swiftly and asked to leave the site by officials from the Ministry of the Interior.Figure 5.30 – Litter and Animal and Human Wastes at Livestock MarketsNo dead stock and stray animals were seen at any of the livestock markets, and all reports suggested thatanimals are taken to slaughter as soon as a terminal illness is suspected. Dead stray animals are presumedto be simply left to decompose along with the other wastes in the markets.The waste management issue of most concern with respect to live markets is that the livestock markets arealways accompanied by an associated slaughterhouse, and as discussed below, waste management is asequally neglected for these facilities as it is for the livestock markets. The inevitable result is that slaughterwastes, both solid and liquid, overflow into the live market (and general market) areas, representing a veryreal danger to public health.It should be noted that access to the live poultry wholesalers was not granted and therefore no commentcan be made with respect to their operation.(e) Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)Manure collection at livestock markets is generally not formally organised but almost certainly occursthrough scavenging for fertiliser and fuel. At one market there are apparently volunteers that collect waste,though this was not observed during the visit by the Study Team.
  • 78. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 52 of 253The lack of rainfall means that there is little runoff to stormwater collection systems, but more importantlythe low rainfall means that most droppings dry out very rapidly and are either removed or are broken up anddispersed. The marketplaces are large and of open gravel, and most stock are ruminants on rough feed sothe pats are small, firm and dry, and do not represent a serious threat unlike the faeces of other species.Municipal bins are the main end point for market and other sweepings.It appears that any animal showing disease or debilitation is rushed to slaughter meaning that dead (i.e.non-slaughtered) stock is rare, and there are no special procedures for dealing with this type of waste.With respect to poultry markets, the droppings are regularly swept up and removed in sacks by a privatecompany that uses it as fertilizer locally. Drainage is only provided in the slaughter area of the market.Birds that are dead on arrival (roughly 1%) are removed by the truck driver to the central depot where anagent for the supplying farm can tally the mortalities and the market supply docket with the supply docketfrom the farm of origin. This system prevents the truck driver from stealing birds for personal sale orconsumption, but it must be said that this constitutes an unnecessary risk for the spread of disease,particularly given that the depots house many live birds.5.5.2 Slaughterhouse Wastes(a) Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)The main slaughter wastes and their disposal routes, re-use, or recycling are described in Tables 5.1 to 5.3below. Sheep and goat meat are not popular and thus there is no official slaughter facilities for theselivestock; it is likely that the slaughter of such animals is undertaken at household level and mainly in ruralareas.Table 5.1 – Poultry Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1)Waste DescriptionBlood Blood is mostly collected for edible purposes. While it is eaten raw in some instances(there is a belief that duck-blood provides health benefits) it is usually coagulated andcooked to provide a rich nutrient food source.Feathers Feathers are generally recovered, separated into soft and hard feathers, dried undernets and reportedly sold to Chinese traders.Thoracic offal Thoracic offal is mostly considered edible, any unwanted items or trimmings are soldeither as pet food or for fish feed.Intestinal Offal Much of the intestinal offal is considered edible, any unwanted items or trimmings aresold either as pet food or for fish feed.Intestinal contents can also be recovered and utilised as fish feed.Wastewater In general the waste-water is only lightly contaminated with organic material asalmost all organic material from the slaughter of poultry has a value and is recovered.Waste-water from the larger formal slaughter sector flows either to sewer or to opendrainage canals.Wastewater from the smaller slaughter sector located at markets, etc. generally flowsin nearby fish ponds and is considered a valuable nutrient source for these ponds.Other Other small quantities of solid waste material can be disposed in a number of ways. Itis understood that:- generally this solid waste source can be disposed into fish ponds;- it is sometimes buried (with or without lime); and- it is sometimes pit burnt.Pathological waste gathered by veterinary authorities is either buried with lime or pitburnt.
  • 79. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 53 of 253Table 5.2 – Pig Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1)Waste DescriptionBlood Blood is mostly collected for edible purposes. In most instances it is coagulated andcooked to provide a rich nutrient food source.Hair Pig hair is gathered from the floor of the slaughter areas and is disposed into carts forcollection and discharge to landfill with the municipal waste. However, at oneslaughterhouse pig hair was collected from the wastewater using a small interceptor/ sedimentation tank and used by a local farmer.Thoracic offal Thoracic offal is mostly considered edible, any unwanted items or trimmings are soldeither as pet food or for fish feed.Intestinal Offal Much of the intestinal offal is considered edible, any unwanted items or trimmings aresold either as pet food or for fish feed.Intestinal contents are recovered and utilised as fish feed.Wastewater In general the wastewater is only lightly contaminated with organic material as almostall organic material from the slaughter process has a value and is recovered.Wastewater from the larger formal slaughter sector flows either to fish ponds, marketgardens or to open drainage canals. The only pre-treatment system observed was asedimentation tank, as mentioned above, where solids were being recovered to besold as fish feed to a local farmer.Other Same as for poultry above.Table 5.3 – Cattle Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 1)Waste DescriptionBlood Blood is mostly collected for edible purposes. It is coagulated and cooked to providea rich nutrient food source.Hide The hide is recovered and sold to the hide trading sector where it often passesthrough a number of intermediaries as the volumes are increased in order toaccumulate a tradable package. At some early stage in this process the hides aresalted but this does not occur at the slaughter locations.Thoracic offal Same as for pigs above.Intestinal Offal Much of the intestinal offal is considered edible, any unwanted items or trimmings aresold either as pet food or for fish feed.Intestinal contents are recovered, placed in plastic containers and collected by localfarmers for use as fertiliser or fish feed.Bone All bone is sold to customers to be utilised in the preparation of soup stock for use withnoodle dishes.Wastewater In general the wastewater is only lightly contaminated with organic material as almostall organic material has a value and is recovered.Wastewater from the formal slaughter sector was observed to flow directly into anopen drainage canal without any pre-treatment.Other Same as for poultry above.(b) Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)Tables 6.4 to 6.5 provide a brief summary of the slaughter wastes from poultry and ruminants(cattle/buffalo, sheep, and goats). Being a Muslim country, there was no pig slaughter.
  • 80. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 54 of 253Table 5.4 – Poultry Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 2)Waste DescriptionBlood Absorbed into the feathers and disposed with the feathers and skin to poultry mealmanufacturers.Feathers Disposed with the skin to poultry meal manufacturers.Thoracic offal Mostly recovered as edible and material that is not is disposed to the poultry mealmanufacturers.Intestinal Offal Disposed to poultry meal manufacturers.Wastewater Disposed to sewer but observed to be reasonably low in organic content due to theabove mentioned blood recovery process.Other Feet are sold as edible for the production of soup stock/bouillon and heads aredisposed to poultry meal manufacturers.Dead stock, etc. Disposed to poultry meal manufacturers.Table 5.5 – Ruminant Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 2)Waste DescriptionBlood In the main municipal slaughterhouse the blood is collected in a sandbagged blooddrain and recovered in tubs and drums for transfer to a nearby coagulation anddrying facility. It is estimated that probably 70-80% of blood is recovered in thisway.At the smaller slaughterhouses blood is not recovered and it flows with thewastewater directly into the discharge system.Hide Recovered and disposed in fresh/green form to intermediaries who accumulate thehides and transfer them to larger operators with warehouses where the hides arepreserved by stack salting.Thoracic offal Most of the thoracic offal is edible, lung material is often sold in small packs forfeeding to birds (crows), waste material from larger slaughter operations isrecovered and sent for manufacture into poultry meal. In smaller operations, anywaste material is disposed to landfill via a waste skip and arm-roll truck.Intestinal Offal Most intestinal offal is recovered, particularly the stomachs and intestines. Buffalosmall intestines are disposed to landfill as they are impossible to flush of intestinalmaterial.Intestinal offal that is able to be cleaned is either utilised for edible purposes or asraw material for poultry feed manufacture.Stomach contents are allowed to drain and the solid portion is loaded into a rubbishskip for disposal to landfill.Intestinal contents are generally flushed into the wastewater and disposed throughthe drainage system.Bone Beef in is generally sold bone-in. If boning is performed (e.g. by supermarkets) thenthe bones are often provided to low wages employees as an in-kind bonus.Some flat bones are separated for delivery to gelatine manufacturing plants.For sheep and goats, carcass sold bone-in.Wastewater Wastewater is disposed directly to the receiving canal or river without any treatmentat all, not even any primary screening.Dead stock, etc. Sometimes delivered to the zoo as animal feed otherwise incinerated.
  • 81. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 55 of 253(c) Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)Poultry slaughter is typically conducted at household level and as such is outside the scope of the Study. Anywastes from poultry will therefore be disposed of with household wastes and by the local MSW services.Wastes from the formal slaughter of cattle, sheep, and goats are briefly described in Table 5.6.Table 5.6 – Ruminant Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 3)Waste DescriptionBlood All blood at the main slaughterhouse mixes with wastewater and goes to the on-sitesewerage system. There is no possibility of retrofitting a collection process in any of thehalls as there is no elevated crush and insufficient height to install a bleed area. In theChristian hall there is a tiled bleed area which was abandoned some years ago. Thesmall-stock lines in all halls also dispose of blood to sewer. However, on a Tuesday,after the pig slaughter, the ALERT project team collect blood for the tsetse flyeradication programme.Blood at the small municipal slaughterhouse also goes to sewer.At a privately-owned slaughterhouse blood can be collected over a bleed trough andsent to a tank for separate removal, but there is currently no market for the product soit is disposed with the wash-down water.Hides / skins Hides are rinsed and shipped to tannery for processing. They are not salted prior todespatch. Rinse water goes to the site sewer / drainage system.Thoracic offal The viscera are removed without tying off the gut or oesophagus; it is normal at all sitesfor red offal to be contaminated with ingesta. The liver, lungs, and other red offal areindexed with the carcase for inspection, marked with the same ID as the carcase andshipped with the beef sides.Rejected product is either burnt or sent to rendering.Intestinal Offal The paunch material is dumped to wastewater. In the Muslim hall at the mainmunicipal slaughterhouse this takes place in a low concrete sink. In the main Christianhall, there is a separate room with a hole cut through the concrete slab to thebasement. A small crate runs on a pulley between the two floors to enable a betterrinse of the paunch before it is sent back upstairs to the main floor to be shipped to thebutcher with the beef sides.At the small municipal and private slaughterhouses the paunches are rinsed in aseparate room and sent with the carcasses to the butcher.Bone Carcasses are shipped bone-in with the exception of the spinous process. In all threehalls the spinous process is removed by pole-axe and sent to rendering.Wastewater All wastewater from the municipal slaughterhouses goes to the on-site sewerage /drainage system that discharges to the local river. A modern treatment plant does existat the larger facility but is bypassed, as the facility cannot afford the chemicalsrequired.At the private facility, the wastewater discharges with other quantities to a storage tankwhere it is pumped out daily to a tanker for transportation and disposal at a municipalwastewater treatment facility.Dead stock, etc. Livestock which die in the holding yards of the main municipal slaughterhouse are likelydisposed of in the scrubland adjoining the riverbank. The birdlife and wildlife areeffective treatment systems for these instances. At all times there are up to 50 vulturesperched on the roofs of the abattoir buildings at all municipal abattoir sites.Because the population is predominantly Orthodox Christian and Muslim, pork is not widely consumed andis therefore limited to a small percentage of the local population and visitors/foreigners. All official pigslaughtering in the municipality is conducted at the main municipal slaughterhouse. The pig slaughter is
  • 82. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 56 of 253scheduled on a weekly basis (Tuesday morning) and normally comprises only 30-50 animals at a time.Slaughtering of the pigs is conducted on a separate level of the facility to ensure there is no cross traffic withproduct coming from the Muslim and Orthodox Christian slaughter halls.Pigs are processed skin on and hair is removed by hand following scalding and further singed with blowtorches. Pork bodies are split in two by pole-axe and are shipped head on. Waste products for pigs aredescribed in Table 5.7.Table 5.7 – Pig Slaughter Wastes (Low-Income Country 3)Waste DescriptionBlood Currently blood from the pig slaughter line is collected for use in a sterile tsetse flybreeding programme.The collection system is extremely efficient and on the day of the visit was observed tobe collecting in the order of 90% of the blood.The remaining portion (or all blood when the collection process is not in operation)mixes with other wastewater.Hair Following scalding the hair is removed by knife shave and collected under the stand.The material is discarded with general waste to the Municipality dumpsite.Thoracic offal This is removed after splitting and hung in sequence (more or less) with the pork bodiesto enable inspection. It is then despatched with the sides to the butcher shop orwholesaler.Intestinal Offal No weasand clips are used. Upon evisceration the gut offal is dropped onto the floor.The labourers then retrieve it to rinse out runners which are tied in bundles and shippedwith the carcass. The balance of the intestinal material is sent to rendering.Wastewater All wastewater from the pig line goes to the sewerage system. There is a save-all grillon some of the drains but a quantity of material from evisceration goes to sewer aswell.Dead stock, etc. Animals that die before slaughter would likely be processed anyway and the carcasspresented for inspection by the veterinarian. Dead stock from the holding area wouldbe incinerated on site.Treatment / DisposalAll of the formal slaughter facilities in the city deal with solid and liquid waste in similar ways, with theexception of the private slaughterhouse which has special arrangements for disposal of liquid waste asdescribed above. Inedible product is disposed of either to on-site sewers, to a specific end-use, or torendering at the rendering facility of the main municipal slaughterhouse.There was no provision made in the design of the municipal facilities for blood to be retained, consequentlyit is mixed with the wastewater from processing. At the main facility, this material joins other liquid wastecollected in the site’s basic drainage system and is discharged into the adjacent river. Approximately twoyears ago a wastewater treatment plant was constructed at the site, 70% donor funded; however, this hasceased operation due to the cost of the chemicals required for operation. At the small municipalslaughterhouse, blood mixes with wastewater and is sent into the nearby creek which is also part of thesame river system.Effluent from the private slaughterhouse is collected and held in a concrete storage tank which is pumpedout several times daily and transported by tanker about 15 km to one of the city’s two wastewater treatmentsites.Solid waste at the main municipal facility is handled by the plant’s rendering system which was renovatedapproximately five years ago. The system comprises two batch cookers each with a capacity of six tonnesand outputs from the process are meat and bone meal and tallow. The enterprise is in the process ofdeveloping markets for each of these products although this has been hindered by the feed bans introducedsubsequent to the BSE crisis in the 1990s. It currently markets meat and bone meal to poultry growers andto horticulture companies, whilst tallow is sold to local soap makers. The enterprise has also introduced glue
  • 83. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 57 of 253production (from hooves); gelatine manufacture; and has taken shares in the fertiliser company which usesmeat meal and meat and bone meal.The rendering system processes spinous processes; bones that are not included in shipments to butchershops; emptied paunches and intestinal matter; heads, and inedible offal and other material. The renderingplant reportedly takes similar materials from the other slaughterhouses.From observations at the municipal dumpsite one full arm-roll container of slaughter wastes is received eachday from the main municipal slaughterhouse.At the private slaughterhouse market demand has also been identified for the following products, withconsequent effort to develop viable markets: swisher hair (tails); selected horns (ceremonial use); horn tipand sexual organs (herbal and oriental medicine); neatsfoot oil, and raw bone.(d) Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)Whilst the waste management with respect to the different slaughterhouse types are described below, twogeneral overriding observations can summarise the slaughterhouse waste management sector:No edible body parts are wasted, and indeed many parts that in other countries might be consideredas waste to be disposed are considered as delicacies. The exception to this rule is of course blood,which is not consumed for religious reasons.The concept of recycling slaughter wastes is totally unheard of and no rendering occurs anywhere inthe study area.Local slaughterhousesThe management of wastes at the local slaughterhouses, attached to each livestock market, is regrettablynothing short of appalling. The collection and separation of solid wastes at the processing level is poor; allwastes are generally either brushed, swept, or barrowed out of the slaughterhouse, and are dumped in anarea within open public access, sometimes right in the main market area, see Figure 5.31. Inspection ofthese piles of waste revealed paunch manures, non-term foetuses, intestines, horns, hooves, blood, andother pathological type wastes, refer to Figure 5.32 overleaf.Figure 5.31 – Slaughter Waste Piled Outside Local SlaughterhousesWithin the slaughter halls there are no solid waste separation bins; in fact there are no containers at all forwastes, which are strewn on the floor and picked up following the butchery. Most rural slaughter halls haverudimentary drainage systems, but these lead to soakaways or the municipal sewers without any form oftreatment. With no screening and collection of blood, the organic load of this liquid waste must beconsiderable, and of course pathogenic risks are high, particularly when the liquid runs to soakaways. Thereis effectively no control over the epidemiology of most diseases because the waste recycles into theenvironment untreated where livestock and scavengers are exposed.
