First World War , khilafat and non-cooperation
Differing strands within the movements
Towards Civil Disobedience
The Sense Of Collective Belonging
The First world War , Khilafat
and Non cooperation
The First World war (1914 – 1918 )
turning point in the history of national movement and
creating a new political and economic situation .
Influenced new social groups , and developed new
modes of struggle
Offered opportunity to demand concessions from Britain
Resulted in hardships :-
The struggle for independence and growth of nationalism in
India took place simultaneously
The idea of India as a nation , as one entity , took deep
roots only when the anti – colonial movement began in
India . A bond was created between different groups
because everyone shared the burden of imperialism and
It took a leader of unquestionable ability – Mahatma Gandhi
– from 1920‟s how the congress
Developed the national movement how it brought social
groups together .
This chapter is utterly based on NATIONALISM - its growth
and popularity amongst all Indians
Hardships Suffered During The World War
Huge Increase in
Rise in prices
(Double of what
they were in
Famines or crop
Result – According
To Census 1921
(12 – 13 million
people died )
Gandhi Emerged with his new common mancolonial struggle
idea of anti-
New Idea - Satyagraha
A novel way of fighting the colonial rule . A mass agitation , nonaggressive and
peaceful against injustice and oppression .
Since India could not match Britain in force of arms violent course would
not win independence
Satyagraha means insistence of truth
Not weapon of weak but of the strong
Not a physical but moral force
Gandhiji organised Satyagraha
1)In champaran Bihar (1916)
Peasant rose against the unjust
2)Satyagraha in Kheda district in Gujarat
Relaxation of taxes due to famine
3) In Ahmedabad (1918)
Amongst Cotton mill workers
The Rowlatt Act
In 1919 the imperial Legislative Council passed the act
, despite the opposition.
Giving the government immense powers to detail
political prisoners without trial and repress political
Response of Gandhiji- Wanted a non- violent civil
disobedience against such a repressive law . He
organised a Hartal on April 6 , 1919
Consequence of the hartal
Rallies organized in various cities
Workers strike in railway workshops , shops closed down
The British government panicked and arrested nationalist
Police fired in Amritsar (April 10 ) on a peaceful procession
Result- Attacks on post offices , banks , railways.
General Dyer imposed Martial Law in Amritsar
13 April 1919
Jallian walla Bagh massacre took place .
Peaceful meeting was fired upon by General Dyer , after
blocking all the exits points
Hundreds of innocent people got killed .
Bases of massacre – Dyer wanted to strike terror in hearts
Result – lead to strike , clashes with police and attacks on
government buildings ,hence Gandhiji called off the
The Khilafat Movements
Gandhi wanted to launch a more broad based movement-->bringing
muslims under the umbrella of a unified national movement.
He Took up the Khilafat movement , where in Mohammad Ali and Shaukat
Ali found it in March 1919 to defend it
Gandhiji convinces Congress to join in support of it as well Swaraj (1920)
and start a non – cooperation movement .
In first World War the Ottoman Turkish empire
was defeated .
A harsh treaty was imposed on the Turkish
emperor – The Khalifa (spiritual head and
protector of holy places)
The empire was dismembered by 1920
Why Non – Cooperation
In his book Hind Swaraj:
The British rule survived due to the cooperation between Indian and British
No cooperation No British Rule Collapse Of the empire Swaraj For
Debates followed , many leaders feared violence
Compromise worked out at congress at Nagpur (December , 1920 ) and
the non – cooperation started
Methods of Non - cooperation
Movements to unfold in stages
Surrender of all Government titles
Boycott of civil services, army , police , courts and legislative councils
, schools ,foreign goods.
In case of government repression- (a full disobedience movement to be
Mobilization of popular support for the movement under Gandhi ji and
Shaukat Ali ( 1920)
Section B – DIFFERING STRANDS
WITH THE MOVEMENT
Began in January 1921
Many Social Groups participated
All answered the call of Swaraj
Each had their own aspirations
The Movement in Towns
Middle Class took up the fight for Swaraj
Students in thousands left schools and colleges controlled by the
Headmasters , teachers resigned and lawyers gave up practices
Council Elections Boycotted .
Effect On Economic
Foreign goods boycotted ; liquor shops picketed foreign cloth burnt
, people discarded wearing of foreign clothes
Indian textile mills and handlooms increased production to meet the
Import Of foreign clothes halved between 1921 and 1922 , its value
dropped from 102 – 57 crores .
Slowing Down Of the
Many Reasons :
Khadi was more expensive than the mass produced
mill cloth the poor couldn‟t afford it
In the absence of food, Indian institutes , teachers and
students joined the government instutions. Lawyers
also decided to attend the courts
The movement in the country side
1) The non cooperation took over the struggles of
2) Each struggle was against a different target.
