I. Singular and plural
Rule 1 <ul><li>Most nouns at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Book  books </li></ul><ul><li>Car  cars </li></ul>
Rule 2 <ul><li>Nouns that end in s, ss, sh, ch, and x: add es </li></ul><ul><li>Class classes </li></ul><ul><li>Dish dishe...
Rule 3 <ul><li>Nouns that end in vowel + y: add s </li></ul><ul><li>Boy boys </li></ul><ul><li>Key keys </li></ul>
Rule 4 <ul><li>Nouns that end in consonant + y : ies </li></ul><ul><li>Party parties </li></ul><ul><li>Baby babies </li></ul>
Rule 5 <ul><li>Nouns that end in o: add es </li></ul><ul><li>Echo </li></ul><ul><li>Hero </li></ul><ul><li>Potato </li></u...
Rule 6 <ul><li>Some nouns that end in o add only s: </li></ul><ul><li>Auto piano video </li></ul><ul><li>Ghetto radio zoo ...
Rule 7 <ul><li>Some nouns that end in o and add s or es: </li></ul><ul><li>Memento </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquito </li></ul><u...
Rule 8 <ul><li>Nouns that end in f or fe  change to ves: </li></ul><ul><li>Calf shelf </li></ul><ul><li>Half thief </li></...
exceptions <ul><li>Belief beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Chief chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Cliff cliffs </li></ul><ul><li>Roof roo...
Other exceptions <ul><li>man men </li></ul><ul><li>woman women </li></ul><ul><li>Child children </li></ul><ul><li>Ox oxen ...
Some that stay the same <ul><li>Deer deer </li></ul><ul><li>Fish fish </li></ul><ul><li>Means means </li></ul><ul><li>Offs...
More exceptions <ul><li>Criterion criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenon phenomena </li></ul>
<ul><li>Cactus cacti/catuses </li></ul><ul><li>Fungus fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus st...
<ul><li>Analysis analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Basis bases </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis crises </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis hypot...
Latin root <ul><li>Bacterium bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Datum data </li></ul><ul><l...
<ul><li>Formula formulae </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebra vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix appendices/appendixes </li></ul><...
Possessive nouns <ul><li>Singular noun+apostrophe+s+possession </li></ul><ul><li>Boy’s eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos’s hou...
Plural nouns that end in s <ul><li>Plural noun+apostrophe+possession  </li></ul><ul><li>The boys’ car </li></ul><ul><li>Th...
Plural noun exception <ul><li>Plural noun+apostrophe+s+possession </li></ul><ul><li>The children’s  toys </li></ul><ul><li...
Using nouns as modifiers <ul><li>When a noun is used as modifiers, it is used in its singular form: </li></ul><ul><li>Vege...
Count nouns <ul><li>May be preceded by a/an in the singular </li></ul><ul><li>It can change to plural </li></ul><ul><li>Ch...
Noncount nouns <ul><li>Many nouns refer to a whole that is made up of different parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture fruit m...
A phenomenon of nature <ul><li>Sunshine rain </li></ul><ul><li>Weather sleet </li></ul><ul><li>Dew snow </li></ul><ul><li>...
fluids <ul><li>Water  </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Tea </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Oil </li></u...
solids <ul><li>Ice paper </li></ul><ul><li>Bread wood </li></ul><ul><li>Butter cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese wool </li><...
gases <ul><li>Steam </li></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke </li...
particles <ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Chalk </li></ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Dust </li><...
abstractions <ul><li>Beauty,  confidence, courage, education, enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Fun, happiness, health, help, ho...
languages <ul><li>Arabic, Chinese, English </li></ul>
Fields of study <ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </l...
recreation <ul><li>Baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Soccertennis </li></ul><ul><li>Chess </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge </li></ul><ul>...
Activities : gerunds <ul><li>Driving </li></ul><ul><li>Studying </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling </l...
Some can be count or noncount <ul><li>Ana has brown hair. </li></ul><ul><li>I found  a hair  in the soup. </li></ul><ul><l...
Guidelines for article usage <ul><li>The:  </li></ul><ul><li>1. when you assume the listener is familiar </li></ul><ul><li...