  • 84. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 58 of 253Figure 5.32 – Poor SWM Practices at Local SlaughterhouseAs mentioned above, large piles of slaughter waste are present in the vicinity of the slaughter hall and theseare open for both human and animal scavenging. In addition to the main pile of waste in the “designated”area, all facilities were surrounded by historical and fresh evidence of poor waste management; with manyhorns, bones, feathers, and bits of fur being observed.Poultry and rabbit waste was allowed to lie where it fell at the site of sale and/or slaughter and was beingscavenged by dogs and egrets even during the market.Whilst evidence suggested that slaughter wastes were not collected on a weekly basis, the majority of thesewastes must be removed periodically, as the piles were large and in some cases aged, but were notenormous and ancient. Furthermore, and in common with reports received in the field, slaughter wasteswere observed at the local dumpsite, confirming that when these wastes are collected, they are disposed ofto an open dump, again with public and animal access.Whilst the scavengers on the local dumpsite may not actually remove the slaughter wastes or regard themas having any value (although some reports suggested that they do indeed remove these wastes for feedingto pets or adding to sausages), their very presence in amongst the other municipal wastes being sortedthrough by the poorly protected workers represents a significant health risk to the workers, and anepidemiological risk to all in the region.Responses to questions on the fate of pathological wastes varied, but included:Placement in a pit at the back of the slaughter hall.Placement in a pit and doused with an accelerant then burnt – this was queried due to the enormousamounts of propellant likely to be required, and lack of oxygen supply in a pit.Placement in a pit and doused with whitewash or creosote.Dousing with whitewash or creosote then ejection to the main slaughter waste pile.Municipal Slaughterhouses – City 1Standards of waste management at municipal slaughterhouses are variable, but are in general better thanat the local slaughterhouses.Solid wastes from slaughtering, such as white offal and horns, are collected in heaps, much like at the localfacilities. At one facility visited, these wastes were barrowed outside to a skip across the road from theslaughterhouse in an area of open public access adjacent to the main road (much was also scattered on theground around this skip). It is understood that the skip is collected by the municipality or their contractorsand transported to the local dumpsite for final disposal.Liquid wastes are not treated or screened and are discharged directly into the sea via drains cut through therock and opening at the foot of the cliffs some 150 m from the slaughterhouse. These discharges are often
  • 85. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 59 of 253located close to beaches and enter coastal flows, posing potential health risks to both human and local fishpopulations.In contrast, another slaughterhouse’s solid waste management is much better. At the processing levelwastes are separated and placed in differently identified plastic bins, the destiny of which is as follows:White offal such as bladders, gall bladders and colons etc are incinerated;Pathological waste and inspection seizures are incinerated;Rumen contents, holding pen bedding and manure are “composted” on site (see below);Blood and other liquid wastes are discharged untreated and unscreened to the municipal sewers,which in turn discharge directly to the sea within several hundred metres.It should be noted that the on-site incinerator is extremely old and though functional is not of a standard thatcould be described as acceptable in terms of emissions (based on visual inspection and the fact thatincineration only occurs at night, so as to avoid complaints from local residents). However, regardless ofemissions, the incineration of the slaughterhouse’s most dangerous wastes must surely be preferable toejection to an area of public access or transport to the local dumpsite, as described above.The composting that was reported to occur on site is extremely basic, and essentially involved the storageof paunch manures in piles outside the lairage. It should be noted that the piles appeared to be extremelysmall given the throughput of animals at the facility. The Study Team queried this but were assured that allrumen contents were indeed composted on site.Further note should be made with respect to cattle hides. As mentioned elsewhere in this report, a recentchange in regulation has had a detrimental effect on the domestic tanning industry. As a result, theslaughterhouse can no longer find a buyer, or even someone prepared to remove the hides at no charge,and so the slaughterhouse is currently stockpiling its hides (see Figure 5.33).Figure 5.33 – Stockpiled Hides and the IncineratorMunicipal Slaughterhouses - City 2The main slaughterhouse at City 2 has some excellent waste management systems in place; however it isnot without fault, and is not making full use of the available facilities.The different types of solid waste are collected during the process in different containers according to theirdisposal method, which in summary are as follows:Trimmings and pathological and inspection seizures are collected in steel bins and incineratedon-site;Rumen contents are collected by a dedicated system and pumped to a drying area; andBlood and wash-water are collected in a series of liquid drainage channels and are then pumped to
  • 86. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 60 of 253the on-site wastewater treatment plant.An on-site multi-chamber rotary-type incinerator is of a reasonable design and is capable of reaching highcombustion temperatures and residence times. It has a 400 kg capacity per cycle, and is capable of runningtwo cycles per hour. The incinerator treats roughly 3-4 tonnes of waste per day, and the resulting ash is sentto landfill.Prior to incineration the pathological wastes should be dyed blue to prevent workers from scavenging;however, this appeared only to be observed to occur when the Study Team’s presence was known inadvance. The same lack of standards applies to the incinerator operators, who were well-protected whenvisited officially, but not so well-protected during a separate less formal visit, see Figure 5.34.Figure 5.34 – White Offal Collection (left) and Incinerator (right)The slaughterhouse’s wastewater treatment plant can pre-treat to a high standard if required to do so. Atthe present time, the operators readily admit that waste is treated to a minimal standard due to the extracosts involved in treating to a higher level (with greater use of poly-electrolytes and other forms offlocculation, coagulation, and aeration).Paunch manures are held on site in a dewatering bay, however for unknown reasons the operators have notbeen able to find a buyer for the desiccated product and at present it is disposed of to landfill. Thesupernatant generated from dewatering the paunch manure is directed back to the wastewater treatmentplant for processing. Truck wash-down facilities at this site were also directed to the plant.It should be noted that whilst blood is mixed with wastewater and subsequently treated, the slaughterhouseis actually equipped with a blood collection and drying system; however, due to a lack of market for the driedblood, presumed to be due to the Muslim aversion for the product, there is no market for it and hence theequipment remains unused, thus a valuable commodity is lost and the costs of treating liquid effluent areincreased.Animal mortality during transport and holding is apparently rare (16 cattle are reported to have died sinceoperation began in 2002); however, when it does occur, it reported that a full autopsy is carried out prior toincineration of the entire carcass.“Live” Chicken ShopsAs explained in earlier reports, this country has a preference for customer-selected animals, slaughteredbefore the client so as to guarantee freshness. The only wastes from these concerns are the intestines andfeathers; all other body parts such as the offal, head, feet and crops are provided with the bird to thecustomer. The intestines and feathers are simply ejected to MSW containers and are then sent to the localdumpsite, where they are evident in considerable quantities. Blood and wash-water goes directly tomunicipal sewers in all cases.
  • 87. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 61 of 253Industrial Poultry ProcessorsThe large commercial poultry slaughterhouses and processing facilities visited by the Study Team wereobserved to keep reasonably good waste management practices on-site; however, their off-siteresponsibilities were drawn into question by team observations and also by the manager of one the plant’sprivate waste collection companies.In terms of process controls, both facilities visited had dedicated waste collection bins at all work stationsand separation of different items by employees was good. Both companies contract a private operator toremove their solid slaughter wastes, which can be upwards of 8 tonnes of material per day. These wastesare generally composed of feathers, guts, and trimmings, and in one facility blood is used (dedicated bloodcollection and storage system). At the second facility the blood from their process was simply discharged tothe municipal network following screening. In both cases, the facilities had either secure cages or holdingtanks for the safe storage of wastes prior to collection, see Figure 5.35.Figure 5.35 – Slaughter Waste Storage cage (left) and Liquid Waste Screening (right) at aProcessing FacilityThe slaughter wastes collected by private companies from these large commercial poultry plants is disposedin one of two ways, depending on the quality of the company used and the price paid:Disposal with no pre-treatment to landfill;Illegal dumping of the waste alongside roads and on fields/in culverts.Veterinary inspection failures and birds that die during transport or holding are disposed of in a variety ofmanners. One facility incinerated these items, along with product returns, in their antiquated on-siteincinerator, whilst the second facility visited simply minced the offending organ or bird, and then sent it tothe solid waste holding tank. Both facilities had rudimentary treatment of their liquid wastes prior to ejectionto the municipal systems, essentially consisting of mechanical screens.(e) Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)As with all other aspects in this section, the degree of safety and proficiency in terms of waste control andmanagement varies greatly according to the facility type.Large Ruminants and PigsThe larger slaughterhouses for large ruminants and pigs all have reasonably good waste control systems inplace at their facility. Whilst wastes are collected in individual containers used for specific purposes only (forexample pathological waste, trimmings, etc.) these containers are generally poorly labelled, emptied lessfrequently, and the storage areas are less secure than the modern poultry plants (as described below).In the municipal facilities, which are all situated alongside rivers, waste control systems are very basic, witha simple plastic container being used for the storage of pathological wastes prior to their removal. Most
  • 88. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 62 of 253other body parts have a ready market in these poor areas, so only a small amount of trimmings are ejected,generally with the wastewater. Hooves and horns are either placed in the pathological waste bin if there isspace, or alternatively they are discharged to the river, where dogs wait at slaughter times.In general terms the management of solid wastes from the larger meat processing operations in the city isof a reasonably good standard; however, the systems varied at the two facilities visited. Waste flowsobserved were as follows:Both slaughterhouses had private companies collecting the following wastes (usually paying for theprivilege):o Hides (although in some instances of low volume customers, these accompany the carcass);o Rumen contents, which are composted (see below); ando Pig blood, which is made into products for human consumption.Both companies disposed of their beef blood and wash water in the same way; both are dischargedto the municipal sewers following removal of gross solids via screens.One slaughterhouse sends any bone and fat waste to a private company for reprocessing, whilsttrimmings and inedible offal are simply send to landfill. In the case of this slaughterhouse,pathological waste is incinerated on site using an antiquated incinerator.At another slaughterhouse, all biological wastes other than blood are rendered on site; tallow (fats)is first removed and sold to a food company for use in ice creams and chocolate, then the residuesare further rendered to pet food, along with any pathological wastes.One private composting company collects all rumen contents and some sludges in the City, processingroughly 5,000 tonnes per month into its product. The process takes 90 days to complete and is a first in thecity.Whilst the Study Team attempted to visit the external companies dealing with much of the city’s slaughterwastes, little success was encountered; however, it is understood that the majority of these processors usehigh temperature rendering equipment.Figure 5.36 – Ruminant Waste at a Dumpsite (left), Rendering at a Slaughterhouse (centre)and Dogs Scavenging by the outlet from a Slaughterhouse (right)Municipal facilities occasionally have small and invariably ancient incinerators on site; however, in reality allsolid wastes that are not ejected with wash-water end up on municipal dumps, where they are occasionallyincinerated at low temperatures.In the smaller regional and village slaughterhouses, the volume of animals processed and the distance from
  • 89. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 63 of 253a contract renderer precludes rendering as a disposal option. In these cases the solid wastes from animalprocessing are directed to a local low-order landfill. It is suspected that some of the visceral material mayfind its way into swill feeding operations for pigs, although this was not verified directly.PoultryThe modern privately owned poultry plant was again the most impressive in terms of waste control andmanagement. All wastes are separated in the slaughter and butchery area, with pathological wastes goingto one colour bin (which is regularly emptied), whilst trimmings go to another and feathers to another.With respect to recycling and disposal, the following operations occur:Feathers and viscera are sent for processing to meal and fertiliser by a private firm.Trimmings are used as ingredients for processed foods such as sausages and nuggets.Blood is collected in large vats and is taken by a private firm. The end use is unknown, but onesuspects it may end up being swill fed to pigs.Office wastes such as paper and plastic are segregated on site and then collected by a privatecontractor, presumably for re-sale or re-processing.Wastewater passes through a primary settling tank before being discharged to primary gross solidsremoval, sedimentation, and then to an aerated lagoon fitted with 30 hp surface aerator, followedfinally by a polishing pond prior to discharge for adjoining landholders to use.Mortalities are composted on site along with material from gardens in grounds:o The cycle is 120 days.o On inspection the process was odorous and obviously in imbalance – possibly needing pHadjustment.o The firm have undertaken a study comparing composting costs versus gas incineration andcomposting was far less expensive.o Composted material is used within gardens / lawns in the slaughterhouse grounds.Heads are removed after skinning and are apparently rendered on site, however this operation wasnot seen, and nor is the final use of the rendered product known.After fleshing off, the remnant carcasses are ground up for use in pet food by a separate privatecompany.Heart, liver, lungs, and gizzard are packed in plastic bag within the body cavity of the processed birdsand are supplied to the purchaser. In the case of jointed birds, the pluck goes to the process facilityand is included in the recipe for sausages and other products.At the small-scale poultry slaughterhouses, waste control is also fairly simple in that the customer receivesthe entire bird, minus the feathers and usually the viscera. Feathers are simply left in piles around theplucking station to be collected once slaughtering ends. Viscera and blood are stored in a variety of plasticcontainers on site, and these are collected at the end of the day’s slaughter session (see Figure 5.37overleaf).There is a vibrant and very alarming industry based on the supply of offal wastes from enterprises such asthe poultry processors at the chicken market and slaughterhouses. The viscera and blood from operationssuch as this, and almost certainly similar wastes from other informal sector slaughterhouses, finds a readymarket for the swill feeding of pigs at a variety of pig colonies, tenant farms, and illegal dumps. Hugevolumes of viscera are generated in the city every day, and all of it is thought to be sold for swill feed. Themajority of the viscera is cooked prior to feeding to pigs; however, a minor proportion is fed raw, which isa serious avian influenza risk.
  • 90. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 64 of 253Figure 5.37 – Collection of Feathers after Slaughter (left), and Storage of Chicken VisceraPrior to Collection (right)One female trader was known as the “Pig Queen” because she seemed to have cornered a large portion ofthe market, collecting viscera, skins, head and feet as well as poultry blood for direct supply to urban pigproducers. Until recently, this material was fed raw to pigs. This is an extremely dangerous risk factor foremergence of pathogenic influenza as mixing of pathogenic avian influenza viruses with human virus in thepig, resulting in pathogenic human forms of the virus is possible.Other AnimalsThe informal slaughtering site at one market was observed to have waste collection drums on site,understood to be provided by the municipality (with blatant disregard for the proper facilities being providedat the local slaughterhouse); however, it was also observed that these were only used by some; theremainder threw the slaughter wastes, which included hydatid cysts, into the nearby river, downstream ofthe slaughter area where dogs were observed to be scavenging; refer to Figure 5.38.Figure 5.38 – Informal Sheep Slaughter, Municipality-Provided Drums, River Disposal, andDogs Scavenging (left) and a Hydatid Cyst Found on the Ground (right)Liquid WastesAs has already been covered, liquid waste management in the meat processing sector in the Study Cityranges from basic treatment, prior to discharge, to no treatment at all. In the case of the largerslaughterhouses, there is some effort made towards primary screening of the waste liquid stream prior topassing to the municipal sewer, but the systems that were observed are now grossly inadequate to handlethe current volume of material. The operator that manages the sewage collection and treatment in the Citydictates the discharge levels that the plant should comply with in terms of organic strength, suspended
  • 91. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 65 of 253solids, temperature and pH. The frequency of checking by the regulator was not determined, but in-houseanalysis is undertaken regularly by the operator.In the smaller municipal slaughterhouses, the wastewater from processing merely undergoes very basicphysical or gravimetric solids separation prior to discharge to the nearest water course. In these cases,there is reliance on not exceeding the assimilative capacity of the receiving waters, not out of environmentalconcern but public health concerns. Contaminated water may remain pathologically active for someconsiderable distance from the point of entry to the water course.Blood and trimmings at municipal facilities as well as some level of contaminated meat and offal are washeddown via a floor drain through a basic basket sieve and into the river situated near the plant. At the pointof discharge into the river, the local dogs congregate and were observed to feed on the solid waste from thedrain.5.5.3 Meat Processing WastesMeat processing plants in the three low-income countries visited are not common, but where they werefound they exist primarily in the private sector serving small niche market products, such as cooked meats,western-style meat cuts, sausages and the like for supply to high-class supermarkets, restaurants, andhotels. The processing facilities typically have high-quality imported equipment and observe internationalstandards of hygiene, worker safety, and product control generally using a cold-chain. Wastes from thefacilities visited where generally small in quantity and mainly comprise wash-down water and packaging;solid waste was either incinerated on-site (rudimentary facilities) or collected with the MSW. Liquid wastesare discharged to local water courses after simple sedimentation or screening.In middle-income country 1, some boning plants were present in which control over hygiene is excellent,with staff wearing special clothing including hair-nets and face masks, and stainless steel and polystyreneequipment is used. There are protocols in place to maintain cleanliness, and the cold chain is alwaysobserved. Staff have access to good toilet and wash facilities, and wash-down was observed to be of thehighest quality. Both facilities visited are very particular about their suppliers, and one of the two has its ownfarm / feedlot for the supply of meat to the boning room; although only 20% of their animals end up at thefacility, the remainder being sold to butchers as split carcasses. Work practices are in both cases excellent,with well trained staff operating in good lighting conditions in a chilled atmosphere. The larger of the twofacilities visited, with a current production of 25 tonnes of product per week, is the only facility visited duringthe country visit to be accredited to the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system. Whilststandards of hygiene and work practice were observed to be excellent, off-site waste management practiceswere not so good, but in keeping with the general methods and practices encountered in the study area;essentially both facilities ejected their solid wastes (almost entirely composed of bone, and estimated to beroughly 30% of the input weight) to a municipal solid waste container for disposal to the local dump. Liquidwastes, which are essentially wash-water and chemicals (the blood having been drained at slaughter) aredischarged directly to the municipal sewers.5.5.4 Public Market WastesLivestock and slaughtering were generally not a part of public markets in low-income countries 2 and 3, sorelated waste issues were ignored. In the three other countries, however, the following was observed:Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)Live poultry and fish are commonplace at local public markets and occasionally pigs can also be seen.Slaughtering and processing of the animals is carried out on the floor at the market stalls, see Figure 5.39overleaf.Liquid wastes are washed into covered drainage channels and discharge untreated to nearby fish ponds orthe local drainage system without treatment. However, the wastewater is quite dilute as blood and otherwaste products are bagged and sold with the carcass, if slaughtered.
  • 92. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 66 of 253Figure 5.39 – Slaughtering of Poultry at Public Market (left) and Adjacent Fish Ponds WhereWaste is DischargedSolid waste in public markets is mainly organic and is cleaned-up and collected into bins after each marketday by the market management. The stored market solid waste is collected daily by the local urbanenvironment company for transport and disposal to landfill.Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)As previously explained, waste management from the retail sections of the rural markets is extremely poor,though it should be noted that the majority of the waste is generated at the slaughter stage; once a carcassis delivered to a butcher, there is very little waste.Blood from butchers’ stalls was seen draining away under other stalls and in several cases these stalls werelaid out on mats on the ground and not on raised tables, see Figure 5.40 below.Figure 5.40 – Blood from Retail Market Seeps Under Other Stalls (left), Market WasteCollection Point at a Fifth-Quarter Market (centre), and the Interior of the Central Market(right)Waste management in the urban markets is an improvement over the rural markets, and generally wastesare collected and disposed of to dump/landfill daily.
  • 93. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 67 of 253Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)In the case of small retail market operators selling freshly killed birds, viscera and feathers are either thrownto the market’s municipal collection (which would end up at a dump of some description) or sold on as swillfeed and meal input, depending on the vendor’s volume of sales. Blood is generally disposed of to waste,either via drains or in case of smaller operators such as street retailers, to municipal dumpsters.Butchers selling prepared meats of all types generate next to no waste, as every part of the animal has amarket. Dedicated offal sellers specialise in one form or another of offal or by-product, and these rangefrom those selling prime offal such as ox hearts down to those selling cleaned bones for use in stock or soupmaking.5.5.5 Retail Sector WastesRetail sector wastes are minimal and generally comprise meat trimmings, bones, deteriorated product,poultry slaughter waste (where practised), and wash-down water. A brief description of the situation ineach country is discussed below:Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)Wastes disposed of directly by the retail sector are collected from the street and disposed to landfill by thelocal MSW company on a daily basis. Wash-down water is discharged to the local drainage system andwatercourses without treatment.Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)Waste is not significant at retail outlets and it is understood that bones and meat trimmings are sold tocustomers. Fat trimmings may be sold to fat recovery processors, and non-fatty tissue may be disposed topoultry feed manufacturers. Only small quantities of solid waste would be expected from this source.With respect to deteriorated product, this is usually discounted to get a sale, or if the facilities are availableit may be frozen down for sale at a later date.Wash-down water is discharged to the local drainage system and watercourses without treatment.Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)The spinous processes are removed at the slaughterhouse, which means that retail butchers are dealingwith malleable sides which can then be easily quartered. Bones are disposed of either as bone-in product;as pet food; or to waste collection performed by privately-owned handcarts through the various districts.This system was observed to be working reasonably well as the streets were relatively free of waste.Beef product in the meat industry is very lean and so there is little trim to be disposed of; any small quantitiesof trimmings are either sold as pet food or collected by private firms using handcarts for disposal with theMSW.Carcasses are delivered to retailers fresh from the slaughterhouse each working day and, in general, theoperator will be turning over product as quickly as possible to minimise the potential for deterioratedproduct. Where deteriorated product has to be disposed of, it is collected each working day by small localenterprises using handcarts, and is disposed of with MSW.Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)Red meat is considered as a luxury due to its price in relation to average salaries and, as a result, there isalways a willing purchaser for cheaper cuts, scraps, and offal; all of which can be used for soups and stewsand at the very minimum as a flavouring agent if not present in sufficient quantities to act as a proteinsource.As sales of boned and portioned European-style cuts only form a small part of the market, most retailers
  • 94. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 68 of 253have little in the way of bone waste, most of which is passed on to the consumer. Of the bones that aregenerated during the butchery process, much are sold on for use in stocks, and some is even sold tocraftsmen practising marketry.In terms of collection and disposal, most retail facilities visited report the same methods, as follows:All meat trimmings, bone and other solid wastes are disposed of to the municipal waste stream, andare collected by either a private collection company (generally for the larger outlets) or the municipalcollection (which itself is frequently carried out by private companies operating on behalf of themunicipalities).Supermarkets generally have a higher volume of meat wastes due principally to meat that reachesits sell-by date (local butchers tend to use up old meats in burgers and sausages, and in some casesadjoining fast-food outlets). In an attempt to prevent scavenging of the outdated meats once theyreach the bins, collection vehicles or dumpsites, supermarkets generally treat the meat wastes withbleaches and other cleaning / disinfection agents prior to ejection to municipal containers.Liquid wastes, essentially consisting of wash-down water (with the exception of the live chickenshops, which also contain blood), were without exception discharged directly to the municipalsewers.Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)All retail facilities are understood to dispose of their wastes, including meat wastes, to municipal collectionand disposal. No pre-treatment of returned or expired meat products is known to occur, which couldencourage scavenging on dumps or landfills.At one informal pig rearing operation visited, it was discovered that the chicken carcasses being fed to thepigs originated from the butchery of one of the two leading supermarket chains, which came as surprisingand worrying news, considering the otherwise good standards at those supermarkets.5.6 ESTIMATE OF SLAUGHTER WASTE QUANTITIESTo provide a preliminary estimate of the types and quantities of slaughter wastes produced in each city, itis necessary to develop some standard figures relating to the live weight of the average animals. Thus,typical breakdowns of the main animal items, in terms of percentage of live weight, have been developed forpoultry, sheep and goats, cattle, and pigs; these are included in Tables 5.8 to 5.11 respectively. Using thefigures in these tables, it is possible to roughly estimate the quantity of each waste item in each of the sixcities visited.Appendix E contains a preliminary estimate of the formal and informal sector wastes, city by city. TableE.1 contains estimates of the animals slaughtered in both the formal and informal sectors based on datagathered during the field visits. Whilst Table E.2 contains the preliminary estimates of the formal andinformal sector wastes, city by city, calculated from the data in tables 5.8 to 5.11 and table E.1.From the figures in Table E.2 it can be seen that the informal sector is very large in some cases andrepresents a major problem in the control, collection, and disposal of slaughter wastes in particular. Thesefigures are indicative only and serve only to roughly quantify the amount of waste produced per week so asto put the slaughter waste situation into some perspective.