3) Some struggles became violent , which was against
4) All the actions were taken in the name of the
5) The Peasant Movement because of their different
aspirations and interpretations advocated violence.
6)Peasants persuaded people to wear Khadi and give up
Led by Baba Ramchandra
Against talukidars and landlords, who demanded high
Forced them to do begar and work on landlords‟ farms
without any payment
Tenants had no security of revenue, regularly evicted
The peasants demanded reduction of revenue, abolition
of begar, and social boycott of oppressive landlords.
Organised nai-dhobi bandhs.
In 1920, Jawaharlal Nehru began going
around the villages in Awadh, talking
to villagers and trying to understand
October – the Awadh Kisan Sabha was
set up by Jawaharlal Nehru and Baba
Within a month, 300 branches had
been set up in the villages around the
In the Gudem hills of Andhra Pradesh, militant guerrilla movements
spread in 1920.
The colonial government had closed large forest areas, preventing people
from entering the forest to graze their cattle, or to collect fuel-wood and
This enraged the hill-people, when the government forced them to do
begar for road-building, the hill-people revolted.
They were led by Alluri Sitaram Raju. He talked of the greatness of
Mahatma Gandhi, said he was inspired by the Non-Cooperation
Movement, and persuaded people to wear khadi and give up drinking.
He asserted that India could be liberated only by the use of force, and
attacked police stations, attempted to kill British officers, and carried out
guerrilla warfare for achieving Swaraj.
Raju was captured and executed in 1924.
The movement in the plantation
Workers had their own idea of swaraj .
Their Agitation : An Example
Plantation workers in Assam agitateds for the right to move freely
and not to be confined to the gardens they worked in . The British
thus passed an Inland Emigration Act (1859) prevented them from
leaving the plantation without permission .
Raised Slogans demanding „Swatantra Bharat‟ chanted gandhi‟s
name and emotionally realted to non- cooperation
Their identification with Gandhi and movement went beyond their
Believed Gandhi Raj was coming every one would be given their
land in their own villages
The British thus passed an Inland Emigration Act (1859) prevented
them from leaving the plantation without permission .
Their agitation took the form of leaving the plantations and moving
towards their village .
Result- They were caught by the police and brutally beaten up .
The Non Cooperation was called off by Gandhiji in 1922 due to The
Chauri – Chaura incident , near Gorakhpur .
Section C – TOWARDS CIVIL
After the withdrawal of the Non Cooperation Movement , the Congress leaders
wanted to end mass struggle and fight British rule by participating in elections
to the provincial councils , set up in 1919by Government of India
Formation of Swaraj Party :
C.R. Das and Motilal Nehru founded the Swaraj Party within the Congress to
fight the elections for the Councils and demand reform .
Younger leaders like Jawaharlal Nehru and Subhash Chandra Bose pressed for
Two Factors that shaped Indian
Politics Towards late 1920‟s
There was world wide economic depression ,Agricultural prices
touched bottom between 1926 and 1930.Farmers could not sell
their products and the countryside was in turn out
The British Council a statutory commission under Sir John Simon
in 1927 . It was to look into the functioning of the constitutional
system in India . The commission was all white with not a single
Indian member .
Indian Reaction To Simon
Unanimous and immediate Commission greeted with “Simon Go Back “ slogans
All parties The Congress ,
when they arrived in India in 1928.
The Muslim League
A new constitution drafted under the leadership of Motilal Nehru in 1928.
The Famous Nehru Report presented a constitution of India on the lines of self
governing dominions within the British Empire.
At the Lahore Sessions of the Congress (29-31 december , 1929) the Congress
adopted the resolution of complete independence for India as its goal . President
Jawaharlal Nehru hoised the Indian Tricolour on 31 December , 1929 , demanding
“Purna Swaraj” . It was also declared that 26 January 1930 , would be celebrated
So Mahatma Gandhi gave the call for
Civil Disobedience Movement.
He chose Salt as the symbol of unity of
the nation. He declared that the “Salt
Tax” imposed was the most inhuman act
, that the ingenuity of man could devise
Before Starting the Movement on 31 jan
1930 , He wrote a lettter to then Viceroy
, Lord Irwin , making 11 demands . His
demands covered every class –
Industrialist to Peasant
Why Salt ?
Salt is consumed by both by the poor and the rich.
It is one of the most essential item of food .
The government had the monopoly over its production .
Mahatma Gandhi called tax on salt as the most
repressive act of the British Government.
The Salt March and The Civil
Date : March 12 , 1930.
Gandhiji marched (with a staff in hand) from Sabarmati Ashram on his
famous Dandi March with 78 followers.
Walked 240 miles to illegally manufacture salt.
