Nouns
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Nouns

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Nouns Nouns Presentation Transcript

  • I. Singular and plural
  • Rule 1
    • Most nouns at the end
    • Book books
    • Car cars
  • Rule 2
    • Nouns that end in s, ss, sh, ch, and x: add es
    • Class classes
    • Dish dishes
    • Box boxes
  • Rule 3
    • Nouns that end in vowel + y: add s
    • Boy boys
    • Key keys
  • Rule 4
    • Nouns that end in consonant + y : ies
    • Party parties
    • Baby babies
  • Rule 5
    • Nouns that end in o: add es
    • Echo
    • Hero
    • Potato
    • Tomato
  • Rule 6
    • Some nouns that end in o add only s:
    • Auto piano video
    • Ghetto radio zoo
    • Kangaroo solo
    • Kilo soprano
    • Memo studio
    • Photo tatoo
  • Rule 7
    • Some nouns that end in o and add s or es:
    • Memento
    • Mosquito
    • Tornado
    • Volcano
    • Zero
  • Rule 8
    • Nouns that end in f or fe change to ves:
    • Calf shelf
    • Half thief
    • Knife wolf
    • Leaf scarf scarves/scarfs
    • Life
    • Loaf
    • Self
  • exceptions
    • Belief beliefs
    • Chief chiefs
    • Cliff cliffs
    • Roof roofs
  • Other exceptions
    • man men
    • woman women
    • Child children
    • Ox oxen
    • Foot feet
    • Goose geese
    • Tooth teeth
    • Mouse mice
    • Louse lice
  • Some that stay the same
    • Deer deer
    • Fish fish
    • Means means
    • Offspring offspring
    • Series series
    • Sheep sheep
    • Shrimp shrimp
    • Species species
  • More exceptions
    • Criterion criteria
    • Phenomenon phenomena
    • Cactus cacti/catuses
    • Fungus fungi
    • Nucleus nuclei
    • Stimulus stimuli
    • Syllabus syllabi/syllabuses
    • Analysis analyses
    • Basis bases
    • Crisis crises
    • Hypothesis hypotheses
    • Oasis oases
    • Parenthesis parentheses
    • Thesis theses
  • Latin root
    • Bacterium bacteria
    • Curriculum curricula
    • Datum data
    • Medium media
    • Memorandum memoranda
    • Formula formulae
    • Vertebra vertebrae
    • Appendix appendices/appendixes
    • Index indices/indexes
  • Possessive nouns
    • Singular noun+apostrophe+s+possession
    • Boy’s eyes
    • Carlos’s house
  • Plural nouns that end in s
    • Plural noun+apostrophe+possession
    • The boys’ car
    • The girls’ sport
  • Plural noun exception
    • Plural noun+apostrophe+s+possession
    • The children’s toys
    • The mice’s tails
  • Using nouns as modifiers
    • When a noun is used as modifiers, it is used in its singular form:
    • Vegetable soup > they add as adjectives and adjectives never take s
    • A five-year-old son
  • Count nouns
    • May be preceded by a/an in the singular
    • It can change to plural
    • Chair chairs
    • A book three books
  • Noncount nouns
    • Many nouns refer to a whole that is made up of different parts:
    • Furniture fruit mail
    • Sugar garbage makeup
    • Coffee hardware money
    • Baggage jewelry cash/change
    • Clothing junk postage
    • Equipment luggage scenery
    • Food machinery traffic
  • A phenomenon of nature
    • Sunshine rain
    • Weather sleet
    • Dew snow
    • Fog thunder
    • Hail wind
    • Heat darkness
    • Humidity light
    • Lightning electricity
    • Rain fire
  • fluids
    • Water
    • Coffee
    • Tea
    • Milk
    • Oil
    • Soup
    • Gasoline
    • Blood
  • solids
    • Ice paper
    • Bread wood
    • Butter cotton
    • Cheese wool
    • Meat
    • Gold
    • Iron
    • Silver
    • glass
  • gases
    • Steam
    • Air
    • Oxygen
    • Nitrogen
    • Smoke
    • Smog
    • Pollution
  • particles
    • Rice
    • Chalk
    • Corn
    • Dirt
    • Dust
    • Flour
    • Grass
    • Hair
    • Pepper
    • Salt
    • Sand
    • Sugar
    • wheat
  • abstractions
    • Beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment
    • Fun, happiness, health, help, honesty, hospitality,
    • Importance, intelligence, justice, knowledge, laughter, luck, music, patience, peace, pride, progress, sleep,
    • Recreation, significance, truth, violence, wealth
    • Advice, information, news, evidence, proof
    • Time, space, energy
    • Homework, work
    • Grammar, slang, vocabulary
  • languages
    • Arabic, Chinese, English
  • Fields of study
    • Chemistry
    • Engineering
    • History
    • Literature
    • Mathematics
  • recreation
    • Baseball
    • Soccertennis
    • Chess
    • Bridge
    • poker
  • Activities : gerunds
    • Driving
    • Studying
    • Swimming
    • Traveling
  • Some can be count or noncount
    • Ana has brown hair.
    • I found a hair in the soup.
    • I let the light in.
    • Don’t forget to turn on the light of the room.
  • Guidelines for article usage
    • The:
    • 1. when you assume the listener is familiar
    • Please open the door.
    • 2. for the second mention of an indefinite noun
    • The man was outside.
    • 3. don’t use the for plural count or noncount when are making a generalization
    • Gold is a metal.
  • Expressions used with count nouns
    • One a number of
    • Each no
    • Every some/any
    • Two plenty
    • Both most
    • A couple of all
    • A few
    • Several
    • many
  • Expressions used with noncounts
    • A little
    • Much
    • A great deal of
    • No
    • Some/any
    • A lot/lots of
    • Plenty of
    • Most
    • all
  • A few and a little
    • Give a positive idea, they indicate that something exists:
    • She has a few friends.
    • I’m glad, I have saved a little money.
  • Few and little
    • Give a negative idea
    • They indicate that something is largely absent
    • I feel sorry for her, she has few friends.
    • I have little money.
    • Very+ few/little
    • I have very little money. I don’t even have money to buy food.
  • Expressions of quantity that always contain of
    • A lot of
    • Lots of
    • A number of
    • A great deal of
    • A majority of
    • Plenty of
  • Expressions that sometimes have of and sometimes not
    • All both
    • Most several
    • Almost all some
    • Many any
    • Much when the noun is specific preceded:
    • A few my
    • A little this
    • One the
    • Two
  • Don’t use of with nonspecific
    • Many books are here.
  • All of/ both of
    • Specific: of is optional
    • All of the students are here.
    • All students are here.
    • Both of those men are here.