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Why is it so difficult to improve animal welfare in developing countries?

Why is it so difficult to improve animal welfare in developing countries?



In 2009 the results of the Word Bank global study of Livestock markets, Slaughter houses and related waste management systems were presented. A monumental study that clearly explains the difficulties ...

In 2009 the results of the Word Bank global study of Livestock markets, Slaughter houses and related waste management systems were presented. A monumental study that clearly explains the difficulties Africa and Asia are facing, regarding their meat production.

During the presentation of the report, the project manager Sandra Cointreau explained that the main course of dead (60%) of children under 12 in developing countries is food safety related. This changed my view on welfare, disease control and food safety completely.

Waste management, food safety and animal welfare are tightly connected to each other and cannot be optimized without a total improvement of all related issues. Compared to food production in development countries, there is obviously a long way to go. We started in the beginning of the 20th century with what we expect developing countries have to improve in one or two decades:

1. Improvements of the physical slaughter infrastructure processes
2. Improvement of food safety within the food production infrastructure
3. Improvement of the Governmental control infrastructure
4. Improvement of the Veterinary service infrastructure
5. Improvement of the Human Health infrastructure
6. Improvement on Occupational Health & Safety, child labor and human rights
The list is much longer, but the conclusion is that you can only start to improve issues like animal welfare, food safety and waste management after generally improving the living conditions of the people in developing countries.

This report was the final work of Sandra before she retired and out of respect for all the work she did, I would encourage you all to share the information with me.



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    Why is it so difficult to improve animal welfare in developing countries? Why is it so difficult to improve animal welfare in developing countries? Presentation Transcript

