- Events or situations that exist always, usually, habitually. They exist now, have existed in the past, and probably will exist in the future.
- It expresses general statement of fact and timeless truths.
- It expresses habitual or everyday activities.
- Things that happened at one particular time in the past.
- Something that began and ended in the past.
- At one particular time I n the future, this will happen.
- They give the idea that the action is in progress during a particular time.
- The action is in progress at the present time, and probably will continue.
- Something generally in progress this week, this month, this year.
- Tom is sleeping right now.
- The action was in progress at a particular time in the past.
- Tom was sleeping when I arrived.
- The action will begin before another action, and it will be in progress at a particular time-
- Tom will be sleeping when we arrive.
- They give the idea that one thing happens before another thing or event.
- Something that began in the past and continues in the present.
- I have been here for two hours.
- Something that happened in the past without mentioning when.
- Something that has happened several times.
- I have seen that movie three times.
- An activity that began and was finished before another activity began in the past.
- I had left when he arrived.
- An activity that will be completely finished before another time in the future.
- Tom will have graduated by the year 2010.
PERFECT PROGRESSIVE TENSES
- They give the idea that one event is in progress immediately before, up to, until another time or event. The tenses are used to express the duration of the first event.
PRESENT PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
- Event that is in progress
- Tom has been studying for two hours.
PAST PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
- Tom had been studying for two hours before his friend came.
FUTURE PERFECT PROGRESSIVE
- Event will be in progress before another event in the future.
- Tom will have been studying for two hours by the time his friend arrives.
SPELLING OF ING AND ED FORMS
- 1. verbs that end in a consonant and e:
- 1. consonant-vowel-consonant: double consonant
2 ND SYLLABLE STRESSED
- Prefer preferring preferred
- Control controlling controlled
VERBS THAT END IN Y
- 1. consonant-y: add ing, change to ied
- 2. vowel-y: add ing, add ed
VERBS THAT END IN IE
- They describe states, conditions or situations that exist. They are not used I n progressive tenses.
- Exception: The chef is tasting the food.
VERBS WITH STATIVE MEANING
STATIVE AND PROGRESSIVE
- love like appreciate please
OTHER EXISTING STATES
- 1. be+adjective: expresses stative meaning
- 2. sometimes be+an adjective is used in progressive to describe a temporary, in-progress behavior
ADJECTIVES THAT CAN BE USED WITH AM/IS/ARE BEING
- foolish funny generous good
- illogical impolite irresponsible
- nice noisy patient pleasant
- polite quiet responsible rude
- serious silly unfair unkind
ADJECTIVES THAT CANNOT BE USED WITH AM/IS/ARE BEING
- angry beautiful handsome happy
- healthy hungry lucky nervous
- sick tall thirsty young old
PRONUNCIATION OF ED ENDINGS
- 1. /t/ for voiceless sounds
SENTENCES IS SIMPLE PAST CONTAINING WHEN
- If a sentence has when and has the simple past in both clauses, the action in the when clause happens first:
- Rita stood under a tree when it began to rain.
- When he heard the sound, he got up to investigate.
PAST PROGRESSIVE AND SIMPLE PAST
- I was walking down the street when it began to rain.
- The progressive action happened first.
PROGRESSIVE VERBS WITH ALWAYS TO COMPLAIN
- He is always leaving his dirty clothes on the floor.
- Expresses annoyance and anger
- always, forever, constantly
USE OF AFTER AND BEFORE WITH PAST PERFECT
- Past perfect is not necessary
- Sam had left before Ann arrived.
- Sam left before Ann arrived.
- After the guests had left, I went to bed.
- After the guests left, I when to bed.