Grammar 3  gerunds and infinitives- i co-2011.
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Grammar 3 gerunds and infinitives- i co-2011.






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    Grammar 3  gerunds and infinitives- i co-2011. Grammar 3 gerunds and infinitives- i co-2011. Presentation Transcript

    • Gerunds and infinitives Grammar III I CO – 2011 by Carlos Roberto Mora
    • Infinitive
      • The uninflected form of the verb.
      • The infinitive form may be used alone or in conjunction with the particle to .
      • An infinitive is the base form of a verb with
      • -to-
    • Infinitive (to) + Gerund
      • The infinitive after a verb often describes a future event.
      • After: hope, expect, promise, want… the event in the to-infinitive comes after the activity or thought in the main verb:
        • I hope to see you next week.
      • Gerund describes an activity .
        • We enjoyed seeing you last weekend.
      • afford / agree
      • learn / need
      • ask / decide
      • promise / refuse - to -
      • expect / fail
      • tell / want
      • hope / wish
      • want / decide
    • afford / agree
      • I agree to go to the USA trip this summer.
      • I can afford to buy this picture.
      • learn / need
      • We should learn to do housework.
      • Human need to drink water.
    • Hope / wish
      • I hope to meet Beckham in England.
      • I wish to fly up high in the sky.
      • Want / decide
      • I want to do the homework today.
      • I decide to buy this book.
    • Expect / fail
      • We expect to pass the English exam.
      • We failed to do the homework.
      • Tell / want
      • He wanted to tell her about his feelings.
    • Ask / decide
      • I asked my mum to go shopping with me.
      • I decided to go hiking this Sunday.
      • Promise / refuse
      • I promised my mother to finish my homework this weekend.
      • I refuse to invite Mary to my party.
    • No major difference in meaning
      • Some verbs can be followed by either the infinitive or the gerund without any major difference in meaning:
      • Mother Teresa started to live/living in the slums of Calcutta from 1948.
      • Though she faced many problems, Mother Teresa continued to work/working for the poor.
      Begin Continue Start Intend
    • Gerund (general) to-infinitive (particular situation)
      • Some verbs are generally followed by the gerund when used in a general sense
      • The to-infinitive is often used for a particular situation.
      • I like swimming , but I don ’ t like to swim on cold days.
    • The Gerund is formed by adding “ ing ” to the base form of a verb
      • swim  swimming
      • eat  eating
      • run  running
    • The Gerund can be used…
      • As a noun
      • Running is my favourite sport. (subject)
      • He tried running faster. (object)
      • She was afraid of losing . (object of preposition)
    • After adjectives + preposition
      • accustomed to capable of
      • fond of afraid of
      • successful in good at
      • tired of interested in
      • She is accustomed to training for many hours.
      • He is good at running the 200 meters race.
      • admit
      • avoid
      • delay
      • deny
      • enjoy - ing -
      • finish
      • keep
      • mind
      • Admit
      • My brother admitted breaking the vase.
      • Avoid
      • I avoid walking on busy streets.
      • Delay
      • The school delayed opening this morning.
    • Finish
      • I finish doing my homework.
      • Keep
      • After 4 hours, he keeps standing there.
      • Mind
      • Would you mind lending your pen to me.
    • Deny
      • I deny doing a wrong thing
      • I deny being late to school every day.
      • I deny talking during the lesson.
      • Enjoy
      • I enjoy playing computer games.
    • After verbs…
      • admit can ’ t help finish
      • keep try enjoy
      • advise keep dislike
      • appreciate mind avoid
      • understand suggest forgive
      • John has finished repairing his bicycle.
      • They enjoy walking in the evening.
      • Mary dislikes swimming in winter.
    • I enjoy to swim. Which is correct ? I   enjoy swimming. right
    • I want to study . Which is correct ?   I want studying . right
    • I finish to eat . Which is correct ?   I finish eating . right
    • I need to study . Which is correct ?   I need studying . right
    • I hope to study . Which is correct ?   I hope studying . right
    • I stopped to smoke . Which is correct ?   I stopped smoking . right
    • Also…
      • Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund , with NO DIFFERENCE IN MEANING
      • I like to read / I like reading
      • Some verbs can be followed by either an infinitive or a gerund , but THEIR MEANINGS ARE NOT THE SAME
      • I will remember to call her. (I will be sure to call her in the future.)
      • I remember calling her. (I have the memory of calling her in the past.)
      • Gerunds are often used when actions are real,
      • concrete or completed:
      • I stopped smoking.   (The smoking was real and happened until I stopped.)  
      • Infinitives are often used when actions are unreal, abstract, or future:
      • I stopped to smoke.  (I was doing something else, and I stopped; the smoking had not happened yet.)
    • Summary table for (to) infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (-ing forms)
      • Use as subject
      • Eg: To smoke is bad for you.
      • Use as subject (more common)
      • Eg: Smoking is bad for you.
      • To say why we do things
      • (purpose)
      • Eg: I got up early to catch the 7am train.
      • After prepositions (on, in, before, for, without, after … etc.)
      • Eg: You can ’ t live without eating.
      • Eg: Thank you for listening.
      3. After some verbs (expect, afford, want, need, prepare, refuse, choose, fail, learn, promise, hesitate...etc) Eg: I expect to pass the exams. 3. After some verbs (eg: dislike, enjoy, practise, mind, avoid, consider, discuss, finish, keep, miss, suggest, keep, can ’ t help … etc) Eg: I ’ ll finish studying in June.
    • Summary table for (to) infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (ing forms) 4. After some adjectives and nouns : Adj = easy, happy, glad, nice, excited, ready, difficult, dangerous ...etc; Noun = work , money to spend, something to drink, different ways to protect her. … etc) Eg: She is ready to leave. (adj) Eg: I am glad to see you. (adj) Eg: I ’ ve got work to do. (n)
      • After phrasal verbs:
      • Eg: I am not good at dancing.
      • Eg: I am not interested in singing.
      • Eg: John will give up smoking.
      5. Some verbs can be followed by either gerund or (to) infinitive: Eg: I love going to school/I love to go to school 5. Eg: Begin, continue, hate, love, start … etc.
    • Summary table for (to) infinitive and gerund To infinitive Gerund (ing forms) 6. Used in general sense (Eg: love, like, hate, prefer..etc) Eg: I like swimming.
      • Used in particular situations
      • Eg: I don ’ t like swimming on cold days.
      • No + gerund
      • Eg: No money, no talking.
      * Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with the same meaning. ( Eg: love, like, begin, start, intend, continue..etc)
      • Stop + gerund.
      • Eg: Stop talking, stop writing, stop walking … etc.
      * Some words can use both to-infinitive and gerund with different meaning. (Eg: remember, try..etc)