<ul><li>3. don’t use the for  plural count or noncount when are making a generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Gold is a metal....
Expressions used with count nouns <ul><li>One a number of </li></ul><ul><li>Each no </li></ul><ul><li>Every some/any </li>...
Expressions used with noncounts <ul><li>A little </li></ul><ul><li>Much </li></ul><ul><li>A great deal of </li></ul><ul><l...
A few  and  a little <ul><li>Give a positive idea, they indicate that something exists: </li></ul><ul><li>She has a few fr...
Few and little <ul><li>Give a negative idea </li></ul><ul><li>They indicate that something is largely absent </li></ul><ul...
Expressions of quantity that always contain of <ul><li>A lot of </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of </li></ul><ul><li>A number of </...
Expressions that sometimes have of  and sometimes not <ul><li>All both </li></ul><ul><li>Most several </li></ul><ul><li>Al...
Don’t use of with nonspecific <ul><li>Many books are here. </li></ul>
All of/ both of <ul><li>Specific: of is optional </li></ul><ul><li>All of the students are here. </li></ul><ul><li>All stu...
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Nouns

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Nouns

  1. 1. I. Singular and plural
  2. 2. Rule 1 <ul><li>Most nouns at the end </li></ul><ul><li>Book books </li></ul><ul><li>Car cars </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rule 2 <ul><li>Nouns that end in s, ss, sh, ch, and x: add es </li></ul><ul><li>Class classes </li></ul><ul><li>Dish dishes </li></ul><ul><li>Box boxes </li></ul>
  4. 4. Rule 3 <ul><li>Nouns that end in vowel + y: add s </li></ul><ul><li>Boy boys </li></ul><ul><li>Key keys </li></ul>
  5. 5. Rule 4 <ul><li>Nouns that end in consonant + y : ies </li></ul><ul><li>Party parties </li></ul><ul><li>Baby babies </li></ul>
  6. 6. Rule 5 <ul><li>Nouns that end in o: add es </li></ul><ul><li>Echo </li></ul><ul><li>Hero </li></ul><ul><li>Potato </li></ul><ul><li>Tomato </li></ul>
  7. 7. Rule 6 <ul><li>Some nouns that end in o add only s: </li></ul><ul><li>Auto piano video </li></ul><ul><li>Ghetto radio zoo </li></ul><ul><li>Kangaroo solo </li></ul><ul><li>Kilo soprano </li></ul><ul><li>Memo studio </li></ul><ul><li>Photo tatoo </li></ul>
  8. 8. Rule 7 <ul><li>Some nouns that end in o and add s or es: </li></ul><ul><li>Memento </li></ul><ul><li>Mosquito </li></ul><ul><li>Tornado </li></ul><ul><li>Volcano </li></ul><ul><li>Zero </li></ul>
  9. 9. Rule 8 <ul><li>Nouns that end in f or fe change to ves: </li></ul><ul><li>Calf shelf </li></ul><ul><li>Half thief </li></ul><ul><li>Knife wolf </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf scarf scarves/scarfs </li></ul><ul><li>Life </li></ul><ul><li>Loaf </li></ul><ul><li>Self </li></ul>
  10. 10. exceptions <ul><li>Belief beliefs </li></ul><ul><li>Chief chiefs </li></ul><ul><li>Cliff cliffs </li></ul><ul><li>Roof roofs </li></ul>
  11. 11. Other exceptions <ul><li>man men </li></ul><ul><li>woman women </li></ul><ul><li>Child children </li></ul><ul><li>Ox oxen </li></ul><ul><li>Foot feet </li></ul><ul><li>Goose geese </li></ul><ul><li>Tooth teeth </li></ul><ul><li>Mouse mice </li></ul><ul><li>Louse lice </li></ul>
  12. 12. Some that stay the same <ul><li>Deer deer </li></ul><ul><li>Fish fish </li></ul><ul><li>Means means </li></ul><ul><li>Offspring offspring </li></ul><ul><li>Series series </li></ul><ul><li>Sheep sheep </li></ul><ul><li>Shrimp shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>Species species </li></ul>