  • 95. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 69 of 253Table 5.8 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - PoultryItem Percentage of Live WeightRange TypicalCarcass Weight - 66.0Feathers 4.0 – 5.0 4.5Blood 4.0 – 5.0 5.0Giblets 5.0 5.0Pluck 5.0 5.0Intestines 4.0 4.0Head 3.0 – 4.0 3.5Feet 5.0 – 6.0 5.5Trim 1.0 – 2.0 1.5Table 5.9 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight – Sheep and GoatsItem Percentage of Live WeightRange TypicalCarcass Weight 45.0 – 48.0 47.0Head 3.5 – 4.0 4.0Feet 1.5 – 2.0 1.5Skin 6.0 – 8.0 7.0Blood 4.0 – 5.0 4.5Pluck(Thoracic Offal) 2.5 – 3.0 3.0Intestines(Abdominal Offal) 9.0 – 10.0 10.0Stomach and IntestinalContents 15.0 – 20.0 19.0Other Pieces & Trimmings 1.0 - 1.5 1.0Horns 3.0 – 5.0 3.0
  • 96. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 70 of 253Table 5.10 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight– CattleItem Percentage of LiveWeightIndicative weight(kg)Live weight 100.0 350.0Carcass weight 55.0 192.5Blood 5.0 17.5Head 4.0 14Hide 8.0 28Feet 3.0 10.5Edible Offal 3.5 12.25White offal (total) 8.5 29.75Stomach & Intestinal Contents 13.0 45.5Meat 40.0 140Fat & Trimmings 5.0 17.5Bones 10.0 35Wastewater(approx 200-400 litres/head) --Table 5.11 – Breakdown of Waste Products as Percentage of Live Weight - PigsItem Typical Percentageof Live WeightIndicative Weight(kg)Live weight 100.0 95Carcass weight 72.0 68.4Blood 5.0 4.75Hair 0.5 0.48Edible Offal 6.5 6.18White offal (total) 5.0 4.75Stomach & Intestinal Contents 11.0 10.45Meat 55.0 52.25Fat & Trimmings 6.0 5.70Bones 11.0 10.455.7 SUMMARY AND DISCUSSION OF ISSUESThe overriding observations of the Study Team with respect to Municipal Solid Waste Management and itsrelationship with livestock and slaughter wastes is that whilst municipalities and other SWM operators arenow beginning to recognise the importance of good MSW management, they do not make any specialconsiderations for slaughter and livestock-related wastes, usually not even recognising that they may be ofa high-risk category. Many years of focus on SWM improvements by development and funding agencieshave initiated considerable improvements in waste management in the Study Cities, and where facilities,funds and institutions are still considerably lacking in this regard; there is at least acknowledgement of the
  • 97. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 71 of 253need to improve the situation, and an understanding of the basic issues. The same cannot be said withregards to livestock market and slaughter wastes, and in essence this observation summarises the situationon the ground that the World Bank is presently attempting to address; the dangers associated with animalwastes are much neglected and is an area requiring further study and immediate action.Along with medical wastes, slaughterhouse wastes are surely some of the most dangerous to arrive atdisposal sites. As noted above, most if not all of the MSW disposal sites visited by the Study Team acceptedlivestock-related wastes (and other animal wastes, for example poisoned strays), and most were also hostto scavenging humans, livestock, and other animals. Whilst it is unrealistic to expect the disposalarrangements to be improved in the short term, immediate action to prevent livestock grazing on wastes,and the involvement of children in the waste picking activities, could see immediate improvements in thefrequencies of zoonoses, and would have additional peripheral benefits, for example a reduction in livestockmortalities due to ingestion of plastic.Legislation regarding the treatment of special wastes is not commonplace; however, where legislation doesexist, it is largely either ignored or used as a means of generating income through payments and bribes.Improvement of the legislative systems in the Study Countries is undoubtedly needed; however, this shouldnot become part of the “first steps” due to general lack of government desire or capacity to enforce laws.Aside from the enormous challenges with regards to capacity to enforce legislation, it should be noted thatas a general rule, enforcement and penalisation is only an effective means of control when the majority isworking inside the law; at present there is clearly a majority outside the law, requiring incentives and realdesire for change to get the majority inside the system. Only then will enforcement become a truly viableoption.Awareness-raising within municipalities, government agencies, and facility operators is a good first step.However, perhaps the simplest way to initiate some action on the ground, is to relate the issues directly toincome and expenditure; for instance, if a manager’s attention is drawn to the indirect expense involved withdealing with these wastes, and the lost income through not valorising them, perhaps a shift away from thepresent indifference could begin to be made. In addition to the intrinsic value of some of the waste productsif recycled, possibilities for the value in terms of carbon offsets should be examined. Several animalwaste-related projects do currently exist within Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) and these projectsare now generating considerable incomes for their operators, whilst reducing local impacts arising from themismanagement of livestock and slaughter wastes. There are clearly considerable administration andset-up costs associated with the approval and operation of CDM projects, and an avenue for further study inthis area should include possibilities for cooperatives/cooperation and funding for project set up andmethodology approval. Table 5.12 lists some of the present CDM projects that are benefiting from carbonfinance for funding improvements and providing supplemental income to operators. This subject will bedeveloped in a follow-on study.Table 5.12 – Present Slaughter and Livestock Waste Related CDM ProjectsCountry Project DescriptionArgentina Granja Tres Arroyos Methane Avoidance in Slaughterhouse Effluents ProjectBrazil Slaughterhouse Effluent Treatment – Andradina UnitBrazil Slaughterhouse Wastewater Aerobic Treatment – Goiânia UnitBrazil Fuel oil to animal tallow switching at Companhia de Fiação e Tecidos Santo AntônioChina Animal Manure Management System (AMMS) GHG mitigation, Shandong Minhe LivestockMalaysia Methane Recovery by Bio-digestion of Animal Waste from Slaughterhouse in Ulu Selangor.
  • 98. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 72 of 253Waste management from retail sites is clearly a problem. Whilst the issues may appear minor in comparisonto the more serious issues of neglect and mismanagement occurring at the generation and disposal stages,the number of people coming into contact with these wastes is relatively low. Wastes generated and poorlydealt with by retailers, whether shops or markets, have the potential to affect far larger numbers of people.These linkages between retail-level slaughter and processing waste management are, in the opinion of theStudy Team, downplayed and public health authorities have no more interest in the issue than they calculatethe risks associated with, for example, the swill feeding of pigs as noted earlier in this sections. Whilst someof the lack of interest is no doubt due to apathy, lack of awareness is also rife on the dangers of poor wastemanagement and food safety at the retail level is rife. No figures generally exist for the incidence or causesof food poisoning cases, further masking issues. Consumers should not have to be exposed to theunnecessary dangers that they are frequently exposed to; however, due to prolonged exposure to thecurrent conditions, a general acceptance of the situation as “normal” arises. Some of the Study Countriesare already planning, and undertaking, public awareness programmes to promote food safety issues and thebenefits of official slaughtering, but this will take time to filter through the system. In the meantime,facilities will need to be upgraded and expanded to actually achieve good food safety standards and earn thetrust of the consumers.
  • 99. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 73 of 2536. INFRASTRUCTURE AND SERVICES6.1 INTRODUCTION TO ISSUESMany of the problems perceived during the field visits could be attributed to the considerable impacts of theinformal sector and corruption, and the lack of good practice, training, awareness, government involvementor capability, and off-site waste management, and it is beyond argument that the above areas requireurgent attention. The complexity of the overall situation cannot be highlighted enough, and the closeconnection between all issues was a major finding of the field visits and a common theme in all countries.At a more basic level, however, is one of the principal problems that the Study sought to investigate; thestatus of market and slaughter infrastructure and services with respect to waste management in the studycountries.Safe sale, slaughter, and preparation of animals with due care given to welfare, meat quality, hygiene, publichealth, epidemiology and zoonosis is not generally possible without adequate physical infrastructure andservices with which to ensure effective removal of wastes from working areas, public areas, sale pens, etc.This can be achieved in a variety of ways but is always assisted by good infrastructure design, function, andmaintenance plus the availability of reliable water, power, and drainage systems. BCCDC (2007) suggeststhat “Edible and inedible areas must be physically and operationally separate” and that “meat productsshould, therefore, proceed progressively through cleaner areas of the operation.”Washdown and cleaning are also part of the waste management process and these processes are facilitatedby good infrastructure and utility services.In undertaking the field visits, the team visited a large number of facilities of varying designs, ages, andcapacities, and were looking in particular for the presence (and if present; state of repair) or lack of thefollowing:Access roads, parking, despatch arrangements, etc.Unloading and loading facilities for livestock.Provision of shade/shelter/cover from rain, sun, scavengers, etc.Provision of on-site waste collection areas and equipment.Process equipment.Availability, cleanliness and temperature of water.Availability of cleaning chemicals.Considerations given to areas harbouring bacteria (eg curving of joints, tiling, etc).Adequate lighting.Design and construction of interior surfaces.Drains, screens, water treatment, disposal, etc.Segregation issues; public/workers, food/animals/wastes, etc.Provision of ventilation and refrigeration.6.2 GENERAL FINDINGSLivestock market and slaughterhouse infrastructure were observed by the Study Team to be generally of ahigher standard in the two middle-income countries than the lower income countries; however, it should benoted that this comparison is relative; frequently the conditions observed in the middle-income countrieswere atrocious, and the physical infrastructure non-existent. The private sector facilities in these countrieswere, however, an exception, with export-level standards found at some facilities.Often the infrastructure and general conditions in the low-income countries are very poor due to age and thelack of maintenance and investment; whilst their locations, in densely populated urban areas, exacerbated
  • 100. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 74 of 253the situation due to poor access and loading / unloading facilities, overcrowding, and poor sanitation.The following sections briefly describe and illustrate the conditions found at livestock markets andslaughterhouses in the five countries visited. In addition, the conditions at municipal public markets havebeen described for low-income country 1, as on-site slaughtering is commonly practised at these facilities,particularly for poultry.6.3 LIVESTOCK MARKETS6.3.1 Location and Access(a) Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)Within the city and the peri-urban areas, livestock markets are generally limited to poultry and all are locatedoutside of the city limits. The main poultry market serving the city is located in a semi-rural areaapproximately 25 km south and 1 km east of the main highway. It is basically a small single road village thattrades in poultry (chicken and duck), and is located adjacent to a large fish pond and local farms. Althoughthe market is located only 1 km from the main highway the access road is narrow and in poor condition, onlysmall trucks, cars, and motorcycles can use the road, see Figure 6.1. During the rainy season, access islikely to be compromised.Figure 6.1 – Narrow Access Road to and through the Poultry MarketIn contrast, there is an urban poultry market located on the north side of the main river where poultry istraded and there is a specialised slaughter area. The market section is relatively small compared theslaughter area, so been included under the slaughterhouse section of this chapter. Access is via mainhighways so transport connections are good.Another livestock market is located in a rural area 20 km directly east of the city straddling both sides of athrough road. The access road is narrow and under reconstruction by the LGU; it mostly suitable for smallvehicles and motorcycles (the main mode of local transport).(b) Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)The City’s main livestock market is the major market for both large and small ruminants in the city and islocated close to the city’s main municipal slaughterhouse, which serves to attract the large-scale trade inlivestock. The large ruminant market is located on an old dumpsite which still appears to operateunofficially, with some limited and uncontrolled open dumping taking place. It is located adjacent to a largedrainage canal and has a single access road, on the other side of which is the slaughterhouse and a largefifth-quarter processing industry located in local warehouses. The market is also close to an intersection ona national highway and has been almost entirely encroached upon by residential urban development. Thesmaller, but no less busy, small ruminant section is located along the main road on the opposite side of theslaughterhouse.
  • 101. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 75 of 253The access road to the market, in particular to the large ruminant market, is very poor, muddy, andextremely congested, there are no stock handling facilities such as pens nor loading/unloading ramps; seeFigure 6.2. There is only one-way in and out of the market and parking is extremely limited; the averagetruck spends up to six hours or so getting in and out of the market. In wet weather the situation becomesmuch worse and trucks often get stuck in the mud. Access to the small-ruminant section, however, is betteras it is located along a main road.Figure 6.2 – Poor Quality and Congested Access Road to the Main Cattle MarketThe city’s main poultry market is essentially the small car park servicing the public poultry market facility,located on a busy road in an urban setting, see Figure 6.3. This is simply a strip of bitumen where smalltrucks can park, birds can be unloaded and reloaded onto other vehicles for transport elsewhere orslaughtered at the market. Access to the market is good, but it is now very congested due to the numberof trucks greatly outweighing the space available. When established in 1994 the average number trucksusing the market per day was 25; today, this number is nearer to 150 yet there has been no capacity added.Figure 6.3 – Location of the Poultry Market in Car Park of Market Building(c) Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)The city’s largest market is located in the heart of the city and surrounded by industrial and residential areas.It comprises a 20,000 m2market area bounded in part by the main river, which receives all the runoff fromthe market. When it was established in 1958, the site was well-removed from the city centre but it is nowboth constricted by, and the cause of, congestion in the surrounding maze of roads.The other formal livestock markets are located in less-built up areas on the outskirts of the city, but are alsounder threat of urban encroachment and are serviced by unsealed access roads with poor or non-existentunloading facilities.
  • 102. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 76 of 253Access for animals is poor at all sites. The access area into the main market is always congested and alwaysmuddy in the wet season because of the high number of truck movements into a relatively small area. In thedry season dust and faecal matter are readily dispersed onto all surfaces and humans. Access roads to theperi-urban markets vary from bad to reasonable as can be seen in Figure 6.4 below.Figure 6.4 – Access to the Main Market (top left) and to Three Peri-Urban MarketsProper loading ramps can be observed at some sites (see Chapter 8) but are often lacking at others whereworkers push together a mix of trash and earth to get animals on and off transport. Where The natural slopeat some sites assists in this difficult task. The main livestock market, however, does have reasonable loadingramps but the number of ramps is inadequate for the number of vehicles using the facility causing muchcongestion.(d) Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)The two cities visited have no urban livestock markets; their meat demands are met through two basicmechanisms:Long-distance transport of livestock from agricultural areas to the slaughterhouses.The system of large livestock markets, rural slaughterhouses, and retail markets that operate in eachof the smaller towns surrounding the cities.The Study Team was, therefore, only able only to examine the second of the above mechanisms with anydetail, and as such visited three (and attempted to visit five) of these semi-rural live markets that supplymeat directly to the cities, whether in the form of meat for the city butchers or livestock for the cityslaughterhouses.The livestock markets are generally located in a semi-rural setting on the edge of town, and as such access
  • 103. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 77 of 253is usually good, with bitumen roads leading more or less to the entrance of most markets. Parking is usuallyreasonably well managed, if a little chaotic, by private concerns who, legally or illegally, have rights to acertain number of spaces.(e) Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)There are three main locations for livestock markets that supply the city which is spread over ageographically large area and has many market centres operating within it. The main poultry market areais located near the centre of the city, whereas in the regional areas, many smaller livestock markets exist.These may be in conjunction with general markets selling a variety of other goods or as discrete livestockmarkets selling either a variety of stock or one single species such as cattle or pigs.As with any livestock market, the mix of stock offered will be largely dependent on the climatic variables inoperation at any one particular time, thus during dry periods it would be expected that a larger number ofstore stock would be on offer and in good season a greater number of finished stock.The city is currently implementing, as a staged development, a proposal to combine all the markets in thecity area into one complex on a site of some 69 hectares. This will include a state of the art slaughterhousewith final completion projected to occur in 2011. The focus of the development of this market and meatprocessing precinct is to assist in driving many of the substandard markets and processing plants out ofbusiness.Markets are generally located on or near well formed and reasonably maintained bitumen roads. In somecases, adequate space exists within market / selling complex to allow large rigid body cattle trucks tomanoeuvre rather than relying on access from public roads. In the smaller regional markets, the conditionof the roads is not as good and within the market area it is usually merely gravel or compacted dirt.Parking within any of the markets appears virtually non-existent for all but vendors or officials of the market.The result of this tends to be that parking around the market area can tend to become reasonably short insupply and in some cases somewhat chaotic. No live market visited imposed any kind of restrictions onhuman or animal access.6.3.2 Infrastructure and Services(a) Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)LayoutThere is no formal layout or market infrastructure for the poultry market, it straddles the narrow road bothsides between houses and alongside the large fish ponds. A control check point is located approximately150 metres before the market, refer to Figure 6.5.Figure 6.5 – Control Check Point at the Poultry Market and Spraying of Arriving Poultry
  • 104. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 78 of 253At another public market there are eight stalls for the trading of piglets within a separate area. The stalls aresmall, only about three metres square and have a concrete floor; the rest if the area is dirt floor only. Thereis a communal selling section and kitchen. The poultry section is divided into individual stalls in a separatearea of the market with dirt floor and the only permanent buildings are for small businesses sellinghardware, preserved foods, and other goods and services.InfrastructureNo formal drainage system exists at any of the livestock markets and they typically drain by gravity toadjacent fish ponds and fields or to local irrigation channels.There are no formal market buildings at the poultry market, only basic enclosures and temporary coveredareas close to the stall owners’ houses, see Figure 6.6 below. Permanent buildings could be seen at the pigmarket, however, but these were for small retail and service businesses and not for the livestock areas,where only makeshift buildings were present.Figure 6.6 – Typical Structures at the Poultry MarketUtility ServicesAll activities are conducted outside in daylight, so there is no requirement for lighting. Any utilities requiredat the poultry market come directly from the stall owner’s houses; however, running water was observed atthe pig market.(b) Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)LayoutThere is no formal layout at the main ruminant market for cattle as it is located on an old dumpsite. Oldwaste cells that have been filled present dangers to both animals and humans as they have not beencapped, thus water stays trapped with the dumped material, which presents a significant danger to animalsand humans alike. Reports from locals confirm that both animals and people have fallen victim to these“hidden” dangers, and some deaths have occurred in the past. In addition, there is clear evidence of thedumping of clinical wastes at the site, in and around where traders and animals operate. There are manycomplaints from the local residents, but until new facilities are constructed the status quo will be maintained.Similarly at the small-ruminant market, there is no formal layout but conditions are a little better for thesheep and goats and temporary market stalls and pens are evident.The poultry market also has no formal layout or facilities, simply using the small car park at the front of themarket building.
