Chapter 9  modals part 1-2
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Chapter 9 modals part 1-2

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    Chapter 9  modals part 1-2 Chapter 9 modals part 1-2 Presentation Transcript

    • CHAPTER 9 MODALS Part 1 By: Cristina Avalos D.
    • MODAL AUXILIARIES ARE USE TO EXPRESS:
      • Obligation /Necessity
      • Advice/ Suggestions
      • Expectations
      • Permission / Request
      • Refusal
      • Willigness
      • Probability
    • Obligation/Necessity
      • Must
      • Have to
      • Have got to
      • Past form: Had to ( when it refers to an idea of past necessity)
      • Must it’s stronger than have to and indicates urgence or stress importance
      • Examples:
      • You must stay in bed until I return
      • I have to be home by eight
      • I have got to go now (I gotta go now)
      • I had to study last night
    • Lack of necessity:
      • We use don’t have to to express that something is not really necessary
      • Examples:
      • You don’t have to do everything for her
      • We don’t have to atttend classes
    • Prohibition or Obligation:
      • We also use must to express obligation or prohibition.
      • Negative Form: must not or musn’t
      • Examples:
      • You must be 18 to drive
      • You musn’t do anything like this again
      • You must not tell anyone my secret
    • Advice or Suggestions
      • Should (Ought to)
      • Had better
      • Should and Ought to have the same meaning: they express advisability
      • Had better is close to should and ought to but the meaning is stronger. Had better usually implies a warning or a threat of possible bad consequences
      • Examples:
      • You look sick, you should go to the doctor
      • You ought to call the police
      • You should pass the exam easily. You’ve worked really hard
      • You had better not be late
    • Past form of should, ought to and had better Should: Should + have + past participle Ought to: Ought to + have + past participle Had better: Had better + have + past participle
      • Examples:
      • I should have studied last night ( means that studying was a good idea but I didn’t do it. So, I made a mistake)
      • I ought to have called the police (but I didn’t do it so, now I regret)
      • He had better have taken care of it
    • Expectations
      • Be supposed to
      • It is use to express the idea that someone expects something to happen, it also expresses expectations about scheduled events or behaviors.
      • Examples:
      • The game is supposed to begin at 10:00
      • I am supposed to go to the meeting
      • The children are supposed to put away their toys before they go to bed
      • Past form:
      • Was / were supposed to
      • It is use to express unfulfilled expectations.
      • Example:
      • John was supposed to call me yesterday. I wonder why he didn’t.
    • Permission or Request
      • May/ Might
      • Can
      • Could
      • Would you mind
      • Will
      • Would
    • Polite requests
      • We use:
      • May I / Might I
      • Could I
      • Can I
      • Would you mind
      • Would ( it is used for invitations/ to be polite or to express wishes)
      • Examples:
      • May/ Might I ask you a question ?
      • He could be working in the library
      • Can you help me with this exercise please ?
      • Would you pass the salt?
      • Can you speak louder?
      • Would you mind closing the window?
      • Would you like a cup of coffee?
    • Refusal and Willingness
      • To express Refusal (when someone or something refuses to do an action) we use:
      • Won’t
      • To express Willingness( a person wants or has the intention to do something) we use:
      • Will
      • Examples:
      • She won’t get up
      • Will you spend Christmas with us?
      • Will you come to my party?
    • Probability
      • To express probability we also use:
      • Will: To predict a future action
      • I will see you later!
      • Must: What we infer to be the most logical interpretation for a situation
      • He didn’t come to classes, he must be sick
      • Negative form of must:
      • Can’t: It is use ONLY TO EXPRESS PROBABILITY
      • Should: What may reasonably be expected to happen ( If everything has gone according to the plan )
      • Our guests should be here soon
      • Might-May-Could: The possibility that an event will happen or is happening
      • We might go to Hawaii for our honeymoon
    • Contractions
      • Should + have: Shoulda
      • Could + have: Coulda
      • Must + have: Musta
      • May + have: Maya
      • Might + have: Mighta