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  1. 1. Mali By: Mariyum Iqbal, Ayman Abdul Jaber, Johannes Muller
  2. 3. Significant rulers <ul><li>Sundiata-Sundiata was said to have ruled Mali from 1230-1255. Under Sundiata and his immediate successors, Mali expanded rapidly west to the Atlantic Ocean, south deep into the forest, east beyond the Niger River, and north to the salt and copper mines of the Sahara. The city of Niani was the capital. When Sundiata was younger a tyrant of the time had killed off all of his brothers, and spared his life, thinking that he was weak, and soon to die. Later Sundiata would over throw the same tyrant. </li></ul><ul><li>Mansa-The most significant of the Mali kings was Mansa Musa. Musa was a devout Muslim who built magnificent mosques all throughout Mali. It was under Mansa Musa that Timbuctu became one of the major cultural centers not only of Africa but of the entire world. Under Musa's patronage, vast libraries were built aswell as &quot;madrasas&quot; (Islamic universities). After the death of Mansa Musa, the power of Mali began to decline. </li></ul>
  3. 4. Uniqueness of the empire . <ul><li>-Something unique about the empire of Mali is that most of its history was passed down through Griots. </li></ul><ul><li>-Griot, is ancient French for “keeper of memories.” These ancient singers, historians, storytellers, and musicians often retold the history of Mali. </li></ul><ul><li>-they often play musical instruments to illustrate their stories. </li></ul><ul><li>-most of what we know about Mali’s history came from oral accounts, that were handed down through storytellers. </li></ul><ul><li>-in Mali the Griots were political advisors to the king and memorized all the history, which they told through stories, music, poetry and dance. </li></ul>
  4. 5. Time Span of the Kingdom of Mali <ul><li>500-1700--West Africa was home to three rich and powerful civilizations, each gaining more power than the previous. These civilizations were called Ghana, Mali and Songhay. Ghana, known as Land of Gold, was eventually conquered. The next kingdom to rise was Mali. </li></ul><ul><li>For 300 years, kings from the Keita clan ruled Mali, which was a small state or kingdom. </li></ul>
  5. 6. Religion <ul><li>In Mali Islam is the main religion, 95% of the population is Muslim. </li></ul><ul><li>There are still some people in Mali who follow the ethnic religion, 4.2%. </li></ul><ul><li>Less than 1% of Mali is Christian. </li></ul>
  6. 7. Geography of Mali <ul><li>Mali is located in Western Africa, southwest of Algeria. </li></ul><ul><li>It is slightly less than twice the size of Texas. </li></ul><ul><li>The capital is Bamako. </li></ul><ul><li>The population is12,291,529 (July 2005 est.) </li></ul>
  7. 8. Malian Culture <ul><li>Mali is home to some of the most beautiful, and successful, contemporary music in Africa. The traditional music of Mali is based on the songs of the jalis, or griots, a distinct caste in the social structure since the days of the Mali Empire. </li></ul><ul><li>There are 32 languages listed for Mali, but the official language is French, and a large part of the population uses Bambara, their mother tongue, as a second language. </li></ul><ul><li>The food in Mali is similar to that found in Senegal, and other areas of West Africa. Popular dishes include poulet yassa- grilled chicken in chilli sauce, riz yollof- vegetables or meat cooked in a sauce of oil and tomato, and couscous . </li></ul>
  8. 9. Who were the people? <ul><li>The major groups are the Bambar, Fulani, Soninka, Senoufo, Songhai, Maninke, and the Dogon. Nomadic Tuaregs and other Berbers roam the Sahel and parts of the Sahara. </li></ul><ul><li>the Bambara came from a group of rural farmers, the word “bambara” means infidel or barbarian. </li></ul><ul><li>The Bambara used this name to refer to themselves to “accepts no master” </li></ul><ul><li>The Tuareg, descended from the Berbers who fled south from North Africa, and were called the &quot;blue people of the desert&quot; because of the distinctive indigo robes and turbans they wear (the color often rubbed off on their skin). </li></ul>
  9. 10. Who lives in Mali today? People? Government? Nation state? <ul><li>Mali has a Republic Government. </li></ul><ul><li>Many tribes including the Bambara, Malinke, Soninke, Mandinka, Mende, Susu, Dialonke, and Dyula, Peul (or Fulani), Voltaic, Songhay, Tuareg, and Moor. Some other groups include the Dogon, Bozo, and Bobo live in Mali today. </li></ul>
  10. 11. Natural Resources <ul><li>Mali's natural resources include iron ore, manganese, lithium, salt, limestone, and gold, silver . </li></ul><ul><li>About 80 percent of the people of Mali farm (millet, sorghum, corn, rice, sugar, cotton, peanuts, livestock and fish), while 10 percent of the people are nomadic. </li></ul>