  13. 13. More exceptions <ul><li>Criterion criteria </li></ul><ul><li>Phenomenon phenomena </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Cactus cacti/catuses </li></ul><ul><li>Fungus fungi </li></ul><ul><li>Nucleus nuclei </li></ul><ul><li>Stimulus stimuli </li></ul><ul><li>Syllabus syllabi/syllabuses </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>Analysis analyses </li></ul><ul><li>Basis bases </li></ul><ul><li>Crisis crises </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis hypotheses </li></ul><ul><li>Oasis oases </li></ul><ul><li>Parenthesis parentheses </li></ul><ul><li>Thesis theses </li></ul>
  16. 16. Latin root <ul><li>Bacterium bacteria </li></ul><ul><li>Curriculum curricula </li></ul><ul><li>Datum data </li></ul><ul><li>Medium media </li></ul><ul><li>Memorandum memoranda </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>Formula formulae </li></ul><ul><li>Vertebra vertebrae </li></ul><ul><li>Appendix appendices/appendixes </li></ul><ul><li>Index indices/indexes </li></ul>
  18. 18. Possessive nouns <ul><li>Singular noun+apostrophe+s+possession </li></ul><ul><li>Boy’s eyes </li></ul><ul><li>Carlos’s house </li></ul>
  19. 19. Plural nouns that end in s <ul><li>Plural noun+apostrophe+possession </li></ul><ul><li>The boys’ car </li></ul><ul><li>The girls’ sport </li></ul>
  20. 20. Plural noun exception <ul><li>Plural noun+apostrophe+s+possession </li></ul><ul><li>The children’s toys </li></ul><ul><li>The mice’s tails </li></ul>
  21. 21. Using nouns as modifiers <ul><li>When a noun is used as modifiers, it is used in its singular form: </li></ul><ul><li>Vegetable soup > they add as adjectives and adjectives never take s </li></ul><ul><li>A five-year-old son </li></ul>
  22. 22. Count nouns <ul><li>May be preceded by a/an in the singular </li></ul><ul><li>It can change to plural </li></ul><ul><li>Chair chairs </li></ul><ul><li>A book three books </li></ul>
  23. 23. Noncount nouns <ul><li>Many nouns refer to a whole that is made up of different parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Furniture fruit mail </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar garbage makeup </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee hardware money </li></ul><ul><li>Baggage jewelry cash/change </li></ul><ul><li>Clothing junk postage </li></ul><ul><li>Equipment luggage scenery </li></ul><ul><li>Food machinery traffic </li></ul>
  24. 24. A phenomenon of nature <ul><li>Sunshine rain </li></ul><ul><li>Weather sleet </li></ul><ul><li>Dew snow </li></ul><ul><li>Fog thunder </li></ul><ul><li>Hail wind </li></ul><ul><li>Heat darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Humidity light </li></ul><ul><li>Lightning electricity </li></ul><ul><li>Rain fire </li></ul>
  25. 25. fluids <ul><li>Water </li></ul><ul><li>Coffee </li></ul><ul><li>Tea </li></ul><ul><li>Milk </li></ul><ul><li>Oil </li></ul><ul><li>Soup </li></ul><ul><li>Gasoline </li></ul><ul><li>Blood </li></ul>
  26. 26. solids <ul><li>Ice paper </li></ul><ul><li>Bread wood </li></ul><ul><li>Butter cotton </li></ul><ul><li>Cheese wool </li></ul><ul><li>Meat </li></ul><ul><li>Gold </li></ul><ul><li>Iron </li></ul><ul><li>Silver </li></ul><ul><li>glass </li></ul>
  27. 27. gases <ul><li>Steam </li></ul><ul><li>Air </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Nitrogen </li></ul><ul><li>Smoke </li></ul><ul><li>Smog </li></ul><ul><li>Pollution </li></ul>
  28. 28. particles <ul><li>Rice </li></ul><ul><li>Chalk </li></ul><ul><li>Corn </li></ul><ul><li>Dirt </li></ul><ul><li>Dust </li></ul><ul><li>Flour </li></ul><ul><li>Grass </li></ul><ul><li>Hair </li></ul><ul><li>Pepper </li></ul><ul><li>Salt </li></ul><ul><li>Sand </li></ul><ul><li>Sugar </li></ul><ul><li>wheat </li></ul>