  • 105. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 79 of 253InfrastructureDrainage at the main ruminant market is non-existent and water is soaked up by the existing waste dumpedon the site and filling up the exiting cells were waste was dumped. The site is close to a large drainage canalproviding an outlet for any surface runoff. There are no buildings associated with the main ruminant marketand there is no shelter from the sun in summer and rain in the wet season. The ground surface is either dirtor dumped material and becomes boggy when wet, see Figure 6.7 below. Walled holding areas are locatednearby, which are available for keeping stock for up to five days, but these are not specifically part of themarket and owners charge for the services, but water and feed is provided.Figure 6.7 – Main Ruminant Market on Old DumpsiteAt the small ruminant section of the market the site is higher than the road so drains more easily into themunicipal drainage system. The small ruminant market does have some small structures for shelter andholding areas but these are very simple and could only be described as temporary.The poultry market site, being essentially a car park, has effective drainage that discharges into themunicipal drainage system at the front of the building, see Figure 6.8. The market has no buildings, thelarge main market building adjacent is for market stalls and slaughtering only.Figure 6.8 – Poultry Market and Market Building (slaughtering)Utility ServicesBoth of the ruminant markets and the poultry market are wholly outside and operate only during daylighthours, therefore no lighting is necessary; although within the main market building adjacent to the poultrymarket, lighting is present, but well below standards that would normally be expected.
  • 106. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 80 of 253There is no running water or electricity associated with ruminant markets. A single toilet block is associatedwith the slaughterhouse and rendering area, but evidence of open defecation and urination suggest that thisis not sufficient.At the poultry market, water is available via the main market building but it is impossible to use the hosesand taps when the market is in operation due to the severe congestion. The main building appears to haveadequate power, although power facilities were observed to need to attention, see Figure 6.9 below. Livebird traders cannot access any of these facilities, which are reserved for the wholesale / retail marketoperators.Figure 6.9 – Electrical Installation at the Main Poultry Market(c) Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)LayoutEach livestock market comprises a large enclosure into which all the stock are placed following arrival. Thereis no penning of different batches of animals; each group is segregated from others by the efforts of theirherders. There is generally an ancillary pen to isolate ailing livestock which offers a modicum of shade.Construction materials vary from market to market, but all have reasonably good fencing and rails. Onemarket is conspicuous for its heavy use of bamboo and other wooden poles which have sharp and jaggededges, a hazard for both staff and livestock.Most stock at the markets remain un-tethered and are kept in check by their herders. Troublesome animalsare tethered to a heavy rock or to a fence. There is poor provision of water and no shade for stock.All markets have good perimeter walls / fencing with one having a heavy stone wall around three sides.Access for stock is controlled, but the public can access the market freely. This is important because localpeople come to collect cattle manure and other detritus from the site. The cow pats are dried and sold asfuel whilst other solid waste able to be salvaged from the site is removed. Typical photographs of themarkets are included in Figures 6.10 to 6.13 overleaf.
  • 107. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 81 of 253Figure 6.10 – Main Livestock MarketFigure 6.11 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 1Figure 6.12 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 2
  • 108. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 82 of 253Figure 6.13 – Peri-Urban Livestock Market 3InfrastructureThe livestock markets are all located on relatively steep slopes and thus are provided with a good gradientfor drainage. In general, the water courses at the bottom of the slope are used for the discharge of runofffrom the sites, with the exception of one. This is only mitigated by the fact that the sites are cleared ofanimal waste by the locals as fuel during the dry season.The main market is only partially paved with stone, carried out only recently, but will not be completelycovered due to the fact that the market may move in the near future. Although paved in stone cobbles theenclosures at the peri-urban markets, in particular, can become extremely muddy after rain, mainly due tothe amount of animal dung that accrues on the site. At one peri-urban market the ground surface is againmostly paved but appears to suffer less in terms of mud and dung accrual, which improves drainageconsiderably. The wet season is short but intense and improved drainage at these facilities would assist inbetter presentation of stock at slaughter.Figures 6.14 and 6.15 overleaf illustrate the drainage outlet conditions at each of the livestock markets.It can be seen at one market, Figure 6.15 (right), that there is no channel or piped outlet, since there isno suitable watercourse downstream; the unpaved area is planned to be made into a retention area forrunoff.Figure 6.14 – Outlet for Drainage at Main Market (left) and Covered Drain at One Peri-UrbanMarket (right)
  • 109. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 83 of 253Figure 6.15 – Outlet for Drainage at Peri-Urban Market (left) and Area Reserved for aRetention Pond at Another (right)In addition each market has an office where the Urban Agriculture Department (UAD) staff collect marketfees, issue receipts and keep simple records of livestock numbers at the market. There is generally a latrinefor workers and very basic shelter for a limited number of herders. All of these facilities are at a very basicand rudimentary level, with only the simplest shelter provided for the UAD officer(s) that monitors marketdata.Utility ServicesAll markets are outdoors and thus lighting is not required. There is power to the market offices andpresumably a telephone connection, although most people appear to be in possession of mobile telephones.None of these markets permit on-site slaughter or food stalls. Each market has a water supply but there isin general a paucity of water troughs for stock.(d) Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)LayoutThe overall layouts of the market and slaughterhouse complexes followed a generally homogenous themeof livestock market adjoined to slaughterhouse adjoined to retail market; however, in terms of the layout ofthe specific live markets taken in isolation, there is not a great deal to report. This is due to the fact thatwithout exception the live markets were simply open, bare wasteland or field, with no scales, rails, sanitaryfacilities, unloading facilities, offices, or any other infrastructure. At best these areas were part-fenced orwalled, with tents erected around the showground providing food and drinks. Figure 6.16 below showssatellite imagery of typical layouts.Figure 6.16 – Examples of Livestock Market Layouts from Middle Income Country 1
  • 110. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 84 of 253The Red Meat Association has established one “model” livestock market where the animals are tethered toa central rail and the owners can stand nearby while the prospective purchasers inspect the livestock andagree or not on a price with the assistance of electronic scales if need be. Unfortunately, this model wasobstructed by some influential buyers as these facilities generally favour the producer. This situation alsoprovides municipalities with a good excuse why they should not invest in providing facilities at their markets.InfrastructureAs described elsewhere in this report, the livestock markets generally had no drainage facilities whatsoever.Occasionally shallow culverts had been dug, but these were in general poorly maintained, full of litter andother wastes, and in any case simply drained to an area alongside the market. One market was visitedfollowing a brief rainstorm, and conditions were reasonably muddy in the livestock market area.None of the livestock markets visited in the study area had a single permanent building on site, see Figure6.17. Some of the markets had makeshift tents selling food to the many farmers, dealers, and butcherspresent.Figure 6.17 – Very Basic Infrastructure Typical of Livestock Markets in Middle IncomeCountry 1Utility ServicesDespite frequently commencing in the early hours of the morning when still dark, none of the livestockmarkets visited had any form of lighting provided. One can only assume that vehicle headlights areemployed as much as possible. None of the livestock markets visited had any form of running wateravailable.(e) Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)LayoutThe layout of the various markets varies widely. In the more formalised and regulated markets, the stockare held in well designed and maintained yards or pens3. A number of different producers’ cattle may be3HSA comments (Feb 2009) – Separation facilities, such as penning or tethering of livestock, are a good methodbecause it keeps stock in one place and reduces the need for owners to constantly be rounding-up their animals or tryingto keep other animals away. Such facilities are also likely to reduce bruising and damage caused by sticks, animals willnot need to be hobbled, and mixing of social and transport groups will be avoided (lessening disease spread risk,aggression, and injury). Simple methods of shelter from direct sunlight and rain for livestock and owners alike is alsoadvocated.
  • 111. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 85 of 253located in the one yard or pen with differentiation being attained by paint markings on the stock. In thesecases the prospective purchasers are able to walk through the stock and examine them in detail if theyrequire but usually all inspection is done from the aisle/road outside the pens.A loading race and small holding yard was present at this market to facilitate loading following sale. Scalesfor weighing of stock were also available at the market4.In the regional markets the system tends to be much more informal with animals loosely held in groups byvarious means, such as tethering and horn tying. There are no formal areas but rather a large open spacewhich one would imagine has historically been used for the purpose of stock selling.Trading occurs on open ground with little in the way of facilities. The presence of regulatory authorities isinconsistent; a few stations had government officers undertaking (incomplete) movement certification andtruck disinfection duties. The basic model was open ground near to a large centre with reasonable heavyvehicle access. The only regular feature was the presence of undulating ground and mounds of dirt to assistin loading and unloading of stock. Some sites had a truck cleaning area, and one had an informal slaughteroperation nearby. No sites have drainage systems as the rainfall is low and the market is dispersed,resulting in little dung concentration in areas. These sites generally had no running water or electricity.The feedlot supply market was more formal. A truck weighbridge allowed purchase on a live weight basis.Amenities included toilets and kitchen facilities. Traders may house cattle temporarily in pens for a fee asrequired. These markets serve to distribute cattle bought into the feedlot hub to individual feedlots and thedistances to destination from this site is small.The poultry live market comprised of walled rectangular area, with a small office and sanitary block insidethe entrance. Beyond that lies the main sale area and each agent has a small wooden stall. On the eastwardend of the market is the suite of nine small slaughterhouses.Figure 6.18 – Differing standards of infrastructure and layout observed in Middle IncomeCountry 2It should be noted that this livestock market is not the only market in the area; the entire street is borderedby poultry supply warehouses, small (illegal) slaughterhouses, food vendors and so forth.4HSA comments (Feb 2009) – Depending on the type of scales used, animals may find the use of scales aversive,particularly if they have to be forced into a crush-type device. Factors such as dead-ends and unsteady floors may causeanimals to baulk and require coercion to enter. Weighbridges installed as part of a race offer a good solution, as oftenused in high-income countries; however, the cost may be prohibitive in developing countries and weighing the carcassafter slaughter may be an alternative.
  • 112. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 86 of 253InfrastructureThe larger markets have compacted gravel surfaces that in general would appear to drain towardsstormwater collection systems or a nearby river; however it should be noted that, as previously mentioned,the rainfall in the city and its environs is very low and drainage is therefore a low priority. One poultrymarket does have a drainage system; however this exists only on the slaughterhouse side of the market.The principal live markets in another region had no buildings, whether for facilities or offices. The onlystructures on site were the makeshift semi-permanent stalls of some of the retail vendors.The feedlot supply market had a large brick barn building attached to it, in which feed and manure werestored. The feedlot / market area was surrounded by a wooden structure comprising fencing and shade,with concrete feeding troughs running alongside.Utility ServicesNo live market had any form of power or lighting other than one poultry market, which had power, lighting,cold running water, and a small office and sanitary block.6.4 SLAUGHTERHOUSES6.4.1 Location and Access(a) Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)Both pig slaughterhouses visited by the Study Team are located within the city boundary in growingresidential areas and create excessive noise during their operations overnight; odour problems are also anuisance for nearby residents. The facilities have been advised by city authorities that they will need torelocate to peri-urban areas by 2010, but no formal plans had been made. Access roads to both pigslaughterhouses, whilst hard surfaced, can generally be considered in poor repair and described asrudimentary with potholes and are muddy in wet conditions. The access roads are also narrow and thestreets often congested at peak times, see Figure 6.19 below.Figure 6.19 – Typical Access Roads to a Pig SlaughterhouseThe urban poultry slaughter site is incorporated into a wholesale market area in an industrial / commercialzone on the north side of the city. The site can be considered appropriate as it has easy access to the cityand with minimal impact on residents or other urban activity. Roads and access to the poultry slaughter siteare very good, from trunk roads that service the city. There is some endeavour dedicated to site securitywith both veterinary and security surveillance at the entry gate.
  • 113. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 87 of 253There is also a poultry slaughter site located in essentially a rural area with little impact on surroundingactivities, but this is small. The access road is from the main road and, whilst hard surfaced, is basic and inneed of repair.There are approximately seven private cattle slaughterhouses (all small family businesses), these can all beconsidered backyard, as they are essentially located at the rear of residences in densely populatedresidential and commercial areas. One such slaughterhouse was visited (the others reported to be similar)and access to the slaughter area is about 50 metres down a narrow alleyway approximately 1 metre wide.Although quite an efficient operation, neighbours must be impacted by noise, light, and odour particularly asslaughter operations occur typically between 1 a.m. and 6 a.m. seven days a week. No direction had beengiven, at the time of the visit, for this operation to be relocated outside of the city boundaries; the fact thatthe cattle slaughter operations are much smaller (typically 10 – 15 head per night) and less intrusive thanthe pig slaughtering may be one reason for this. The slaughterhouse is located off the main city road andaccess to the facility for live cattle and despatch of finished products is via a narrow public alleyway, whichis inadequate for both delivery of the animals and for the despatch of products by motorcycle, the onlymotorised transport that can fit down the alley; refer to Figure 6.20 below.Figure 6.20 – Cattle Slaughterhouse Location (left) and Narrow Access for Cattle from theStreet (right)A modern private pig slaughter and meat processing facility is located 25 km southeast of the city in a rural/ industrial setting, far from residential areas and with little impact on the local environs. Although locatedsome way outside the city, roads to the site are paved and in good condition. Access to the site is directlyfrom the public road and within the site there is good vehicular access to all parts of the site, as would beexpected in a modern facility.(b) Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)The city’s main slaughterhouse (large and small ruminants) is located in a built-up area adjacent to the largeand small ruminant markets (one either side) and close to an open drainage canal. The poor internal roadnetwork in the immediate area makes vehicular access to the facilities very difficult; surrounding city roads,however, are generally good. Due to development pressures and the inadequacy of the current location itis intended to relocate this facility to a peri-urban area; however, no appropriate date has yet been set forthis. Access to the slaughterhouse is completely inadequate, as it is too narrow, very crowded, and doesn’tallow for any vehicular parking. Once slaughtering commences it is almost impossible to reach theslaughterhouse by car, and is difficult even on foot due to the sheer number of people and animals. Theaccess roads are inadequately maintained and in very poor condition with missing and broken access coversto the drainage system. Finished products are physically carried off the site to waiting vehicles (carts orthree-wheeled vehicles) which are the cause of much of the congestion, see Figure 6.21 overleaf.
  • 114. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 88 of 253Figure 6.21 – Poor Condition of Road and Congestion at the Main Ruminant SlaughterhouseA feet and head processing facility is located near the gate of the main large ruminant slaughterhouse, whistthe blood processing facility is located alongside the small ruminant slaughterhouse. The other livestockwaste processing facilities are housed in warehouses in various locations around the same area. Accessroads to the waste recycling / processing facilities are narrow and inadequate and are restricted further bythe same problems as for the slaughterhouse described above.Two smaller ruminant slaughterhouses are also located in the city serving more localised needs. The first islocated in a built-up commercial / residential area on the northern banks of the main river, where access isdifficult as the roads are narrow and not ideal for trucks; but in and around the slaughterhouse the area isrelatively clear and there is no market. It appeared that the only access was through a built up residentialarea.The second small ruminant slaughterhouse is located in a residential street in the middle of a denselypopulated residential area, where access is very difficult, and many residents complain about the facilitybeing located there. Access to the facility is by way of narrow suburban streets and is inappropriate for ananimal slaughter operation. See Figure 6.22 below.Figure 6.22 – Access Roads to the Two Small Ruminant SlaughterhousesThe main poultry slaughter facility is located in a suburban area not far from the centre of the city and iscontained in a large market type building off a good quality road. Access is good, being located just off themain road; however, access around the slaughter area at the back of the market building is very poor. SeeFigure 6.23 below.
  • 115. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 89 of 253Figure 6.23 – Poor Access to the Poultry Slaughter(c) Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)The city’s main municipal slaughterhouse, is located in the centre of the city and is situated about 200 mfrom the main livestock market. It occupies a large area bounded on one side by a small river, which acceptsthe effluent and runoff from the whole site. The three peri-urban slaughterhouses are located outside of thecity, as follows:A small municipal abattoir is located in the south of the city, approximately 15 km from the citycentre, and distributes to customers mainly in that area.A medium size private slaughterhouse is located approximately 12 km northwest of the city, and issituated along a main highway. The facility distributes both locally and within the city itself.A small private sheep/goat slaughterhouse is located approximately 11 km south of the city, off themain highway, and distributes mainly to local customers.Road access to all of the slaughter sites is good and via sealed roads. Access to all sites is strictly controlledusing high walls, gated entrances, and security; gates are normally closed at all times only being opened forthe entry and exit of vehicles and personnel.(d) Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)The locations of the rural slaughterhouses are discussed elsewhere in this document, and are exactly as perthe livestock markets. Approach roads are usually of adequate quality, however parking is invariablytroublesome.Municipal slaughterhouse facilities are generally situated within the cities. The older facilities, generallyconstructed under French rule at the turn of the 20thcentury, are predominantly situated right in the citycentre.Plans exist to replace the various municipal slaughterhouses in City 1 with one central modernslaughterhouse, under private funds. The current situation with respect to this new slaughterhouse isunknown, though Gulf states’ funding of North African developments is understood to be in a fragilesituation.The private poultry slaughter and processors visited are all located to the south west of City 2 and have goodaccess and security, see Figure 6.24.
