MODALS The modal auxiliaries generally express speaker’s attitudes. For example, modals can express that a speaker feels something is necessary, advisable, permissible, possible or probable.
Can, could, had better, may, might, must, ought to, shall, should, will, would
Modals that express Necessity or obligation Must Have to Have got to (informal) Youmusteathealthyfood!
Modals that express Advisability Should Ought (to) Have better Could Youshould drinkwater
Past form of should Should + past participle Example: You should have called us You should have written the essay last week
Expressing Expectations Be supposed to expresses the idea that someone expects something to happen also scheduled events Ex: The meeting is supposed to begin at 08:00 am
Expresses expectations about behavior Ex: The kids are supposed to clean up their room Be supposed to in the past expresses unfulfilled expectations Ex: Jack was supposed to call me last night. I wonder why he didn’t.
Polite requests with “I” as the subject May or Might and Could I are used to request permission. They are equally polite Ex: May I use your bathroom? Could I borrow your bathroom?
Can I is used informally to request permission, especially if the speaker is talking to someone he knows fairly well Ex: Can I use the bathroom?
Polite request with “you” as the subject The meaning of Would you, will you, could you is the same. Would you is more common and is often considered more polite. The degree of politeness is often determine by the speaker’s tone of voice Ex: Would you please pass me the bottle? Will you please pass me the bottle? Could you please pass me the bottle? The auxiliary “Can” is often used informally. It sounds less polite than Could you and would you. Ex: Can you please pass me the bottle?
Polite request with would you mind Asking for permission Would you mind, if I is followed by the simple past Ex: Would you mind if I closed the door? Is the same if I say: May I closed the door? Will I cause you any trouble if I close the door?
Making suggestions: Let’s, why don’t, shall I/we Let’sis followed by the simple form of a verb Negative form: let’s + no + simple verb Ex: Let’s go to a movie Let’s not go to a movie Let’s stay home. Why don’t is used to make friendly suggestions Why don’t we go to a movie?