Volunteers walked for 24 days for about 10 miles a day .
Thousands greeted him wherever Gandhi passed.
Woman paid Tribute to him by spinning yarn on their Charkhas
- Newspapers carried day to day report of the effect of
Gandhiji‟s speeches on the villages he passed through.
It is said that 300 Gujrat officials resigned their posts in
answer to Gandhiji‟s appeal.
On 6th April 1930 , Gandhiji reached Dandi , a small
village on the Gujrat sea coast, the ceremonially broke
the salt law by boiling water and manufacturing salt.
A golden movement in the history of the Indian
National Movement “A pinch of salt , that shook a
The Civil Disobedience Movement began this gesture.
Difference between the Non –
Cooperation Movement and the Civil
The first movement (1920 -22 ) attempted to bring the government to a
standstill by non- cooperation with the administration.
The Second (civil Disobedience Movement ) aimed at paralysing the
government by performance of illegal acts .
Thousands in different parts of the country , violated the salt law and the
demonstrated before the government salt factories.
Not only salt laws were broken , boycott of foreign goods and liqour shops
also took place . Women ,students and youth played a major role in the
Peasants refused to pay taxes – revenue and chaukidari taxes– forest laws
were violated in many places and people entered Reserved Forest to
collect wood and graze their cattle .
Action taken by the British
Giving into action and arrested the congress leaders one
Jawaharlal Nehru arrested on 14 April. On 23rd April
1930 Khan Abdul Ghaffar Khan , a staunch follower of
Gandhiji , led a mass demonstration of Khudai
Khidmatgars (known as „Red Shirt‟) was arrested . The
soldiers of the Gharwal Regiment refused to fire on the
unarmed crowd , who forced the armoured cars and
police firing bravely.
On 4th may 1930 Gandhiji was arrested which led the
industrial workers in Sholapur Attack the police posts
municipal buildings, lawcourts and railway stations .
A frightened and shaken British Government
responded with a policy of brutal repression ,About
100,000 people were arrested .
The government tried to diffuse the situation by
making Viceroy , Lord Irwin, to sign a pact called
the Gandhi – Irwin Pact on 5 march , 1931 .Gandhiji
agreed to attend the Round Table Conference in
London and the government agreed to release all
political prisoners .
Gandhiji attended the second Round Table
Conference (the first
was boycotted by the
congress) in December 1931 . But he returned
disappointed and resumed the Civil Disobedience
The Movement lasted a year and by 1934 , it had lost its
Congress was declared illegal ;most of its leaders
, including Jawahar Lal Nehru and Abdul Ghaffar Khan
were put in jail . All Boycotts , demonstations and
meetings were stopped by the british Government .
How participants Saw the
Swaraj meant to different social group who joined the
Civil Disobedience Movement .
1. In the Countryside
Many activists were the rich peasant communtities like
the Patidars of Gujrat and Jats of UP
They were mostly producers of commercial crops, badly
affected by trade depression and falling prices Hence
, they could not pay the revenue demands of the
Government refused to reduce the revenue tax
Resulted in peasants joining National Movement.
fight for independence was
related to their
for reduction of revenue
movement was called off in 1931
, without reduction in taxes, hence
refused to join again in 1932.
Depression made them unable to pay the
rents to landlords. Their own income dwindle
wanted Congress to help them in
getting the unpaid rent remitted.
The Business Classes
Indian industrialists and merchants had
made huge profits during the First World
They now reacted against colonial policies
that restricted their trade
They wanted to protection against import
of foreign goods.
A rupee sterling exchange ratio that would
They formed Indian Industrial and Commercial
Congress in 1920 and Federation of the Indian
Chambers of Commerce and Industry (FICCI) in 1927.
G D Birla and Purushottamdas Thakurdas attacked
colonial economic policies and supported the movement
gave it financial assistance, refused to buy or sell foreign
But the failure of the Round Table Conference curbed their enthusiasm .They
worried about socialism among the youth as it would prolonged disruption of
Industrial Working Class
Did not participate in Civil Disobedience Mov.
They adopted Gandhian Ideas- boycott of foreign goods
as part of their own movement against low wages and
poor working conditions,
There were strikes Railway workers (1930)
Thousands of workers in Nagpur took part in letters and
boycott campaigns, but the Congress was reluctant to
include workers demands in their struggle as it alienate
Women and the Civil
1930 was the year when women entered the
struggle for independence on a massive
During Dandi March, thousands of women
came out to listen to him.
Eager participation in protests , marches
, picketed foreign cloth and liquor shops .
Urban Areas they came from high caste families.
Rural Areas they came from rich peasant houses.
Before 1930 ,women who had never stepped out became a familiar sight
in the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Congress did not encourage them or give them any imp . Posts within
Gandhi‟s thought : He was convinced that it was
duty of a women to look after home , be good
mothers and wives .