  • 116. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 90 of 253Figure 6.24 – Excellent Access Arrangement at Private FacilitiesPublic access to the slaughter halls varied greatly according to the type of facility:The rural slaughterhouses generally had totally free access, or in some cases were guarded verypoorly by police. The Study Team had some problems in gaining access to certain facilities, but thisis thought only to be down to the unusual situation of foreigners wanting to view such a place; it isassumed that local residents would have free access.The municipal facilities at City 1 were both walled and gated, and both had guards overseeingaccess. It is not clear how strict the entry protocols are, as it is assumed that the majority of peopleadmitted without showing passes are well known to the guards.The slaughterhouse in City 2 had slightly better controls over those entering and exiting the plant;however, unsurprisingly it was the private poultry slaughterhouses that had the tightest controls interms of access.Private poultry slaughter and processing facilities had far higher security levels than municipally runfacilities, and these facilities also had far fewer movements.(e) Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)The three main locations for slaughterhouses serving the city are:City centre for small poultry facilities and private pig and cattle (and some sheep) slaughterhouses;An area away from the city for private pig and cattle facilities;An area away from the city for large poultry processors.The large private slaughterhouses that are located within the city were once located outside the cityboundaries; however, the considerable growth that has occurred over the past 50 years has resulted in thefacilities being surrounded on all sides by other industry and housing.An unknown number of small poultry slaughter operations exist, two of which were visited by the StudyTeam. One is located along a street of poultry facilities whilst the other is located in the basement of a retailmarket.Slaughter facilities have developed in the traditional pig / cattle areas due to the proximity to the feedlotzone, which reduces transport costs.As the commercial poultry facilities are large and modern, they are located outside of the main cities whereland is inexpensive, pressures are less, and the rearing farms that supply the birds and feeds are closer.The management of one of the municipal facilities, constructed in the 1950’s, intends to construct a newslaughterhouse at a more remote site from the town than the present location. Basic site preparation hasreportedly begun but has been postponed indefinitely due to funding issues involving the government and
  • 117. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 91 of 253the relevant aid organisation.In terms of security, the following slaughterhouse types had perimeter walls, guarded gates and restrictedaccess:All private red meat and pig slaughterhouses.All private commercial poultry facilities.Small poultry slaughterhouses, whilst having some degree of control of access at market entrances, wereeffectively open to all, and the municipal slaughterhouses had no restrictions to access whatsoever, seeFigure 6.25 overleaf.Public access to the slaughterhouses varied greatly according to the type of facility. In terms of ease ofaccess for workers and transport, all facilities other than municipal slaughterhouses were served bybituminous roads of good to reasonable quality; however, it should be noted that access to the privateslaughterhouses can be time consuming due to the heavy levels of traffic congestion encountered in the city.Figure 6.25 – Security Measures (or Lack Thereof) at the Facilities6.4.2 Infrastructure and Services(a) Low-Income Country 1 (East Asia and Pacific)LayoutAt both of the pig slaughterhouses, the buildings consist of a number of similar processing units, each unithaving a livestock holding pen at the back and a processing area in the front. There is a water tub and a solidfuel heating hearth (for hot water for scalding) installed in the processing area of the units. Processing ofthe pigs often spills over onto the concrete apron at the front of the units. Fifth-quarter processing isperformed at the front of the main units in the case of the one facility and at dedicated spaces a littleremoved and opposite from the slaughter area at the other. Refer to Figures 6.26 and 6.27 below.Both pig slaughterhouses are located adjacent to ponds and / or water courses for site drainage andwastewater disposal; the former discharging to a large adjacent city drainage channel.
  • 118. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 92 of 253Figure 6.26 – Fifth-Quarter Processing in Front of Slaughter Units and Typical Unit LayoutFigure 6.27 – Processing Units at the Larger Pig Slaughterhouse and Typical Unit LayoutThe urban poultry slaughter facilities consist of two mirror image buildings containing a number of similarprocessing units. The processing units have a sticking and plucking area at the back and dressing andevisceration area in the building with a finished product counter at the front. The area provided for stickingand slaughter is inadequate and as a result plucking occurs in the dressing area and finished product spillsout of the front of the processing units onto portable tables. Refer to Figure 6.28 below. This poultryslaughter is located next to fish ponds that receive site drainage and wastewater.Figure 6.28 – Processing Units at Urban Poultry Slaughterhouse / Market
  • 119. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 93 of 253A modern poultry processing chain is installed at a private slaughterhouse in the city and the line isseparated into sticking, scalding, plucking, dressing, and evisceration areas, see Figure 6.29 overleaf.There is also an area after the slaughter process which is used to inspect and stamp the carcasses and topackage the product if required by the customer. A refrigerated room is also installed; however, this was notoperating and did not contain any product at the time of the visit. At this facility, there is a nearby pondsystem which is used for the disposal of wastewater and site drainage.Figure 6.29 – Modern Poultry Slaughter LineThe cattle slaughterhouse visited by the Study Team, although small, is separated into four distinct areas:holding stalls where cattle are held prior to slaughter, an area for emptying the stomach contents, aslaughter and dressing area, and an area dedicated to boning and recovery of boneless meat. This layoutwas reported to be typical of the others in the city. Refer to Figure 6.30 below. Site drainage andwastewater from the slaughter facilities discharges to the covered public drainage which runs along theadjacent alleyway and into the large city drainage channel running parallel to the main road.Figure 6.30 – Cattle Slaughterhouse Processing Area (left) and Holding Area (right)Outside of the City there is a modern privately-owned German-designed slaughterhouse and meatprocessing facility producing a variety of pork products. The site is large with a perimeter wall, is fully paved,and well laid out with adequate parking and a logical design for the offices, slaughterhouse, meatprocessing, refrigeration, water and wastewater treatment plants, etc. See Figure 6.31 overleaf. Sitedrainage is good within the facility and drains discharge to adjacent opens channels. The facility has its ownwater and wastewater treatment facilities.
  • 120. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 94 of 253Figure 6.31 – Modern Private Pig Slaughter Facilities (left) and Evisceration Room (right)InfrastructureThe buildings at the pig slaughterhouses comprise concrete floors with concrete columns and walls and acorrugated steel roof supported by a structural steel framework. The processing operations are all open tothe ambient environment at the front. The buildings suffer from broken and rusting roofs and generaldeterioration in general, not helped by the smoke accumulation within the building from the solid fuel waterheating hearth, heavy usage, and poor maintenance. Figures 6.32 and 6.33 below illustrate the conditionof the buildings at both facilities.Figure 6.32 – Typical Buildings at Smaller Pig SlaughterhouseFigure 6.33 – Typical Building at Large Pig Slaughterhouse (left) and Fifth-Quarter ProcessingArea (right)
  • 121. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 95 of 253Whilst the buildings at the urban poultry slaughter facility are inadequately sized, particularly in thesticking/plucking areas at the rear, the buildings are generally in a sound condition. A degree of wear andtear is evident as it seems that there is little attention paid to regular maintenance of the floors, walls, andworking surfaces. The processing units are open to the environment at both the front and rear.The building at the private poultry slaughter line is in good condition, reflecting reasonably recentconstruction and low utilisation of the facility. There was evidence of detergent / sanitiser being used andthis would assist in keeping the floor, walls, and working surfaces in sound condition.At the cattle slaughterhouse, the building is generally robust and in sound condition as one would expect ofa family-owned business. However, it does need some attention to basic maintenance of floors, walls, andworking surfaces (the wooden surfaces, where present should be avoided in a preference for impermeablemore easily cleaned surfaces, such as PVC cutting boards).At the private pig slaughterhouse and meat processing plant, the buildings are of modern concreteconstruction and purpose-built to house the modern slaughter and processing facilities. Inside, thebuildings are well designed and have painted finishes in the offices, whilst there is an abundance of ceramictiles and stainless steel within the slaughter and meat processing sections. The modern slaughter chain inoperation is in excellent condition and operates one 8-hour shift five days per week, although double shiftswill be possible when demand increases. All slaughter and processing equipment is high quality and inexcellent condition.The mechanical process equipment at the private poultry slaughter facility is in good working order, but isgrossly under-utilised due to lack of demand; consumer preference is for live poultry slaughtered at market.Utility ServicesLighting at both pig slaughterhouses is essential due to processing predominantly occurring in the earlyhours of the morning; however, lighting is very limited and the intensity is extremely poor. Water at bothsites appeared to be in adequate supply; no on-site disinfection was performed, however, and at one site themajority of the water was sourced from local groundwater, which given its environs may not be potable.At the urban poultry slaughter facility, processing is conducted during daylight hours, and with the opennature of the building there is little need for comprehensive lighting, although the slaughter and eviscerationareas at the rear of each unit are dark as they are covered by makeshift canopies. Facility water is sourcedfrom the town supply system and is potable but not re-chlorinated for the process.The modern poultry slaughter line is located in a semi-rural area and thus uses groundwater; there arefacilities for chlorination but it is not clear if they were being used. The facility is purpose-built for poultryand the lighting has been installed to fit with this system and thus can be considered adequate.At the cattle slaughterhouse, the lighting can only be described as barely adequate for the complexslaughtering and boning tasks being performed. Being located in town, municipal water and power suppliesare available.Lighting at the private pig slaughter facility is purpose built and has been installed to complement each partof the facility. The facilities have a good power supply and their own purpose built water supply andwastewater treatment facilities.(b) Low-Income Country 2 (South Asia)LayoutThe main slaughterhouse is divided into two independent facilities, one for large ruminants (cattle, buffalo,camels) and small ruminants (sheep and goat). The two facilities are separated by a concrete wall and theperimeters of both facilities are completely walled with steel gates at the entrance / exit. All persons andlivestock enter in a single gate for each facility and all persons and finished products exit at the same gate;although entry for small-ruminants is often via a small side gate as a control measure. At both facilities, theslaughter hall comprises two open-side slaughter buildings each of a similar size and layout. Each slaughter
  • 122. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 96 of 253business (flayer) has a location in the slaughter-hall where he conducts his operation; stomachs andintestines are removed from the building for opening and cleaning on an open-air concrete apron. Bothfacilities are illustrated in Figures 6.34 and 6.35 below.Figure 6.34 – Main Cattle Slaughterhouse (Exterior and Interior)Figure 6.35 – Main Sheep and Goat Slaughterhouse (Empty and During Operation)The feet and head processing facility at the main ruminant slaughterhouse comprises a series of groundlevels baths in which the raw material and singed product is scrubbed and cleaned. At the southern endthere are three open gas furnaces in which the heads and feet are placed for a short period to singe off anyhair or wool.The blood processing facility has at one end of the site a rudimentary building which contains a large hearthheated kettle in which the blood is coagulated and partially dried. The rest of the site is simply an open yardwhere the coagulant is air dried prior to being bagged and sold. Other product processing facilities aregenerally located in small residential plots with rudimentary buildings.There are two separate slaughter halls for small and large ruminants at the older of the two localslaughterhouses. The slaughter halls are simply open-areas fitted with overhead beams from whichcarcasses can be suspended, see Figure 6.36 overleaf.
  • 123. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 97 of 253Figure 6.36 – Older Local Slaughterhouse for Cattle (left) and Sheep/Goats (right)The newer of the two local slaughterhouse is relatively small and has a cattle slaughter area, a smallruminant slaughter area, an offal processing area, and a skinning area, all in one compact building, seeFigure 6.37 below. The skinning area had originally been intended to be a refrigerated space butequipment has not been installed. The facility had been re-built as a low-cost test model forslaughterhouses in the city.Figure 6.37 – Newer Local Slaughterhouse for Cattle (left) and Sheep/Goats (right)5At the large urban poultry market, the poultry slaughter facility comprises individual businesses (some 50altogether) housed within the larger market complex, and laid out in a whole variety of ways. In general, itwas observed that slaughter of the poultry was conducted outside at the back of the processing area and thecarcasses were then brought inside for skinning and evisceration, which was all conducted within the samearea. The front area of each stall was used for retail selling. Various piles of product and wastes, includingdressed carcasses, skin/feathers/blood, giblets and viscera accumulated on the floor as processingprogressed. Refer to Figures 6.38 and 6.39 overleaf for photographs.5HSA comments (Feb 2009) – It is clear from Figure 6.37, and from other figures in the report, that non-slip flooring isabsent where either people or livestock are present and is a key factor for animal and human safety in slaughterhouses.For livestock in particular, slips and falls contribute to stress and may cause animals to become excitable and nervous,making them difficult to handle and therefore dangerous to the workers. The presence of water, urine, blood, and bodyfluids from the carcasses make the floors very slippery and produce one of the most common welfare issues withinmarkets and slaughterhouses. Appropriate non-slip flooring should therefore be a primary factor in the design of new orupgrading of existing facilities.
  • 124. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 98 of 253Figure 6.38 – Main Poultry Slaughter / Market - Slaughtering and Processing at RearFigure 6.39 – Main Poultry Slaughter / Market - Typical unit (left) and Retail at the Front(right)InfrastructureDrainage within all of the facilities is generally good, draining into the city drainage system or local drainagechannels. The city drainage system, however, needs attention at some sites and in particular in the mainruminant slaughterhouse area.Buildings at the main ruminant slaughterhouse are of the open-sided portal frame type with concreteflooring fitted with open drain lines and concrete tiles. Considering their age (more than 40 years old forsome) and the harsh working conditions, the buildings and associated facilities are in relatively goodcondition. However, due to the existing layout and size of the buildings it may be difficult to upgrade these,unless the throughput of livestock is cut drastically, since there is no available space for appropriateexpansion. Buildings at the associated feet & head, blood, and other product processing facilities at arerudimentary and most of them are in need of significant repairs and maintenance.
  • 125. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 99 of 253Similarly, at the older local slaughterhouse open portal frame buildings with tiled floors and open drains arein use, but at this facility the buildings are generally in poor condition, especially the roof and floors; seeFigure 6.40 below.Figure 6.40 – Roof and Floor in Poor Condition at Older Local SlaughterhouseThe newer local slaughterhouse is a much smaller facility, designed in-house by the town veterinarian to tryan alternative layout and working methods. It is built on the same small site as the previous facility, so isvery restricted in terms of space and capacity. The facility is essentially contained in one integrated concretebuilding which is inconspicuous as a slaughterhouse. The cattle slaughtering area is in sound condition withtiled walls whilst other areas including mutton slaughter and offal and skinning areas, were in poorercondition reflecting their greater use. The building had been fitted with a toilet for all to use, which was notobserved at the other sites.At the main poultry slaughterhouse, the overall market building is in poor repair and considerable effortwould be required to bring the building back to a satisfactory retail standard, let alone a food processingstandard. Some of the processing areas were, however, themselves in reasonable condition and it wasobvious that some processors were maintaining their facility in order to access the more demanding parts ofthe retail and food service markets.All of the above facilities used rudimentary equipment and manual labour for all of the tasks, as follows:At the main ruminant slaughterhouse, equipment is minimal and limited to rudimentary pulleys toassist in the lifting of the carcass onto the dressing rail. It is a similar situation at the older localfacility, which had no process equipment but for some very rudimentary rope hoists for lifting thecarcass. At the newer slaughterhouse a small improvement had been made with the introduction ofblock and tackle devices to hoist beef carcasses and overhead fans had been installed.At the poultry slaughter facility, five of the slaughter businesses had purchased and operated smallscale scalding and plucking equipment. This equipment is used for less than 5% of the productionof these companies and is specifically used for niche markets such as Chinese restaurants thatrequire the skins to be left on. None of the other businesses had any equipment apart from tables,benches, and tubs.The feet & head processing facility operated ground level water baths and gas fired furnaces. A solidfuel fired open vat kettle for coagulating and partial drying was used at the blood processing facility;whilst equipment at the other product processing facilities varies from nothing for air drying ofproducts (except a hanging system) to solid fuel fired open kettles for fat recovery operations.Water from the water baths discharges to the local drainage system.
  • 126. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 100 of 253Utility ServicesLighting at the facilities can be summarised as follows:Main ruminant slaughterhouse - variable, being almost adequate at the periphery of the building dueto day light intensity, but completely inadequate in the centre of the building.Older local slaughterhouse - none installed, all work was conducted by day light.Newer local slaughterhouse - some rudimentary fluorescent lighting had been installed, but theceiling had also been penetrated to allow access of day light, without which it would be inadequate.Poultry slaughter facility - the level of lighting was dependent on the business and in some cases wasadequate and in other almost non-existent.Feet & head processing - none as all processing was essentially performed in the open air duringdaylight hours.Blood processing facility – none.Other product processing – none.The basic condition of utilities can be summarised as follows:Main ruminant slaughterhouse – power supply adequate for current needs. Water supplied fromboreholes both directly to usage points and via a large overhead storage tank. The tank providesgood water pressure but the water is not chlorinated.Older local slaughterhouse – power supply adequate for current needs and water from city watersupply.Newer local slaughterhouse – power supply adequate and city water supply utilised.Poultry slaughter facility – utilises city water supply, but plumbing and electrical services needattention.Feet and head processing - utilises groundwater, electrical power supply minimal.Blood processing facility – no water or electricity used.Other product processing – main usage is water for washing, little electricity used.Planned Improvements by the City:Based on information gained during the Study Team’s visit there is a plan to close the main livestockmarkets, slaughterhouses, and associated facilities and move to a new site. An outline of the proposal is asfollows:Abandon the current site and move the markets and slaughterhouses to a new 42 hectare block ofland in the peri-urban area.The new site is planned to be an integrated meat sector complex including livestock markets andslaughtering for cattle, sheep, goats, poultry, and fish; each having their own separate facilities.The site will also include a livestock waste processing facility run by the private sector (as is donenow) and will incorporate provision of utility services and the treatment and disposal of wastewater.It is likely that the facility will need to be phased, with cattle being the priority followed by sheep andgoats, and finally poultry and others.Improved technologies, process control, and disease control will be given a high priority.The proposal is still in the early stages of development and will need to be carefully developed in order toefficiently incorporate all the planned activities and supply the necessary resources, including labour. Fundshave already been spent on the proposed project to secure the site and to construct a perimeter wall, accessroad, drains, and a 3 metre wide tree barrier around the site. Further funding is being allocated for the nextstage of the project and the city government is pushing the project.
  • 127. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 101 of 253Unfortunately, the Study Team thought that the proposals were being rushed through and that theopportunity to plan and implement an appropriate integrated facility for the next 50 years may be lost in the“political” rush to complete.At the poultry market, the poultry association wished to see incorporated into the above project thefollowing, and intimated that funds may be available from their side to assist with:The construction of new higher quality roads.Improvements to building and site drainage installations.The construction of cold storage at the site to assist with managing variations in supply and demand.Improvements to facilities for the handling of raw material destined for poultry meal.(c) Low-Income Country 3 (Africa)LayoutThe four sites visited by the Study Team comprise a mix of site layouts which are indicative of the age andsize of the facilities.The peri-urban municipal slaughterhouses is in essence a simple slaughter slab around which a building hasbeen erected. There is a narrow race leading from the cattle enclosure onto a small cramped area where upto four animals are stuck and bled at a time. Workers operate two to a team to stick, bleed, remove heads,and shackle each beast. There is a side area for head crushing (manual) and a paunch room. Carcasses areloaded onto trucks through a narrow gate. The images in Figure 6.41 below provide an overview of thelayout at the facility.Figure 6.41 – Yards, Lairage, and Abattoir Building at Peri-Urban Municipal Slaughterhouse
  • 128. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 102 of 253In contrast, the main municipal slaughterhouse has a much more structured layout and comprises a complexof cattle and small stock yards; three cattle / small-stock slaughter halls (Orthodox Christian, Muslim, andNon-religious) which are connected in a series of corridors and alleyways to each other and to a small chiller(for detained carcasses); a wide load-out area. A pig slaughter hall is also present in a separate area. Someof these areas are illustrated in Figure 6.42 below.Figure 6.42 – Main Municipal Slaughterhouse Facilities 1Lairage (top left), Christian Slaughter Hall (top right), Muslim Slaughter Hall (centre left),Non-religious Slaughter Hall (centre right), Pig Slaughter Hall (bottom left), and Loading /Despatch Area (bottom right)
  • 129. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 103 of 253At the lower level of the slaughterhouse is found the rendering department, skins and hides area, gluefactory, pet food factory, and ancillary services including the boiler room and storage. This area also housesthe deodorising unit for the rendering operation. There is also a 2-year old wastewater treatment systemsituated at the rear of the plant which is currently not operational due to high operating costs, mainly thecost of chemicals. Some of these points are illustrated in Figure 6.43 below.Figure 6.43 – Main Municipal Slaughterhouse Facilities 2Rendering (top left), Deodorising Plant (top right), Skins and Hides (centre left), Glue Plant(centre right), Pet Food Plant (bottom left), and Meat Meal Plant (bottom right)The private ruminant slaughterhouse is located out of the city and incorporates cattle yards; slaughtering;drying sheds for selected offal; and dwellings of some of the workers at the plant. This facility has a lower
  • 130. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 104 of 253level where basic head-crushing and paunch rinsing takes place, as shown in Figure 6.44 below.Figure 6.44 – Private Ruminant SlaughterhouseLairage (top left), Slaughterhouse Building (top right), Slaughter Hall (centre left & right),Offal Drying Sheds (bottom left & right)The small ruminant slaughterhouse is a private facility that consists of a modern steel portal frame buildingthat has been adapted to include a simple processing line for small stock, mainly goats. The facilities are ona single level and have a viewing area for customers and management. No photography was allowed at thisfacility.