    • Animal Welfare Findings from:Global Reconnaissance of Municipal Live Markets,Slaughterhouses and Waste Systemsin Developing CountriesWorld Bank Study (Japanese Trust Funded)Conducted in: EAP, SAR, AFR, LAC and MENAStudy by Consultants:Nippon Koei CoProAnd Associates AustraliaWorld Bank Study Manager:Sandra Cointreau
    • The World Bank Group:•  IDA and IBRD lending to countries, IFC lending tocompanies, and IMF monetary support.•  Over 10,000 staff, over 100 regional offices.•  Lending portfolio over 30 BB $/yr.•  IFC animal welfare note.•  Bank-wide environmental health safeguardsguidelines include animal welfare.•  While animal welfare is included for impactminimization and mitigation, animal welfare is yet nottargeted for project investment.
    • •  The world’s human population is densifying. As of this year,there are more people in cities than in rural areas.•  Livestock populations are also densifying…into intensiveindustrialized facilities.•  In developing countries, intensive livestock producers arelocating near cities for the access to markets andinfrastructure.•  Municipalities are being increasingly burdened by the needto provide livestock processing infrastructure to meet thegrowing local demand for meat.•  Most of developing country production is for local demand,and affordability limits the revenue base for livestockprocessing.CURRENT CONTEXT:
    • Growth in Human and Animal Populations,and available GNP income base:2000 -> 2030•  High Income Countries ($34,500/cap/yr)–  People 1.2 BB -> 1.3 BB–  Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Goats 4.0 BB -> 5.2 BB–  Poultry 15.0 BB -> 24.8 BB•  Low and Middle Income ($583 and $2,833/cap/yr)–  People 4.9 BB -> 7.1 BB–  Cattle, Pigs, Sheep, Goats 3.0 BB -> 4.2 BB–  Poultry 11.0 BB -> 19.2 BB
    • STUDY OBJECTIVES:•  Gather data on livestock markets, municipal slaughterfacilities (abattoirs), meat processing, and relatedsystems of waste management.•  Examine the prevalence, handling, treatment,disposal, and recycling of wastes.•  Identify and report on the problems and needs of thefacilities.•  Collect and examine available data on related bio-security and food safety issues.
    • •  Municipal slaughterhouses are commonly old and operatingsignificantly over their intended capacity.•  The private sector owns modern and sanitary facilities, butthey operate only for high-end markets.•  The unregulated informal slaughter sector is extensive.•  Local incomes limit meat prices and this limits municipalcost recovery from slaughterers.•  Regulatory framework and enforcement is poor.•  Religious and cultural traditions have a significant impact onoperations.•  Meat from freshly killed livestock is preferred, requiringnight and early morning slaughtering conditions.GENERAL FINDINGS (1):
    • •  Unsanitary working conditions and limited clean hot water.•  No orderly conveyance.•  Dark and slippery working conditions.•  Surface materials porous and hard to clean.•  Animal welfare is poor.•  Child labor is extensive and exacerbates animal suffering.•  Occupational health and safety is poor.•  Municipal management and capacity is poor.•  Veterinary inspection is inadequate.•  Most fifth quarter is recycled extensively, commonly byinformal sector recyclers.•  Blood, stomach contents and excreta are discharged towaterways, or sent to municipal open dumps.GENERAL FINDINGS (2):
    • SUMMARY OF ANIMAL WELFARE FINDINGS:•  All fundamental pillars of good animal welfare(the five freedoms) were widely abused.•  Absence of any official animal welfare controlmechanism.•  Lack of awareness of animal welfare standards ormeasures.•  Lack of awareness of need to improve animalwelfare.Freedom - Hunger and ThirstFreedom - Pain, Injury and DiseaseFreedom - Physical and Thermal DiscomfortFreedom - Fear and DistressFreedom - Abnormal Behaviour
    • STUDY OBSERVATIONS IN NEXT SLIDES:•  Transportation•  Live Markets•  Slaughterhouses•  Waste Disposal Sites
    • TRANSPORTATION (1):•  Unsuitable vehicles.•  Long journeys and poor road conditions.•  Overcrowding.•  Dehydration.•  Poor driving skills.
    • TRANSPORTATION (2):Unloading:•  Unloading facilities are often poor:-  Injuries to both animals and humans.•  Vehicular crowding.
    • TRANSPORTATION (3):Cramped conditions duringtransportation and little wateror shade available, if any.
    • LIVESTOCK MARKETS (1):•  Crowded, noisey, dirty.•  Mixed species, mixedexposure to diseases.•  Unsold animals return home,creating disease exposurelinkages.
    • LIVESTOCK MARKETS (2):Goats trussed at a marketwithout shade or water andamongst debris andgarbage.Assisting a weak animal toits feet .
    • LIVESTOCK MARKETS (3):Sticks used extensively byherders to keep the animalsunder control, for cattle inparticular, resulting in pain,stress, and bruising.Livestock trussed all day atmarket - poultry often carriedupside down to and frommarket.
    • SLAUGHTERHOUSES (1):•  Poor delivery conditions.•  No sheltered place to wait orbe refreshed with water or food.•  No orderly conveyance to slaughter.•  Animals toppled, beaten,and prodded.•  Pregnant animals acceptedfor slaughter.
    • SLAUGHTERHOUSES (2):•  Slippery surfaces.•  Killing and other operationsdone on floor.•  Dark operating conditionsinside.• No separation of clean anddirty areas.
    • SLAUGHTERHOUSES (3):• Slaughter and processingareas overcrowded.• Noisy, stressful operations.• Children often present toassist.
    • SLAUGHTERHOUSES (4):Animals waiting amidst theslaughter operations.Some left overnight for nextday slaughter.
    • SLAUGHTERHOUSES (4):Stunning generally notpracticed (all species) –unsuitable techniques e.g.spinal section .
    • WASTE DISPOSAL:Discharge of wastes to openchannels and municipal opendumps affects welfare ofwildlife and domestic animals.
    • Recommendations:•  Regulatory reform.•  Best practice guidelines.•  Stakeholder consultation and awareness.•  Slaughterer and veterinary capacity development.•  Investment in public live markets and slaughterhouses.•  Municipal management capacity development.•  Improve private sector investment climate.•  Interagency program of analytical work.•  Recognize that food safety, animal welfare, livestock diseasecontrol, and food security are public goods.•  Develop inter-governmental economic instruments to supportmunicipal improvement.
    • Ongoing at Bank:• Country projects to improveenvironmental sustainability atproduction facilities, improve live markets,improve slaughter waste discharges, control HPAI, and reducelivestock green house gas emissions.• Developing a guidance document on reconstruction andrefurbishment of live markets and slaughterhouses.• Supporting the One World One Health concept.• Developing an alliance for humane and sustainable livestockproduction and processing among our agency and NGOpartners.• Developing a partnership of private sector food retailers,associations and producers.
    • To obtain information on thesestudies, or discusspartnering, contact:Sandra Cointreau,Waste Management Advisor,Urban Anchor of World Bankscointreau@worldbank.orgmobile: 1-860-488-5910http://worldbank.org/solidwasteA New Humane Humanity for theNew Age.