Understand the development andprinciples and editing
Auguste and Louis Lumière came from Lyon in France, where they worked in their fathersphotographic factory. In 1894, they saw Edisons kinetoscope in Paris, and decided to design acamera of their own. By February of the next year they had produced a working model of their cinécamera, which they called a cinématographe. The machine was in fact not only a camera but couldbe used, together with a magic lantern, to project the films which the brothers had taken. As you can see from this movie of workers leaving the factory it is one long clip as back then they didn’t have the software to edit their films therefore they just had to leave them as they are. Although there was no editing software people hadn’t experienced anything different therefore the movies were aspecial event but then came along D.W Griffith who came up with a new type ofediting.
D. W. Griffith was a premier pioneering American film director. He is best known as the director ofthe Ku Klux Klan epic 1915 film The Birth of a Nation and the subsequent film Intolerance. When it came to D.W Griffith there still wasn’t any software to edit like there is today although there was the skill of cutting and sticking. D.W Griffith had to cut up the film strips and stick it back together in the order he wanted the film to appear in. This method was used for many years. Although D.W Griffith was the first to do this there were many pioneers who followed in his footsteps for example Sergie Eisenstein
Sergie Eisenstein was a Russian film director and theorists, known as the father of montage. He wasa pioneer in the use of montage, a specific use of film editing, and argued that montage was theessence of the cinema. Sergie Eisenstein used the same editing skills as D.W Griffith with the cut and stick method although he was known for his specific use of film editing. Eisenstein used a lot of montage which has been told that that’s what made his films. Although he used the same editing skills as D.W Griffith he took them further and made them his own by adding his own style and techniques to it. Computer technology came soon after this bringing further films that still used the cut and stick method but used it digitally.
David Fincher is an American film director known for his dark stylish thrillers such as Seven, FightClub, The Game and more recently The girl with the Dragon Tattoo. Finchers films are always at theleading edge of film making due to his lighting and editing styles. When David Fincher came about there was the software to edit digitally therefore he didn’t need to keep going through the cut and stick method. There are a lot of bonus’s to editing digitally as you have a lot of effects and transitions including common bits like fade and black and white. Editing digitally alsomeans you can easily go and re shoot bits if needed which you couldn’t have done ifyou were editing with the cut and stick method.
Joining images is an editing form that creates a meaning.Alfred Hitchcock has some great example of this. Take Psycho for example atabout 57 seconds in the clip below you see how joining images can createtension in the scene. For example he could have just filmed where Arbogastis looking then his reaction but by cutting and mixing it up, it makes you feelmore apart of the scene which gives a greater amount of tension -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5bieIiX5KLQ
When controlling tempo editors will usually control the length of shot aslong shots will slow down the pace of a scene and short takes quicken thepace. Romance use long scenes a lot whereas action uses quick scenes aseverything move much faster. The average shot length used to be between5.15 or 5.20 where as studies have suggested that shots have gained paceand the average shot length is now somewhere between 4.75 and 7.80seconds.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7vThuwa5RZU - Casablancahttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BGCMfprPJoA – Sherlock HolmesThese clips from Casablanca and Sherlock Holmes are good examples of howthe length of can slow down or speed up the pace of scenes. For exampleyou can see in the clip from Casablanca the shots can last up to 25 secondsthis makes the movie slow moving as your looking at the same thing for agreat amount of time where as in the clip of Sherlock Holmes the averageshot length is only a second long which means that the shot is changing allthe time.
Another way editors change the tempo is by using shot transitions.The most common of these transitions are – Cut from a to b which is just a simple movement using no dazzle effect this is shown in the clip from eastenders http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ttsYAZ05JlY. Cut from a to b will quicken a scene so is often used in action. No dramatic effect is in this transition so it is used quite a lot in TV programmes especially soaps and similar programmes. – Fade in/fade out which is when the screen dips to either black or white before returning to the next cut. – Dissolve which is done by overlapping the shots. The main reason someone would use a dissolve transition would be to show a connection between two places for example this is used quite a lot in the film by John Wayne ‘Angel and the Badman’ http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CyiirU6npQ0&feature=related at about 5 minutes 27 in the clip you can see how dissolve can link two places together. You could also use it in a flash back or dream sequence.A scene with long takes can often also suggest a sudden change in mood so it doesn’t always haveto be short takes.
Fades change the pace in films as they slow down the scene so aren’t really used in scenes that action occur. Fades aren’t very common in films for this reason but some films will use them to introduce a scene such as a memory, fantasy or dream. They are also used at the beginning or the end of films a lot to start the film off without just jumping in for example the opening of Red River ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rANln-PpwxA ) use fades to start the movie off smoothly. This often indicates a slow moving movie.