  • 131. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 105 of 253InfrastructureIn the case of the main municipal slaughterhouse, the on-site drainage is old but operates effectively and thewhole site appears to be well drained; although at the back of the rendering plant there is only a dirt roadthat is often muddy and unacceptable given the quality of the rest of the site infrastructure and the road’susage, see Figure 6.45.Figure 6.45 – Rear Access Road at the Main Municipal SlaughterhouseDrainage from the slaughterhouse site discharges to the adjacent river along with the process wastewater(treatment plant no longer operating). Liquids that are discharged to the river therefore include all plantprocessing and wash-down effluent in addition to stormwater runoff, tallow wash-off, manure, and urinefrom the yards, etc. There are save-all grates installed at various points throughout the plant but these areoften haphazard and large items of offal or carcass trim or fat regularly enter the drainage system.The main buildings at this slaughterhouse are very solid and are generally in good condition despite beingsome 50 years old; suggesting good initial build quality and maintenance. There have been a number ofmodifications carried out over the years and these, although often crude, appear to work well. The age andcomplexity of the main slaughter halls and split-level processing will make the facility difficult and costly tomodify and upgrade to modern standards.At the small municipal slaughterhouse there is no formal drainage system and the mostly grassed site slopesto the rear of the site to a local creek where stormwater runoff can discharge freely; see Figure 6.46overleaf. However, all process water from the facility also discharges to the creek after passing through asmall sedimentation tank. The sedimentation tank is in a state of disrepair and thus process water passesthrough with only large solids (mainly stomach contents) being caught. The buildings at this facility arerelatively small and simple; condition is average. There appears to be sufficient space at the site foradditional buildings and/or modification to the existing facilities.The private ruminant slaughterhouse site is mostly paved and the drainage system appeared to workeffectively. The facility is required to retain its processing effluent for removal and disposal at a municipalwastewater treatment plant; however, site drainage goes to the adjoining creek system, including rainwater,cattle yard wash-down, and other liquids generated outside the plant processes. The buildings at this privatefacility are only 2-3 years old and in good condition, although a few minor modifications could improve thefacilities and process control further.At the private small ruminant slaughterhouse, drainage is to a series of local drainage channels whichdischarge into a local creek. Process water discharges into an underground septic tank. This facility is notcustom-built but is a modern portal frame building with simple internal modifications for the slaughter ofsmall-stock only. The facility is private and will likely be moved in the near future as the business expands.
  • 132. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 106 of 253Figure 6.46 – Small Municipal Slaughterhouse Site and Discharge to Local Creek.Slaughter and processing rails were manually operated at all abattoirs and all facilities except the smallprivate slaughterhouse, used electric saws for brisket removal (see Figure 6.47 below). Apart from theisolated use of electric saws, all processing tasks are undertaken by hand, including opening of the thoraciccavity at the sternum and splitting the carcass into halves along the spinous process.Figure 6.47 – Electric Saws Used at the Main Slaughterhouse, in the European Hall (left) andthe Non-religious Hall (right)Floor dressing is undertaken for part of the slaughter process at both municipal slaughterhouses. In general,shackling procedures are performed manually through block and pulley; although for cattle (and pigs at themunicipal facility) motorised lifting equipment was used for raising the carcasses to the rails; see Figure6.48 overleaf.At all cattle facilities carcasses are taken to boneless side stage only, before being despatched to butchersaround the city; the same is done for pigs.Red and white offal processing is rudimentary at all facilities and relies only on hoses with little or notrimming of items occurring. Paunch handling comprises emptying the paunch contents into a sink or well,rinsing with running water, then despatch.
  • 133. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 107 of 253Figure 6.48 – Typical Motorised Lifting Equipment at Main Slaughterhouse Non-Religious Hall(left) and the Small Municipal Slaughterhouse (right)Utility ServicesIn all of the slaughterhouses lighting was very poor and substantially below the typical lighting standardsrequired in modern facilities. The only possible exception to this was at the newer private facility, during theshort period before sunset, when the room was well lit but with contrasting and shadowy light; however,most of the slaughter and processing occurred after this period.6The poor lighting makes it difficult to detect and minimise or eliminate carcass contamination; identifyabscesses and abnormalities; and properly tie off intestinal content and viscera. In a modern processingsetting, regulations are enforced regarding lighting (in Lux); however, this is clearly impractical in thecurrent settings. The subsequent strain for workers and the poor hygiene and dressing outcomes is a directresult of substandard lighting.Electricity was available at all slaughter and process areas. The only occasion on which other power sourceswere observed was in the blowtorch used in de-hairing pig carcasses.Water was available to all sites in adequate quantity. In each room at the large municipal and privateslaughterhouses there were sufficient water connections to enable hygienic processes to occur; however,the absence of stop-pressure hoses, rinse valves, and hot water connections severely restricted the ability ofthe enterprises to use water as a cleaning and hygiene measure. Strategic rather than copious use of watershould be the objective in the slaughter and processing sequence.(d) Middle-Income Country 1 (Middle East and North Africa)LayoutThe layouts of the local slaughterhouses are generally very simple, with a central slaughter hall (or halls) andsome form of concreted area outside where processing of fifth-quarter items takes place. In some casesthere concrete working areas were situated behind the slaughterhouse and hence in relative seclusionwhereas at other sites they were located in front of the facilities in areas of open access. The layouts of themunicipal slaughterhouse vary, but are usually slightly more complex than the local slaughterhouses. Thesefacilities, were walled, with open areas for waste storage, lairage, despatch, etc., and a number of separatebuildings or rooms housing the slaughter and processing areas, and office.6HSA comments (Feb 2009) – Poor lighting is evident at most of the facilities identified in this report and it is importantthat lighting should produce a diffuse amount of light across the area and not cause shadows or dark spots, particularlyin raceways or areas that animals are required to move through, as contrasting light conditions often cause animals tobaulk. Whilst lighting may be useful for staff, careful consideration should be given as to where lights should be placedand the type of lighting installed to ensure it does not create animal handling problems.
  • 134. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 108 of 253The large municipal slaughterhouse in City 2 has a modern layout including all areas that would be expectedof a modern European facility; including separate wastewater treatment plant, generator sets, coolingfacilities, incineration facilities, and a sizeable set of slaughter halls; see Figures 6.49 to 6.51 below. Thelayout of the slaughter halls is such that they are above the offal processing sections, and as staff on theupper level removed items such as hides, heads and plucks, these are dropped down chutes into the offalpreparation area below.Figure 6.49 – Simple Interior Layouts at Local Slaughterhouses in Middle-Income Country 1Figure 6.50 – Municipal Slaughterhouse Site Layout in Middle-Income Country 1The layouts of the large-scale private chicken slaughter facilities both consisted of landscaped enclosedcompounds, with a central main building taking up most of the site. In the central main building were twolines; one for the slaughter and preparation of fresh cuts of meat, and the other for the preparation ofcooked charcuterie items such as hams and sausages. These two lines were, in both cases, separated to agreater extent, in theory removing the risk of cross contamination between raw and cooked products. Bothfacilities also had a number of outbuildings housing stores, treatment facilities, and offices. Unfortunatelyinternal photography was not permitted.
  • 135. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 109 of 253Figure 6.51 – Layout Plan for Modern Slaughterhouse in City 2 of Middle-Income Country 1InfrastructureThe rural slaughterhouses and municipal slaughterhouses ware all constructed of blocks/bricks, concreteand steel, with concrete flooring and basic drainage channels and grates (usually blocked with material);however, they are all very basic in terms of architecture and features, and were without exception in a poorstate of repair, see Figure 6.52. All are at least of 50 years old.The rural slaughterhouses have only very basic process equipment; each slaughterer or butcher has his ownset of knives, and each workstation is equipped with a hook setup to lift the carcasses above the floor.Lighting, flooring, access to water and safety equipment are all inadequate.Figure 6.52 – Older Local Slaughterhouse (left) and City 2 Slaughterhouse (right)The City 1 municipal slaughterhouse is of similar construction as the local slaughterhouses, however is farmore extensive, with dedicated preparation rooms, chillers, loading bays, lairage and so forth. Figure 6.53overleaf shows examples of the infrastructure. Whilst old and outdated, and in some aspects in poor repair,the facility is at least visibly maintained to some degree, and it is obvious that they have a reasonablecleaning regime and repaint frequently.
  • 136. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 110 of 253The City 1 municipal slaughterhouse also has little in the way of process equipment; however, it is far betterequipped than the rural facilities attached to the markets. Despite all equipment being very aged, the facilityhas at its disposal the following:On-floor slaughter and dressing with a hoist used for final hide removal and evisceration.Rail system for (manually) pushing carcasses about the entire facility.Hoses for wash-down.Sinks and scrubbing boards for offal preparation.Hooks for drying of offal and sheep carcasses.Cold rooms and fridges for 24 hanging of beef carcasses.Figure 6.53 – The City 1 Municipal Slaughterhouse Internal InfrastructureThe City 2 municipal slaughterhouse, Figure 6.54, whose construction was completed in 1997, is in a farbetter state of repair than other slaughterhouses visited in the study area, as would be expected. Buildingsare constructed using a variety of techniques, but steel frames, and concrete block or lightweight corrugatedstudwork are employed widely. Roofing is either flat and felted, or angular and made of corrugated steel.Figure 6.54 – The City 2 Municipal Slaughterhouse External InfrastructureThe slaughterhouse is a modern facility with a large array of powered equipment. Whilst the equipment isall under a decade old, in some cases the maintenance is below standard and general conditions are perhapsbelow the level that they should be. Equipment present onsite includes:
  • 137. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 111 of 253A modern mechanised small-stock inverted slaughter and dressing chain including stunning pen,shoulder and final pullers and independent viscera conveyor.A modern mechanised on-rail beef dressing chain with rotating knocking box, hide puller and riseand fall platforms.The equipment is not maintained as well as it should be nor always used as intended.The modern poultry facilities in the City 1 slaughterhouse, in common with the municipal slaughterhouse inCity 2, are all relatively new, and are reasonably well constructed and maintained. These have modernstainless steel lines and all the relevant equipment such as scalding tanks, plucking machines, pneumaticshears for clipping feet and heads, pressure hoses, refrigerators, freezers, packaging machines, pressurecookers, smokers and more. The condition of the equipment is generally good, see Figure 6.55 overleaf.Figure 6.55 – Slaughter Equipment in City 1 (left) and City 2 (right) SlaughterhousesUtility ServicesIn all slaughterhouses other than City 2 and the large volume poultry facilities, lighting conditions areinadequate for safe work, good cleaning, and importantly good inspection of carcasses.As with all other items in this section, it is the modern private poultry plants and the City 2 slaughterhousethat have access to the most types and reliability in terms of utilities. They have all the usual utilitiesprovided, plus in addition some have their own well with in-house water treatment, back-up generator setsand other such auxiliary equipment. At the other end of the spectrum, the tueries do not usually even havea reliable cold water supply.(e) Middle-Income Country 2 (Latin America and Caribbean)LayoutThe layouts of the two large private red meat and pig slaughterhouses located in the City are very different.They both had one important common aspect, in that both plants had grown historically with the consequentproblems that this brings when old and new parts of the plant are merged. In both cases, chain lines wereused and both were planning or undergoing considerable extensions or renovations within the constraints oftheir urban sites.The general layout of all small poultry facilities was the same, see Figure 6.56 overleaf, consisting of:A small rectangular room, generally with poor lighting.
  • 138. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 112 of 253A line of bleeding cones7along one wall.A scalding area consisting of a few makeshift pots with gas stoves underneath.A plucking area, including feather storage.A table for evisceration and subsequent processing.An area of barrels for collection of viscera.Figure 6.56 – Layouts of Small Chicken SlaughterhousesThe more modern poultry processing facility has the ability to process both chicken and turkeys. It is a chainline type system with a very typical design, similar to those encountered in other countries where the birdsare processed as follows:Receipt in crates at one end of the factory.Removal from the crates, and placing onto the chain using the legs.Stunning.Cutting and bleeding.Scalding.Plucking.Evisceration.Head and leg removal.Packing (including re-uniting giblet, pluck and lights).Cryo-vac bagged, and tank dip frozen then into blast chillers.Product then sent to cold store for loading.Sectioning and further processed product is also produced at the plant.Whilst not serving the City but the general area, the municipal slaughterhouses should be mentioned as acomparison to other facilities. These were very antiquated buildings consisting of just one or two roomsequipped with very little in the way of facilities and operating on a floor and hook/gambel system. The7HAS comments (Feb 2009) – Bleeding cones for poultry are a very useful piece of equipment providing a secure formof restraint at the time of stunning and slaughter, and allow staff to work alone if necessary. The bird is maintainedupside down allowing the birds to be left to bleed in the cone, by gravity, until they have lost consciousness or died,before further processing takes place. The proper use of bleeding cones should therefore be encouraged; however,birds should not be restrained in cones until the moment that the slaughterman is ready to stun or bleed the bird,because inversion is aversive to poultry.
  • 139. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 113 of 253lairage is always adjoined the slaughter room, into where cattle were led and slaughtered, and where allother processing takes place. Dressed carcasses were taken out through the same door the stock hadentered through.InfrastructureBoth of the large private slaughterhouses in the City had basic liquid collection and treatment systems,consisting of simply settling and / or screening. The systems were antiquated and inadequate; however,with a lax control of effluent on the part of the government, the facilities are not under any pressure toimprove or renew their systems. The facility owners should be commended, however, for their future plansto upgrade these facilities despite the apparent lack of enforcement.The small poultry slaughter facilities both have rudimentary liquid drainage systems consisting of sunkenchannels covered with gratings. These channels run directly into the municipal system with no removal ofgross solids, and must cause untold problems in the sewers. Figure 6.57 shows typical slaughterhousedrainage as observed by the Study Team.Figure 6.57 – Typical Slaughterhouse DrainageThe modern poultry processing plant collected its processing liquid wastes and treated them using adedicated biological treatment plant. In comparison, all municipal facilities had a similar drainage systems;essentially a short culvert or enclosed box section leading directly to the nearby river, with no treatmentprior to discharge.The informal sheep slaughter operation observed by the Study Team was situated on the banks of a river,and any liquid waste was simply ejected to the river.The two main city slaughterhouses visited both had a mix of old and new buildings. This type of building mixis common where historical growth has occurred. In both cases, the general standard of the building wasgood and construction was underway at both sites to introduce new production units of some form.Construction techniques varied depending on purpose, and comprised bricks and mortar, steel frame withcladding, or wooden cabin. Refer to Figure 6.58 below.
  • 140. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 114 of 253Figure 6.58 – Slaughterhouse Interior (left) and Construction of New Wing (right)In comparison, the slaughter buildings at another slaughterhouse could best be described as temporarystructures only, consisting of simple low walls with flat roofs provided on columns, creating shade butpermitting ventilation also.Another facility was a thoroughly modern plant in every sense of the word; buildings are in good to excellentcondition, well maintained and in a landscaped and maintained garden environment.The municipal slaughterhouses visited were aged and in poor to very poor condition. Construction was ofstone and brick and in traditional style, with corrugated iron roofing. There is clearly little budget availableto maintain the facilities as they were old and decrepit. Some basic attempts to patch up the walls andrepaint were, however, observed. Refer to Figures 6.59 (below) and 6.60 overleaf.Figure 6.59 – Exterior and Interior of a Municipal SlaughterhouseBoth of the main city slaughterhouses visited have reasonably good processing equipment. The standard ofequipment at one was better than that present at the other, particularly in relation to offal handling, tripepreparation, and fifth-quarter preparation. The main processing chains, while not up to the standardexpected in a modern export facility, are nonetheless of a good standard, particularly in comparison to manyfacilities visited for the present study. There are modern items of equipment installed and in use such asrotary knives and hide pullers, with more equipment awaiting installation, on order or planned for the future.Maintenance appears to be of a reasonable level with items such as knife sterilisers are in use andfunctioning correctly. One facility is extending is refrigeration capacity, which currently stands at 1,000cattle, 1,800 pigs, and 450 sheep.