The Limits Of Civil Disobedience
The 1930 campaign saw one social group who did not
actively participate in it
They were the “Untouchables” now called “Dalits” or the
Mahatma Gandhi called them Harijans and declared that
India would not achieve „ Swaraj „ for hundreds of years ,if
untouchability was not completely eliminated .
He organised Satyagraha to secure them entry to the
temples, and access to public wells , tanks, roads and
Dalits –(wanted political solution for their problems )
2)Dr.B.R.Ambedkar , the leader of
Dalits, formed an association in
1930, called the “Depressed Class
He clashed with Gandhiji at Second
Round Table Conference by
demanding separate electorates for
Dalits which was later accepted by
1)They demanded reservation of
seats , in educational institutions
, separate electorate to choose
their own candidate to the
Legislative Council.They wanted
to solve their social problems.
Gandhiji began a fast unto
death.He believed that the Dalits
would never be integrated into
society,if they got separate
electorates Dr Ambedkar finally
signed a pact with him on
September 1932 called Poona Act
What is Poona Act ?
It gave reserved seats in the provincial and Central
Legislature Councils to the Depressed Classes. They
were to be voted in by general electorate .
Muslim political organisations also kept away from civil
Muslims felt alienated from Congress after the decline
of Non – CooperationKhilafat Mov.
From mid-1920 the Congress seemed to be more
visibly associated with Hindu religions nationalist
groups like the Hindu Mahasabha.
There were Hindi-Muslim Clashes and riots in many
cities , which further worsened the relations between
the two communities.
Attempts were made in 1927 by the Congress and Muslim League to form
an alliance .It seemed possible as M.A Jinnah , one of the leaders of the
league to give up the demand for separate electorate s if :
Muslims were assured reserved seats in Central Assembly.
Representation in proportion to population in the Muslim dominated
provinces,(Bengal and Punjab)
Negotiations failed in 1928 when M.R Jayakar of the Hindu Mahasabha
strongly opposed efforts at comprise.
Hence Civil Disobedience Movement started in an atmosphere of distrust
and suspicion between the two communities. Muslims feared
Culture and Identity Submerge under Majority dominance.
Section D: THE SENSE OF
How does a sense of belonging develop in the minds of
people who belong to different communities , regions and
speak different languages?
Answer lies in the fact that when people believe that
they all are a part of the same nation, and when they
discover common bonds that unite them , then
nationalism grips the hearts and minds of people .
What are these beliefs and
1) Collective belonging comes through experiences of
common struggle .
2) A common history and fiction.
3) Folklore and songs
4) Popular prints and symbols are their factors giving rise
Symbols: certain figures and images become
the identity of a nation.
Example: Statue Of Liberty- USA
What is the symbol of India?
“Bharat Mata” ,in the 20th century , when
nationalism was at its height , it was this
image which aroused people.
Bankim Chandra Chattopadhya created the
image in his song Vande Mataram- ( A Hymn
in praise of Mother India , written in 1870 in
novel “Anand Math”
Song was sung by people of swadeshi
Abanindranath Tagore pained Bharat Mata as a
Calm , composed , divine and spiritual figure .
Became a symbol of a nation ,for whom people
were ready to sacrifice .
Folk Song and Folklore
They also became a symbol of nation
and revived people’s pride in their
Nationalists like Rabindranath Tagore
(Bengal) , Natesa Shastri (Madras)
completed songs, ballads myths and
folklore. The latter published The
Folklore Of Southern India.
Icons and Symbols
Icons and symbols were used in unifying people
and inspiring them.
Swadeshi movement in Bengal – the tricolour flag
was designed (red, green and yellow) – had eight
lotuses, representing the eight provinces of British
India, and a crescent moon, representing Hindus
In 1921, Gandhiji designed the Swaraj flag –
tricolour – red, green and white – and had a
spinning wheel in the centre, representing
Gandhian ideals of self-help.
Re-interpretation of History
Indians began feeling that to instil a sense of
pride in the nation, India history had to be
thought about differently.
They wrote about the glorious development in
ancient times, when art and
architecture, science and mathematics, religion
and culture, law and philosophy, craft and trade
The nationalist historians urged the leaders to
take pride in India‟s great achievements in the
past, and struggle to change the miserable
conditions of life under British rule.
Gandhiji channelised the anger against the colonial gov.
into a common struggle for the freedom in the first half of
the 20th century.
He forged unity between the people , continuosly tried to
reslove differences and grievances and tried not to
alienate an group . Conflict and disunity was a result of
these very efforts at times , but Gandhiji saw the
emergence of a nation wanting to liberate itself from
colonial rule , inspite of all its differences