Timing of shot can be cut away to emphasis a reaction or response tosomething for example it could start of with a two shot then cut to close up fora facial expression of a character, another example would be cutting from aclose up to a long shot. This is used in the same example as I gave for joining ofimages http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5bieIiX5KLQ. In this clip fromPsycho it although the camera will look away and investigate the surroundingsit keeps coming back the response which is often used to emphasis tensionagain as you don’t know what to expect when returning to the surroundings.
Attribute to editing Techniques used in Notorious • Medium shot (romantic intimacy)• Collage vs. Close up (disappointment) • The cut abruptly changes the• Tempo pace of the conversation; As Alicia and Delvins words become more heated, the scene relies on shorter takes• Timing • Cut to close up of Alicia coincides with Delvins line “I bet you’ve heard that line enough’
Narrative describes a sequence of events there for narrative sequencing isuse a lot in film and TV. Some films jumble up the narrative which is called‘Madias res’ this term is used in the film ‘Odyssey’( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=c-7_8y-McLo ) for example. By startingin the middle or maybe even at the end of the film it means you can hook theaudience right from the beginning by starting in the middle of the action.Linear editing is also used a lot in films as it tells the story as it happens, thisis the most common in Hollywood films, although most films now use it.Linear editing is basically a sequence going from beginning to end.
• Condensing time - Collages use condensed time as the director doesn’t want to dragit to the actual time represented. A good example of this is the training scene fromrocky ( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h0qVUn4797g ) as the director has cutdays down to minutes. This scene unparticular shows how much hard work thecharacter is doing which you wouldn’t necessarily see if the director had usedexpanded time.• Expanding time – Sometimes an editor or director will want to drag out the scenebeyond the actual time represented, for an example there may be a group of peoplesat around when a bomb goes off but before the bomb goes off there will be lots ofother shots going on for example some of the bomb ticking and some of the peoplebut in actual time the bomb would go off and everyone would die and that would beit. Another example of how expanding time is used in the slow motion bit in theopening sequence of ‘Reservoir Dogs’( http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GyR4RK0LA_E&feature=player_embedded#! ). Ifthis scene hadn’t been expanded then it would look like a bunch of average guys justcasually walking to their cars but because it’s slowed down it looks like a bunch oftough guys strutting their stuff.
Media Res – As I mentioned while talking about Editing and Timing media res is whenthe story or narrative is all jumbled up for example when a film starts in the middleinstead of the beginning.Flashbacks – Flash backs are basically images from the past for example someonecould be doing something in the present when suddenly its interrupted by images thathave taken place in the past. A good example of this is the ‘flying’ scene in ‘titanic’(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BT4ZyAfEFAI) when they both get flashbacksfrom past events they’ve shared with each other. This shows the audience the feelingsthey have for each other are true and strong.Flash-forwards – It’s uncommon for flash forwards to occur in films as they can bereally confusing and are only really understood when the event has happened in theactual time. A good example of this is the opening scene to ‘flash forward’(http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=u19qcl4k0OQ) This scene shows an event thathappens but then later on goes to say 4 hours later. It gives you an idea of what’scoming up before the characters do.
Editing draws the viewers attention to the detail need to make the scene for example in theclose up used in this clip of the very first close up the close up makes the scene moreunderstandable as it may be confusing without it -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2X_BZpnWFc.Another example of how the editing draws the viewers attention to the detail is ‘Return of theking’. The editing follows the lightening of the Pyres across a mountain range in a majestic callof arms. This makes the viewer notice a number of things: – Characters gaze – Group dynamics of a scene – The mood of a conversation
Shot reverse shotA shot reverse shot is used a lot in film as it can show a conversation betweentwo people or even one person speaks while the other just sits and listens.Most shot reverse shots use an over the shoulder shot to see the speaker so itdoesn’t look like the actors speaking to the camera. A good example of shotreverse shot is the scene in love actually with the ‘carol singers’.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FFnSgPC-VXA As you can see the cameradoesn’t only stay looking at one character but returns to the other whichshows the audience both sides of the reactions making them feel more apartof the scene. If you could only see one characters emotions then the scenewouldn’t work as well for example the cards may not mean anything to Julietand you wouldn’t see this if the camera wasn’t looking at her, the same withMark.
Eye line shot is a shot that looks like its out of the viewer vision. This draws the viewers into the characters thought process and emotional state. For example if someone had taken something that may effect their head an eye line shot may show this by going out of focus or shaky.Cutaways are different in the way that cutaways aren’t character centered, the on screen appearance of an object does not depend on the character seeing it in the previous shot.
Continuity is the process of cutting to keep the flow of the shot together asfluidly as possible not showing the whole footage. This would include thingssuch as:• Wardrobe• Lighting• Audio• Movement• Props• And other elements.
The 180 degree rule says the cameras should remain on the same side of animaginary line. The rule enforces continuity of the film. For example if yourfilming someone running from the right side of the frame to the left side thenext shot has to be from the same side so the runner is again running fromthe right to left.