  • 141. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 115 of 253Figure 6.60 – Cattle Lairage at a Modern Private Facility and at a Municipal FacilityThe modern poultry plant’s equipment is described above, but is essentially an off the shelf modern facility,operating to export standards.The small urban poultry slaughter operations had basic equipment essentially consisting of bleeding cones,tables and workbenches, hoses, and scalding pots, whilst the municipal equipment consisted solely of a hookand gambel system, plus a sink and workbench.Some larger informal facilities are understood to exist in the area, and these presumably have some form ofbasic equipment. The sheep slaughter operation relies solely on floor slaughter and preparation, with knivesand bowls being the only available equipment.Utility ServicesIn all slaughterhouses, other than those in the city itself and the large volume poultry facilities, lightingconditions are inadequate for safe work, good cleaning, and importantly good inspection of carcasses. Itmust be said that the lighting observed at the one plant, while adequate was not up to an acceptablestandard for a plant in a high-income country.The larger red meat processing plants have access to a full range of utilities included self generated steamin the case of on of the main facilities. Similarly, one of the poultry plants has good utility servicesconnected, and all the above have their own wells and water treatment facilities, in addition to beingconnected to the municipal supply. In contrast, others have only basic services with hot water beinggenerated by bottled gas at each processing stall. The regional slaughterhouses have running only coldwater and very basic electric lighting.6.5 PUBLIC MARKETSLocation and LayoutIn Low-Income Country 1 and Middle-Income Country 1, it is common to find slaughtering activities (mainlypoultry) at municipal urban markets and hence reference to these public markets have been included in theinfrastructure section. The markets are typically located in or near to towns in order to service the local townpopulation. They are generally associated with a localised pond system to handle any waste or storm waterfrom the site.Vehicular access to the public markets varies significantly according to the location of the market. A marketin an older town may have poor roads in the area, while one located in a more recently developed area mayhave good standard road access and even some motorcycle/car parking available.The markets are generally laid out in a series of stalls with particular areas dedicated to meat retailingoperations, fish, poultry, fruit and vegetables, and other non-food items. The poultry and meat retail stallstend to be of similar size and are all registered with the market operator. In the poultry and meat retailing
  • 142. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 116 of 253stalls area there is generally some reticulated water supply to assist with cleaning procedures.Infrastructure and ServicesIn Low-Income Country 1, market buildings typically comprise a concrete floor with a roof supported byexposed steel roof trusses supported from a grid of concrete columns. The roofs are of corrugated steel andthe buildings have open sides, with only walls at the entrance; see Figures 6.61 and 6.62 below.Generally, lighting in these public markets is poor; however, it was observed that meat stalls are often on theperiphery of the market where daylight generally has more impact. The markets are generally supplied witha municipal water supply and adequate power. Peri-urban public markets are generally supplied withgroundwater and power.Public markets in Middle-Income Country 1 are very rudimentary and have few if any facilities for water,power, or drainage. Stalls are makeshift and wastes are discharged onto a dirt floor, including blood andwash-water which seep into the ground and/or flow elsewhere with gravity, see Figure 6.63 overleaf.Site drainage at all municipal public markets in Middle-Income Country 2 was generally good, utilising anetwork of covered drains and reasonable gradients to keep the concrete floors dry and free from ponding.Sanitary facilities are available at the sites to provide toilets and washing facilities for the market workers.Figure 6.61 – Typical Buildings Public Market 1 (East Asia and Pacific)Figure 6.62 – Typical Buildings at Public Market 2 (East Asia and Pacific)
  • 143. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 117 of 253Figure 6.63 – Typical Stalls at Public Markets (Middle East and North Africa)6.6 ANALYSIS OF INFRASTRUCTURE ISSUESIt is clear that other than for a small number of notable exceptions, the infrastructure and services in placeat most live market, slaughter, processing and retail facilities in the Study countries are woefully inadequate,and are a cause for serious concern, having impacts on all aspects of concern in this study. Most facilitiesare located in areas of urban encroachment, with poor access, parking, and security. Open areas andbuildings are poorly designed (if designed at all), over capacity, too old, and inadequately maintained.Wastes are generally cleared from the slaughter area/floor as they have some value; however, due to thegeneral state of disrepair and the poor cleaning equipment, hygiene is abysmal and much of the wastematerial would be contaminated.At both markets and slaughterhouses, poor infrastructure layout (for example flooring, pens, and races) haslead to poor welfare practices, with subsequent concerns for meat quality and disease risks (Brown-Brandl2008). Lack of adequate lighting is extremely common, and the inevitable result of this is an increase inaccidents due to both worker error and the welfare issues associated with poor lighting (e.g. manhandlingof animals scared of the dark). Poor lighting also severely affects the inspection of carcasses, if undertakenat all.Equipment, whether modern or traditional, was frequently neglected, ineffective or broken, and many itemsoriginally intended to assist the process and prevent disease spread are actually assisting spread andcross-contamination.With the situation as dire as described above, it is perhaps difficult to discern which elements needaddressing first, and how. In order to do so, an appreciation of the interactions between the infrastructure,political, and instrumental solutions, as well as of capacity building, training, and awareness-raising isrequired.At recent meetings held by the World Bank in Paris presenting the Study, it became clear that whilst someparticipants (in general those that had witnessed similar facilities) appreciated the extent to whichinfrastructure and services are lacking, there is a general opinion that the wealth of guidelines andhandbooks that exist are applicable to the developing world. Whilst the principles contained within theseguidelines and handbooks, which are in general intended for application in the setting of modern facilities,remain valid, the vast majority of the information is simply irrelevant in the context of most slaughterhousesin the developing world.Heinz (2008) is in general an exception to the above statement; however, whilst it recognises the diresituation on the ground in many countries, it remains somewhat optimistic about the solutions offered insome places. Heinz recommends that “The first and strongest recommendation for improving the abattoirsector is to replace the booth-slaughter (and batch) system for bovines and small ruminants that are stillwidely practised in medium-sized and larger facilities with the more hygienic and easier to superviseline-slaughter system”. The present study found that whilst Heinz is clearly quite correct in hisrecommendation, in many cases even the provision of basic hoist and booth slaughter facilities would often
  • 144. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 118 of 253be a considerable improvement over the existing systems currently in operation in many places.As mentioned earlier in this report, another World Bank study is currently ongoing focussing on thereconstruction of public live market, slaughterhouses, and meat processing facilities. This Study will lookinto infrastructure in more detail, utilising the findings of Heinz (2008) and other relevant publications plusthe wider findings of this Study.
  • 145. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 119 of 2537. OPERATIONAL ISSUES AT FACILITIESThe preceding chapter examined the status of the “hard” issues of physical infrastructure and services;these are critical causes of the current situation in developing countries and are also key to any futureimprovements. Improvements to infrastructure and services, however, need to be sustainable andpracticable, and due consideration has to be given to the operational issues that accompany any upgrades.Indeed, in addition to the aim of establishing how improved operational issues could assist with establishingsustainable solutions (and conversely how poor operations could cause new projects to fail), a major aim ofthis avenue of investigation was to assess whether investment in improvements to operational issues couldat this stage offer more value for money than engineering solutions.The previous chapter reviewed the Study Team’s findings in regard to the physical infrastructure anddisposal of wastes at livestock markets and slaughter and processing facilities. Several of the factorsidentified, such as drainage, access to services like electricity and clean water supplies, and lighting, have asignificant follow-on impact in these facilities in an operational sense.This section of the report provides information on the activities and operations at the livestock markets, theslaughter centres and further processing sites inspected during the in-country stage of the project. Table7.1 provides details on the numbers and types of facilities visited in each country.Table 7.1 – Number of Facilities Visited by CountryLow-Income Country Middle-Income CountryFacility Type1 2 3 1 2TotalLivestock Markets /Public Markets5 3 6 5 6 25Slaughter Facilities 8 5 5 6 8 32Meat Processing Sites 2 2 1 5 2 12Retail Outlets 3 3 5 5 5 21The project covers several regions with marked differences in cultures, protein preferences, religiousslaughter requirements and other factors. Many similarities emerged, however, among the five markets inregard to operations and particularly regarding hygiene and disease risk. This chapter uses three categoriesto present information in order to examine what occurs at these sites along the supply chain from live animalto retail sale and how conditions and outcomes might be improved. These categories are:Health and hygiene.Occupational health and safety.Disease risks.The critical issues identified along the supply chain are the overwhelming paucity of:Basic sanitation for workers.Access to cleaning equipment and products.Training in simple hygiene and cleaning.Supervision by trained personnel as part of a larger hygiene regime.Hygienic clothing and equipment for workers.Appropriate equipment for handling livestock and processing livestock products.At several of the sites visited, enterprise owners and employees worked efficiently and exerted great effortto recover value wherever possible. The details in this section of the report are provided in order toobjectively describe what has been observed rather than to offer criticism of the countries, their facilities, or
  • 146. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 120 of 253the workers themselves. The wide range of waste recovery tasks seen at these sites attests as much toinitiative as to the difficulties of the tasks performed.7.1 LIVESTOCK MARKETS7.1.1 GeneralThe first stage in the livestock processing chain is the livestock markets. Chapter 8 (Animal Welfare andTransportation) addresses several aspects of livestock welfare at these sites; however, from an operationalstandpoint, the markets visited were observed to be poorly equipped; old and in poor repair; devoid of basicfacilities for workers and buyers, e.g. shade, shelter, lavatories; chronically dirty and poorly-drained; andplaces where workers’ health and well-being are often compromised. Many of the sites were under pressurefrom urban encroachment and, whilst administrative authorities referred to plans for improved sites outsideof the cities, budgetary and other factors suggest these plans might not come to fruition in the near futureor may be deficient in some areas if built.Various business models were found at these livestock markets, with middlemen and butchers being pivotalto the operations of markets in the North African and Asian regions. In contrast, greater levels of directselling were understood to occur in some of the markets visited in South America and Africa. The formalmarkets are organised by municipal or other local authorities which control the venue and charge vendorsa fee (normally on a per head basis) for placement of livestock therein.Livestock in the municipal markets are drawn from rural areas in addition to stock that are raised in the cityand surrounding areas. A feature of most of the cities visited was the constant presence of livestock in smallholdings throughout the city environs, kept in gardens, lanes, on grassy roadsides, traffic circles or vacantpieces of land. These animals often represent the wealth of households and can be quickly converted intoincome. In the African and North African market examples, informal livestock markets are very popular withcitizens who keep their stock in built-up areas as they are conveniently located and have a lower or nil feecompared to formal markets. Growers from the countryside often bring their animals on foot to themunicipal markets to sell stock and buy replacement animals. Wholesalers provide the majority of livestockin the formal markets. The roads leading into and out of towns are regularly full of vehicles carrying cattle,goats and crates of poultry.It was suggested in several centres that the emergence of the new, industrial style of farm for poultry orpork production will serve to bypass the traditional markets, particularly as urban encroachment makes itharder for these markets to function8. Direct marketing will likely become more important where newenterprises are taking shape, but for smallholders the physical market – either formal or informal - currentlyrepresents the most expedient means to convert livestock into cash and for butchers to source animals forslaughter.Markets are organised around the species being sold: cattle and small-stock in outdoor enclosures; separateareas for poultry, sometimes under cover, where killing and processing of the bird might also take place. InNorth Africa, Africa and Asia, the poultry markets are usually integrated into general public markets that sella range of other merchandise which may include other livestock and fish. Haggling, waiting for buyers, newlivestock arriving, and attempts to keep animal lots separate: all of these activities were seen occurring atthese sites. While many of the facilities visited are run by the local municipal authority, with a few cityworkers in place to take market fees and occasionally a vet to examine doubtful livestock, there are also ahigh number of informal markets being conducted in most of the centres visited.8HSA comments (Feb 2009) – Important observation and raises the question as to whether any species of livestockshould be taken to market because, generally speaking, livestock markets are not good for animal welfare and canpresent a significant risk for disease spread. Transport and handling stresses, particularly in hot climates, often severelycompromise animal welfare and can play an effective role in reducing the quality of meat produced from slaughter stock.Whilst this HSA comment is true, there are other significant issues to be considered in developing countries, such assmall producers and the local cultural aspects of livestock markets in the community, which cannot be covered under thescope of this report.
  • 147. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 121 of 253The following general observations were made during the field visits:Most livestock suppliers to markets are traders who purchase animals from farmers or other tradersand provide them for sale to markets.Direct selling by owners is also common but tends to occur more in the informal markets.The large number of traders present in several of the markets restricts the capacity of middlemen tofix prices. These traders provide a key logistical service by bringing product to consumers.New, large industrial farms producing pigs or poultry might affect, over time, the number of animalsgoing through the live markets but for the present these facilities are well-entrenched and, owing tobudgetary issues, most will not be re-located despite the age and disrepair of the premises.In most markets, sales are conducted on a per head basis: scales for weighing animals were rarelyin evidence.7.1.2 Hygiene and Sanitation(a) Poultry MarketsSeveral of the cities visited have large, separate marketing centres for poultry where live birds are sold.These are generally located at a distance from the cattle and small-stock markets. Typically, these marketsare held under cover and are populated by upwards of 50 individual stallholders who may offer slaughterand evisceration services on the spot. In the African and North African cities, poultry and mammals arefound for sale on adjacent areas of the same market. These stallholders may not have access to runningwater for cleaning stalls, for hand washing or to enable hygienic processing of birds. Instead, operatorsneed to go some distance to a water tank or common stand-pipe to find water and carry it back to the stall.In turn, there is no running water for cleaning the stalls or walkways at these markets: that is only done fromthe general runoff from other operations, in addition to scavenging dogs and vermin that patrol the premisesafter hours.Poultry arrive at these markets in cages, nets, or tethered by the legs and hanging from a hook. Themajority of poultry are transported using small trucks and modified pick-ups. Poultry coming from industrialfarms are sometimes moved in slightly improved, modified trucks.Handling of poultry across East Asia is generally part of the purchase process; it disturbs and stresses thebirds9and increases the risk of disease being spread through contaminated hands of traders. Removingwaste is at the discretion of the stall holder and most leave waste where it falls. Typically these premises arevery crowded with human, vehicle and trader traffic and cleaning is a low priority for stall holders and marketsupervisors. Animal handling generally occurs on the ground which leads to significant dust and aerosolpollution problems, even where there is a concrete or solid floor surface. As noted earlier, there is often alarge number of dead birds at these markets and these litter the floor until some level of waste cleanup isundertaken. In some of the poultry markets of South East Asia, stall sweepings are retained and removedby the stall holder for feeding to fish in adjacent fish ponds but this is not a feature elsewhere.Virtually all the sites lack sanitation facilities for workers or customers and washing of hands is a rare sight.(b) Livestock Markets for RuminantsMost of the ruminant markets are located on bare earth, with one in South Asia located on old dumpsite,where drainage is a constant problem and contributes to the high level of filth and contamination. Pavedsurfaces in these facilities are rare, as are drainage arrangements. The wet season in most of these marketsis extreme which means the animal enclosures are difficult or impossible to access. Faeces mix with mudand waste into a quagmire which contaminates vehicles, animals, traders and workers, increasing the risk ofdisease spread. Where the climate is drier, airborne dirt is normally an issue and contributes to dust and9HSA comments (Feb 2009) – Repeated handling of poultry by potential buyers is likely to disturb and stress birds,particularly if handling is rough. Poultry find inversion aversive and uncomfortable.
  • 148. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 122 of 253dung covering nearby surfaces. The images in Figure 7.1 are fairly typical of what the project teamobserved. Only about 25% of the markets visited had latrines for workers’ use. Overall, hygiene andsanitation facilities at municipal sites are poor or absent: no water supply, no proper drainage, no toilets orhand-washing facilities and no areas for cleaning vehicles. As a result of this, urination and defecation takeplace in the open-air adjacent to walls and other objects, with human waste scattered as widely as animalwaste in some instances. The situation described above represents a real danger to both animal and humanhealth, and with just several basic improvements, huge reductions in disease spread could be achieved.Figure 7.1 - Drainage Conditions at African Livestock MarketsWith regard to the presence of pests and vermin at the live markets, rats, egrets, feral dogs and cats wereall seen in daylight scavenging wastes at various sites. Access to the live markets is generally open, withlittle in the way of walls or fences. Vermin and strays are often chased away from stalls by vendors withinthe poultry sections of live markets, although some butchers were seen to toss scraps to animals, but littleattention is given to them elsewhere. Obviously the lack of cleaning and any form of waste management onthese sites does little to discourage the presence of scavenging animals, which are presumed to be presentin greater numbers once the markets close at the end of the trading day.7.1.3 Occupational Health and SafetyThere were a number of areas of concern in regard to workers’ health and safety at a wide cross-section ofthe livestock markets visited. Virtually all of these concerns stem from the lack of resources available in thecountries overall, but they are especially noticeable in the live markets due to the large number of animals,the ongoing presence of excrement, and the unfettered access to the livestock areas by the general public.Countries visited with separate poultry markets present their own set of worker safety challenges becausesuch facilities are often located in densely populated areas and often feature live birds alongsideslaughtering and processing of birds. Access to the markets is also very open and dead birds are often foundin among areas where live birds are being sold, with subsequent concerns for disease risk. In markets wherethere is a mixture of mammals and birds in the same market, the problems seem to be less intense and thebirds are kept under transient shade such as awnings which allow for greater ventilation.Specific areas of concern with regard to poultry markets in terms of workers’ well-being are as follows:Animal handling regularly occurs on the ground with ensuing dust and aerosol pollution problems.In the specialist poultry markets, there are some workers who wear simple masks to protect themouth and nose, but around the world, most do not.Few stalls were observed to have electricity.Few stalls have running water.Few stalls are covered, exposing workers to direct sun and/or rain.Handling without gloves is common practice.
  • 149. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 123 of 253The practise of capturing the blood from freshly stunned animals means high risk exposure toblood-borne pathogens.Hand and implement washing was not common and many traders did not wash hands beforehandling or eating food.In many market settings, children assisting at the stalls are exposed to the poor sanitationarrangements.In the ruminant areas, the major risks to workers’ health and wellbeing is the loading and unloading areas.Suitable ramps are practically non-existent in these places, leaving workers to struggle in loading orunloading heavy animals off makeshift vehicles on uneven surfaces with poor drainage. The simpleplacement of concrete ramps would do much to assist worker safety.7.1.4 Disease RisksThe movement of animals and people to and from markets can cover wide geographical areas. Marketstherefore represent a major risk for spread of disease from animals to man and for propagating outbreaksof many diseases as the traders and consumers disperse.Only a handful of live markets inspected had in place any comprehensive cleaning system to reduce diseaserisk. For the most part, many practices at these markets suggested a high degree of disease risk, includingthe mixing of live animals with carcases for sale which is a major risk factor in the spread of food-bornediseases.Direct transmission pathways (oral, respiratory, etc.) are those where transmission is between an infectedanimal and an uninfected animal. In all markets, the Study Team found that likely pathways followed aspecific pattern. The transmission and spread of disease is facilitated because of an aggregation of animalsfrom multiple sources; animals are held in close proximity; and animals are under market and transportstresses, as discussed in Chapter 8 (Welfare and Transportation). Animals may also be housed inimprovised cages and pens (or tethered) and often stalls are in enclosed sites.Furthermore, animal handling facilities are rudimentary and the trading process often involves extensivehandling of animals by potential buyers in the presence of significant numbers of members of the public.The one-way movement of animals from market to slaughterhouse which is characteristic of some marketsystems serves to reduce the risk of direct spread of disease since most animals are destined for immediateslaughter and are therefore unlikely to propagate infection. This is true for some large urban markets, butmay not be wholly applicable for poultry. For example, in the South East Asian country visited, manymarkets are surrounded by pond systems that also contain farmed poultry (especially ducks) and contactwith a non-terminal bird is possible if not probable. These non-terminal birds may subsequently be tradedand moved elsewhere and, as presented elsewhere in the report, there is no means of tracing these animals’movements.Large urban centres can potentially act as animal disease ‘sinks’. Most animals from peri-urban regions (andbeyond) gravitate towards urban markets and are traded for the purpose of slaughter (as opposed tofarmer-to-farmer trade), which generally results in a one-way and terminal movement of disease.Farm-to-farm trade tends to be more important in spreading and maintaining animal disease in thepopulation. Peri-urban and rural markets, where farm-to-farm trade is more likely, will provide greater riskof disease dissemination than urban slaughter-based markets.Indirect transmission pathways occur where contact by an uninfected animal is with infected material and/orinfected intermediate vectors. Similar issues are involved as with direct transmission but additionalpathways for disease spread in this fashion can be summarised as follows:The movement of wastewater from livestock market sites directly onto fields that may be used forcrops or grazing represents a risk factor for spread of disease. Urban animals may represent potentreservoirs of infection and may become an important issue should eradication programmes fordisease be implemented.In South East Asia organic solid wastes from markets are sometimes removed and fed to fish in
  • 150. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 124 of 253adjacent ponds. This practice probably provides potent processing of pathogens (as few pathogensare adapted for both warm-blooded and cold-blooded hosts). However, fish ponds attract aquaticbirds and the feeding of poultry waste to fish represents a major risk factor for the spread of HPAIand is thus a major concern for this single disease alone. These ponds are often interconnected withwaterways and fields (especially during fish harvest) and this can provide a pathway for pathogensto access their host species. A recent study has examined the disease linkages between humans,ducks and rice farming in Thailand (Gilbert et al. 2008); patterns were formed using statisticalanalyses that suggest HPAI outbreak risk to be associated with duck abundance, human population,and rice cropping intensity, and not as previously though, to chicken numbers.Handling of livestock as part of the purchase process is typical and this extensive contact, with birdsespecially, increases the level of pathogens in the air, the ground and on the skin of humans. Ofparticular relevance is a South East Asian practice in which vendors massage a bird’s crop to emptyit prior to purchase.As discussed, whilst the movement of animals at these markets is mostly one-way and terminal, themovement of people in markets is more complex. Livestock and public markets therefore represent a majorrisk for the spread of disease from animals to humans and, for many diseases, the likelihood of propagatingoutbreaks once the market ends and traders and consumers disperse into the city.7.2 SLAUGHTERHOUSES7.2.1 Overview of Slaughter OperationsThe Study Team visited a wide range of slaughterhouses processing buffalo, cattle, sheep, goats, horses,camels, pigs and poultry. This section summarises the operations of these enterprises to establish the mainareas of concern and to provide a guide as to what is routine in the handling and management of livestockprocessing wastes and other relevant activities. In Chapter 10, the report addresses the important issues ofwaste and environmental management.Hours of operation for the slaughterhouses varied across the project and were set in response to therequirements of the follow-on stage in the supply chain. In the hottest and most humid countries, slaughteractivities were well underway by 2.00am in order to provide fresh product to the wet markets and publicmarkets by daybreak. The public markets, in turn, aim to have product sold and the area cleared beforenoon. Facilities in other regions, by contrast, sometimes commence slaughtering late in the afternoon andcontinue to midnight and beyond, when the product is loaded into trucks for distribution to retail butchersall over the city in the early morning hours.In virtually all cases, lighting in these facilities is very poor which has a direct impact on workers’ operationsfrom the slaughter point, through evisceration and quartering, to product load-out. It also preventseffective meat inspection.It is during the above stages that contamination, e.g. faecal matter or grime from dirty processingequipment or contact with the equally dirty floor, fails to be observed and is thus carried through to the nextstage of processing or consumption. Moreover, contaminated matter is often spread onto carcasses, visceraand workers through the misuse of hoses which splatter faeces, ingesta, and dirt over nearby surfaces.Virtually all of the municipal facilities visited operate in what amounts to an open-air environment, i.e. lackof an enclosed building envelope to restrict the influx of birds, dirt, flies, and other airborne matter. Only afew of the facilities accessed during the visit had temperature control on the slaughter floor and very fewmunicipal facilities provided routine refrigeration for carcasses/sides prior to load-out. The current emphasisin the local market for fresh product, to be consumed in a short time frame, means that the lack ofrefrigeration is not a major issue provided basic hygiene, sanitation, and operating principles are followed.Livestock are slaughtered in slaughterhouses, and often illegally by retail butchers at private premises. Theyare subject to only limited official control by the municipality staff. Many slaughterhouses, except those inthe provincial centres, consist of simple sheds with limited or no water supply or electricity. Floors are oftendamaged, drainage is poor, and cleaning and maintenance virtually non-existent with no, or inadequate,holding facilities for the stock.