  29. 29. abstractions <ul><li>Beauty, confidence, courage, education, enjoyment </li></ul><ul><li>Fun, happiness, health, help, honesty, hospitality, </li></ul><ul><li>Importance, intelligence, justice, knowledge, laughter, luck, music, patience, peace, pride, progress, sleep, </li></ul><ul><li>Recreation, significance, truth, violence, wealth </li></ul><ul><li>Advice, information, news, evidence, proof </li></ul><ul><li>Time, space, energy </li></ul><ul><li>Homework, work </li></ul><ul><li>Grammar, slang, vocabulary </li></ul>
  30. 30. languages <ul><li>Arabic, Chinese, English </li></ul>
  31. 31. Fields of study <ul><li>Chemistry </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering </li></ul><ul><li>History </li></ul><ul><li>Literature </li></ul><ul><li>Mathematics </li></ul>
  32. 32. recreation <ul><li>Baseball </li></ul><ul><li>Soccertennis </li></ul><ul><li>Chess </li></ul><ul><li>Bridge </li></ul><ul><li>poker </li></ul>
  33. 33. Activities : gerunds <ul><li>Driving </li></ul><ul><li>Studying </li></ul><ul><li>Swimming </li></ul><ul><li>Traveling </li></ul>
  34. 34. Some can be count or noncount <ul><li>Ana has brown hair. </li></ul><ul><li>I found a hair in the soup. </li></ul><ul><li>I let the light in. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t forget to turn on the light of the room. </li></ul>
  35. 35. Guidelines for article usage <ul><li>The: </li></ul><ul><li>1. when you assume the listener is familiar </li></ul><ul><li>Please open the door. </li></ul><ul><li>2. for the second mention of an indefinite noun </li></ul><ul><li>The man was outside. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>3. don’t use the for plural count or noncount when are making a generalization </li></ul><ul><li>Gold is a metal. </li></ul>
  37. 37. Expressions used with count nouns <ul><li>One a number of </li></ul><ul><li>Each no </li></ul><ul><li>Every some/any </li></ul><ul><li>Two plenty </li></ul><ul><li>Both most </li></ul><ul><li>A couple of all </li></ul><ul><li>A few </li></ul><ul><li>Several </li></ul><ul><li>many </li></ul>
  38. 38. Expressions used with noncounts <ul><li>A little </li></ul><ul><li>Much </li></ul><ul><li>A great deal of </li></ul><ul><li>No </li></ul><ul><li>Some/any </li></ul><ul><li>A lot/lots of </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of </li></ul><ul><li>Most </li></ul><ul><li>all </li></ul>
  39. 39. A few and a little <ul><li>Give a positive idea, they indicate that something exists: </li></ul><ul><li>She has a few friends. </li></ul><ul><li>I’m glad, I have saved a little money. </li></ul>
  40. 40. Few and little <ul><li>Give a negative idea </li></ul><ul><li>They indicate that something is largely absent </li></ul><ul><li>I feel sorry for her, she has few friends. </li></ul><ul><li>I have little money. </li></ul><ul><li>Very+ few/little </li></ul><ul><li>I have very little money. I don’t even have money to buy food. </li></ul>
  41. 41. Expressions of quantity that always contain of <ul><li>A lot of </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of </li></ul><ul><li>A number of </li></ul><ul><li>A great deal of </li></ul><ul><li>A majority of </li></ul><ul><li>Plenty of </li></ul>
  42. 42. Expressions that sometimes have of and sometimes not <ul><li>All both </li></ul><ul><li>Most several </li></ul><ul><li>Almost all some </li></ul><ul><li>Many any </li></ul><ul><li>Much when the noun is specific preceded: </li></ul><ul><li>A few my </li></ul><ul><li>A little this </li></ul><ul><li>One the </li></ul><ul><li>Two </li></ul>
  43. 43. Don’t use of with nonspecific <ul><li>Many books are here. </li></ul>
  44. 44. All of/ both of <ul><li>Specific: of is optional </li></ul><ul><li>All of the students are here. </li></ul><ul><li>All students are here. </li></ul><ul><li>Both of those men are here. </li></ul>
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