  • 151. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 125 of 2537.2.2 Roles and RelationshipsA major factor that the Study Team determined as affecting the operation of slaughterhouses and otherfacilities was the individual or group interpersonal dynamics prevalent in a given sector, facility or country.The influence or weakness of a given group of people could have a considerable impact on operationalefficiency, processes, and other areas of the industry, including power to lobby government, offer bribes andincentives, or threaten disruption. In some locations, the interactions between different groups could havemore influential effects than institutional relationships and dynamics.The roles and relationships at slaughterhouses differed considerably between countries as well as facilitytype. The commercial web therefore varied from place to place, with different numbers of middlemen, jobdescriptions, payment arrangements, and so forth. These intricacies were described in detail in the interimdata report; however, as they disclose too much information on the locations in question, these descriptionshave been omitted from this report and Figure 7.2 shows one example.Figure 7.2 – Example Pathway and RelationshipsIt is difficult to describe these important different roles and relationships in general terms, however some ofthe key roles encountered are described below, followed by the main variations between locations.The ButcherIn most of the countries visited, the butcher is an essential component of the whole meat supply chain as inIntermediaryDealersBreeders / FarmersChevillards/slaughterersMunicipal MarketsRuralSlaughterhousesUrbanSlaughterhousesInformal slaughter and saleUrban Butchers Rural ButchersConsumersTransportSpecialistInformal slaughter and saleInformal slaughter and saleInformal slaughter and sale
  • 152. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 126 of 253general it is he who:Attends the live market to select and purchase animals.Holds the animals in go-downs until required to be slaughtered.Organises delivery to the slaughterhouse, payment of any fee, and negotiates with the flayer toslaughter and dress the animals.Negotiates with a whole variety of by-product intermediaries to sell hides, skins, and other fifthquarter items.Conducts the preparation and sale process to the end customer.Thus, the butcher is critical to the supply system and has an extremely important role, not restricted to thepurchase and retail of meat, as is more common in developed countries. In the Study countries the butcheroften owns the animal at slaughter, and due to their large numbers and loose associations, they can oftenwield considerable influence over slaughterhouse operators, whether private or government owned. Areasnoted through observation and interview in which butchers can have considerable impacts include:Pricing for livestock and meat products.Livestock market facilities and design.Slaughterhouse design, operation and access arrangements.Despatch arrangements.Waste recycling.In addition to the above, the very usage of slaughter facilities is to some extent down to the powers of thebutcher; where the informal sector is rife, it is usually due mainly to butchers. Conversely, in some locationsthe butcher is the driving force behind ensuring quality and high standards throughout the process chain.The VeterinarianThe role/status of the veterinarian is a key issue with respect to some of the findings of the present Study.Their presence, absence, powers, and capability have an enormous impact on the quality and safety of foodand the content of waste for disposal. Furthermore they represent the government’s interest in aslaughterhouse, whether public or private, and as such should have the power to make a difference to thestandards, though all too often they are sidelined or paid off.The role of the veterinarian is usually reasonably well defined, consisting in most facilities of ante mortemand post mortem inspections. Unfortunately these inspections are cursory at the very least, due to apathy,understaffing, or pay-offs. In some locations, the role of the veterinarian was actually in dispute by theauthorities and operators alike.It was clear that in most countries visited, the veterinarian was in a weak position, not least from a physicalpoint of view in that they are usually the sole representative heavily outnumbered by employees of otherinstitutions and companies. They are often working on tight budgets, for low salaries, and are heavilypressurised by both the workload and other groups within the workplace. The support from the relevantministry is usually inadequate, and can further encourage lax standards. This is clearly a very undesirablesituation considering the vital importance that veterinarians should offer in animal disease detection, animalwelfare, food safety, and public health and the role should be a key target of future work in the sector.The Meat inspectorThe meat inspectors were notable in many facilities in the Study countries due to their absence; the conceptof a shared role between inspectors and veterinarians was not present. In high-income countries withmodern facilities, veterinarians are responsible for ensuring animal welfare standards, and for detectinganimal disease and preventing its spread; whilst meat inspectors are trained purely to inspect carcasses andidentify any that are diseased or otherwise inedible. The common misconception appears to exist indeveloping countries that solely the veterinarian is able to inspect the meat, whereas in reality a trained anddevoted meat inspector could most likely do a better job than a veterinarian, whilst releasing the
  • 153. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 127 of 253veterinarian to concentrate on live animals (and dying animals at point of slaughter) and disease preventionand control.The SlaughtermanSlaughtermen are usually untrained workers that are highly skilled in knife-work, but do not have thetechnical knowledge or background to perform their tasks with due consideration to animal welfare and foodsafety issues. They are generally reasonably poorly paid, and are under the employment of the butchers, orwhere the slaughtermen are directly employed by the facility, butchers generally have a strong influenceover the slaughtermen.The WorkerWorkers might include, inter alia, porters, fifth-quarter processors, cleaners, and security guards. Thiscategory of slaughterhouse employee is the most numerous in absolute terms, but the least powerful overall.No associations are generally formed by the workers (often due to them being prevented or outlawed bygovernment or employers) and as such their combined powers (for example the power of striking, or thepowers to “professionalise”) are not present. Low salaries and poor education exposes the Worker to aweakness for bribes and bad practice, as well as to more disease risks than other classes of employee.The ManagerThe role of the Manager is very important, and the Study Team’s observations suggest that in terms ofnumbers this position is critical; one person has the ability to push for high standards, improvement andchange, or alternatively to fall into the status quo, taking bribes, being apathetic and so on. This particularlyapplies to municipally run facilities where the Manager’s salary does not necessarily rely on quality of theoperation but purely on the numbers of throughput to the facility, or indeed his salary may be removed fromtargets and incentives.Regional differencesThe above descriptions apply only to roles within the slaughterhouse – there are myriad other roles thatfurther studies should examine, for example the influence of supermarkets, the roles of legislators, localauthority workers, the police, and so forth.A major observation of the Study Team was that in all locations and regardless of the local intricacies of therelationships between stakeholders (including those internal to facilities), there are large gaps in terms ofjob descriptions, responsibilities, and powers. In some locations, different government services areresponsible for different areas of meat production, and in one location, the point at which the responsibilitytransferred was unclear and in dispute. There is therefore a need to define desirable roles, responsibilitiesand relationships both internally to facilities (for example the relationship between veterinary inspectors andbutchers) and across the sector (for example the relationship between veterinary service and public healthservice).7.2.3 Hygiene and SanitationLevels of hygiene and sanitation in most slaughterhouses were poor. Walls, floors, ceilings, rails and otherequipment often showed evidence of blood, faeces, staining, and grime. The general level of decay in thebuildings added to the overall sub-standard appearance of many sites.Few plants seemed to have in place a comprehensive cleaning programme even if staff agreed on the needfor such a programme. There were exceptions where staff were seen scrubbing or hosing specific areasnear to the project team, possibly to put on appearances, but overall the state of many slaughter andprocessing areas was very poor. At several sites the costs of cleaning chemicals and equipment was citedas reasons for poor hygiene standards, see Figure 7.3 overleaf.
  • 154. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 128 of 253Figure 7.3 – Poor Hygiene Conditions: Municipal Abattoirs in Africa and North Africa followingWash-down OperationsThe lack of suitable slaughtering facilities and unsatisfactory slaughtering techniques cause considerablelosses in meat as well as invaluable by-products such as blood, offal, hides, and skins. Animals can beslaughtered in places which are polluted with blood, intestinal contents, and contaminated effluent and theproduct is not protected against insects, vermin and germs. Meat produced under such conditions can easilybecome a source of bacterial infection and food poisoning particularly in summer months. In the absenceof inspection, meat from sick or parasite-infected animals may well be a vector for spreading diseases,affecting humans as well as animals.In addition, waste products being misused can become a source of problems instead of being an asset. Inthis study, however, it was found that in larger slaughter facilities there are often sufficient economies ofscale to recover many of the waste products that become problematic in smaller operations. It was alsoobserved that whilst smaller slaughter operations are appropriate to ensure localisation of meat supply, thisdoes not generally comply with the principle of economies of scale in relation to the recovery and processingof animal waste products. In larger operations, it is economically viable to recover by-product material thatwould otherwise create localised problems associated with handling and disposal, thereby producingenvironmental impacts including odour generation, and water and land pollution.A further key concern is the amount of processing that occurs on the floor. There often are no rails or hoists:if present they often are not used to lift the carcasses up off the floor for dressing. It is acknowledged thatthe interior surface of an animal’s hide, is sterile and could conceivably be used as a work surface for carcassdressing; however, it is far from ideal and relies completely on the operator directing the tasks away fromthe carcass and using rinse water in an equally careful fashion to ensure there is no further contaminationto the carcass surface. There are rarely any special facilities for handling edible offal, so the floor is usedextensively, see Figure 7.4 overleaf.Knife sterilisers are occasionally in evidence; however, they often do not function properly and areinsufficiently employed. Sterilisers for slaughtering equipment, if present, are usually empty of hot waterand there is little hand washing during processing. Attempts to wash down during processing are invariablywith hoses, adding to the problem with increased volumes of dirty water, splashing and furthercontamination with grime and ingesta.Where veterinary inspection was undertaken, its value was often questionable; the ability of veterinaryinspectors to detect disease and to deal satisfactorily with diseased organs and condemned carcasses waspoor, often due to inadequate lighting and sometimes training. However, it was noted that due to poorawareness of health and hygiene issues, in examining carcasses for diseases with visible symptoms, theywere likely to be spreading invisible pathogens from carcass to carcass, somewhat offsetting the benefitsderived from the detection of diseases.
  • 155. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 129 of 253Figure 7.4 – Dressing Operations on Slaughterhouse Floor in Africa and MENAVermin and pest control is a problem at most sites. Scavenger dogs likely keep vermin numbers at bayoverall but the presence of leaking drainage systems and uncontrolled access to buildings suggests that theyare an ongoing presence. At one market site where poultry and rabbit were being sold and slaughtered onthe spot, poultry and rabbit waste was allowed to lie where it fell and was being scavenged by dogs andegrets even during the market.The survey record made by the team during the visit to a slaughterhouse in North Africa provides a summaryof the situation:Hygiene and sanitation are generally of a very low standard indeed in the [group offacilities], which frequently have no running cold water, no hot water, no toilet orhand-washing facilities for workers, rudimentary drainage, poor lighting, and poor wastecollection and ejection. Staff receive little or no hygiene training, and are only skilled inbutchery using basic equipment. Aggravating the situation is the fact that these localslaughter plants are situated in the centre of bustling markets, with little or no control overaccess to the facilities. The workers are of course doing the best to their abilities given theirlevel of training and knowledge, and given the equipment and facilities available; however,the levels of hygiene are a serious concern. Cleaning was observed at one [site] andconsisted of physical scraping of blood and tissues but no use of detergents, etc. Drains arenot thoroughly cleansed and rotting material was attached to the grilles when they werelifted.Some Notable Exceptions:There were exceptions to the general findings above and it is useful to present details about these sites.One slaughterhouse in North Africa met very high standards with respect to sanitation and hygiene facilities,equipment and practices. It has a dedicated cleaning team overseeing an external private cleaningcompany and proper cleaning down with chemicals takes place daily. Toilet, hand-washing, and showeringfacilities are provided for staff and the disinfection of footwear is obligatory prior to entry to facilities. Thewhole abattoir is well-kept and maintained. Staff at this facility receive hygiene training and are more awareabout the related issues than in other slaughterhouses. This facility is applying for ISO 22,000, and staffwere clearly aware of hygiene, sanitation, and disease spread issues.In certain cases, the modern chain poultry slaughterhouses were a level above the municipalslaughterhouses and chicken vendors in the public markets. Toilet, hand-washing, and showering facilitieswere provided for staff, and the disinfecting of footwear is obligatory prior to entry to facilities. Cleaningdown was reasonably thorough, and staff practices, clothing and equipment were good. A major operator
  • 156. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 130 of 253in South America with a series of investments in the poultry industry operates all facilities to such a highstandard that it exports product to Japan. The bio-security procedures at all sites visited, including the feedmill, were exceptionally well run. Worker hygiene there is also of a reasonable order and there is an activeworker education programme in place which includes training and safety induction. In the slaughter andboning rooms of one slaughterhouse, staff wore face masks and hygienic clothing (see Figure 7.5), andhad clearly been well-trained in carrying out their work in a hygienic fashion.Figure 7.5 – Hygiene and Cleanliness Levels at a Municipal Facility (left) and at a ModernPrivate Facility (right) in the LAC regionThe hygiene in a different poultry slaughterhouse was also of a high standard. The company is aware of therisks associated with poor hygiene and their farms and slaughterhouse have high levels of bio-security.Birds were processed under good hygiene and lighting conditions with excellent process control measures inplace. The process control procedures were evident throughout the plant’s operation and suggest that therisk of contamination through meat waste or cross-contamination is likely to be minimal.The small-scale chicken processing sector in Latin America, by contrast, often has significant potential forcross-contamination, with no control of diseased material being attempted. Worker hygiene practices at allthe market processors visited were of a very poor standard, and no training exists, other than for basicknife-work and butchery skills. The availability of hot water was almost nil as the water made available wasgenerally heavily contaminated from previous use during the plucking process. A basic sanitation block wasavailable on site at one of the facilities; however, washing is not obligatory, and due to the costs, is notusually carried out by workers.Close by to the slaughter booths, food is prepared in amongst a mixture of dressed carcases and live birds;clearly a health risk. In this setting, the standards of slaughterhouse waste control were poor or nil and witha low level of worker hygiene and work practices. In all cases there was perceived to be an extremely highrisk of contamination and cross-contamination occurring through live animal, carcass, and waste handling.7.2.4 Process ControlThe details presented above emphasise the attention given in several plants to process control and put intostark contrast what occurs (or does not occur) at many other sites. Aside from poor hygiene due to poordressing technique, poor lighting, poor trimming, the presence of ingesta, dung and general dirt, the risk ofcontamination and cross contamination was identified as being extremely high due to several other factors.Live animals are regularly brought through the slaughter floor at many locations for processing, pastcarcasses that are undergoing the dressing process. This is a high source of potential contamination.In the busiest slaughterhouses the lack of process control results from the simultaneous processing of largenumbers of animals by a large number of workers, making any considered observation of the slaughteringprocess impossible. In less hectic settings, where time pressures are presumably less but space restrictionsare high, there was still observed a lack of order and care about the sequence of processing and relatedtasks.
  • 157. Nippon Koei in association with Global Study of Livestock Markets, SlaughterhousesProAnd Associates Australia and Related Waste Management SystemsFinal Report Page 131 of 253The simultaneous processing results in:Mixing live animals with carcasses.High levels of cross contamination from blood, faeces, ingesta, and wash-down water.Difficulty in moving the products resulting from slaughter to areas where they will be furtherprocessed.Live animals being delivered to the slaughter site immediately before slaughter and carcasses beingremoved almost immediately after dressing has been completed.Uncontrolled product and people movement.As a case in point, the poultry slaughter facilities at a South East Asian city consist of two mirror imagebuildings containing a number of similar processing units. The units have a sticking and de-feathering areaat the back and dressing and evisceration area in the building with a finished product counter at the front.The area provided for sticking and slaughter is inadequate: as a result, de-feathering occurs in the dressingarea and finished product spills out of the front of the processing units onto portable tables, see Figure 7.6.Figure 7.6 – Inadequate Poultry Slaughter and Processing FacilitiesBy contrast, in the same city, a poultry facility uses a modern poultry processing chain on which the line isseparated into sticking, scalding, plucking, dressing, and evisceration areas. There is also an area after theslaughter process which is used to inspect and stamp the carcasses and to package the product if requiredby the customer. Similarly, a small cattle slaughterhouse processing around 12-15 head per day isseparated into four distinct areas: holding stalls where cattle are held prior to slaughter; an area foremptying the stomach contents; a slaughter and dressing area; and an area dedicated to boning andrecovery of boneless meat, as shown earlier in Figure 6.32.The following relating to working practices are suggested:Encouragement of off-floor slaughter and dressing practises.Provision of dedicated offal treatment facilities (again, off the floor).Encouragement of use of protective equipment and clothing.Provision of disinfectant for equipment and clothing.Provision of basic worker facilities (e.g. toilets, water, and washing facilities).Provision of adequate lighting.