FACTUAL PROGRAMMING:LEARNING OUTCOME 1Task 1: Media Production.
GLOSSARY Accuracy Web definitions: ‘The quality or state of being correct or precise.’ Balance To keep the argument/documentary even and fair on both sides. Impartiality Lack of comparison, correspondence, or suitableness; incongruity. Indivisibility into equal parts; oddness. Inequality; disparity; disproportion; difference of degree, rank, excellence, number, etc. Objectivity Web definitions: ‘judgment based on observable phenomena and uninfluenced by emotions or personal prejudices.’ Subjectivity Web definitions: ‘Judgment based on individual personal impressions and feelings and opinions rather than external facts.’ Opinion Web definitions: ‘A view or judgment formed about something, not necessarily based on fact or knowledge.’ Bias Web definitions: ‘Show prejudice for or against (someone or something) unfairly: "the tests were biased against women"; "a biased view of the world".’ Representation Web definitions: The action of speaking or acting on behalf of someone or the state of being so represented. The description or portrayal of someone or something in a particular way or as being of a certain nature. Access Web definitions: Obtain, examine, or retrieve (data or a file). Privacy Web definitions: The state or condition of being free from being observed or disturbed by other people. The state of being free from public attention.
DIFFICULTY GETTING INTERVIEWS Difficulties: We may have difficulty finding people who will feel comfortable giving interviews on the spot as some people don’t want to be on camera. Solving: To solve this we could take more than one take while filming. We could pixelate their faces if they don’t mind do the interview but are camera shy. In a lot of News shows they use a photo and have a voice over this could come in handy if people don’t want to be on camera at all. For an example of this in Aileen there was an interview that she wanted to stop as it made her feel uncomfortable.
BIASED OPINION ON SUBJECT MATTER Not having a bias opinion will be hard for us as we are young people and we’re doing it on how young people are portrayed so we will have out own opinion. An example of this is ‘supersize me’ as he his head was set on what was going to happen and didn’t really change his mind throughout the documentary.
OFCOM RULES AND REGULATIONS ‘Under 18s must be protected from potentially harmful and offensive material. One of the main ways of achieving this is through the appropriate scheduling of programmes. The watershed is 9 pm. Nothing unsuitable for children should, in general, be shown before 9pm or after 5.30 am. After 9 pm, there should then be a gradual transition to more adult material, not an abrupt change. Generally, the more adult in nature a programme is, the later in the schedule it should appear. Potentially harmful or offensive material includes strong language, violence, sexual behaviour etc.. Its inclusion must be justified editorially and by the context i.e. taking into consideration the editorial content of the programme, its scheduling, the audience’s likely expectations, any warning that has been given etc. Audience expectation is key. Viewers should be clearly forewarned of any potentially harmful or offensive material so they can make their own informed choices about what they and their children watch. This usually requires clear on-air pre-transmission warnings. Programmes must be true and accurate. It is the responsibility of programme-makers and broadcasters to ensure that viewers are not misled.
OFCOM RULES AND REGULATIONSCONTINUED… Programmes should not condone or glamorise violent, dangerous or seriously anti-social behaviour, especially where it is likely to encourage others to copy such behaviour. Any discriminatory treatment or language e.g. on grounds of age, disability, gender, race, religion, beliefs and sexuality must be justified by the context. Nothing transmitted should be intended to stir up racial hatred or, taking into account the circumstances, be likely to do so. Programmes should show respect for human dignity. In news and factual programmes, showing people in distress and in sensitive situations requires clear editorial justification. Similarly, in entertainment programmes, careful consideration must be given to humour based on the plight or misfortune of individuals, which again must be justifiable editorially and by the context. Programmes including exorcism, the occult and the paranormal will require careful handling.’ –Independent Producer Handbook
HOW WOULD PRODUCERS FIND THE OFCOMRULES AND REGULATIONS DIFFICULT? Producers may find these regulations difficult to follow as the time may not be right for you. They also may find it difficult as they may need to leave out or justify parts of their documentary due to disability, gender, race, religion, beliefs and sexuality. This may be seen personal to different people.
ACCURACY ‘Channel 4 and Five take the issue of viewer trust very seriously. Viewers are entitled to expect that programmes are accurate and true and the audience must not be misled. This obligation applies to all types of programming, including entertainment programmes with factual elements. Portraying real events, whether in documentary, features, factual entertainment, drama or any other programme, which the viewer is entitled to take at face value, must respect truth and accuracy. Programmes must be honest, fair and accurate and must not mislead viewers.’ – Independent Producer Handbook It is important for us that we do have our facts as accurate as possible and we don’t twist our stories. Although a lot of our footage will be interviews and we can’t change or tell our interviewees what to say we will ask them to be accurate as possible and tell the truth. For an example of this again I can link it back to Aileen as the interviewer ‘Nick’ had to be accurate on the facts he was presenting for example while talking about what Aileen had done and if she had confessed or not.
BALANCE It is important that we don’t stick to one side and investigate both sides of the story. At the end is when we can choose a side and talk more about this side. An example of this is ‘Aileen’ as ‘Nick’ is well balanced with his information for example while interviewing ‘Aileen’ he doesn’t argue against her with evidence he gives her a chance to say her side of the argument.
IMPARTIALITY Linking back to slide 6 ‘Balance’ we will need to show both sides of the story and both views equally and not our personal opinion. A good example of this is ‘supersize me’ as he’s unbalanced and only talks about how fast food is bad for you.
SUBJECTIVITY Our interviews will show different judgments, impressions, feelings and options and we’ll make sure we have an equal amount of contrasting interviews to keep the audience entertained. A good example of this is ‘Aileen’ because of the way ‘Nick’ bonds with her for the documentary and listens to her side of the story.
OPINION We will show a lot of different opinions from lots of different generations in our interviews as we are asking a variety of people. A good example of opinion is ‘supersize me’ as he keeps saying how bad fast food is and how you should only eat it once a month.
BIAS We have to be very careful while filming as what we say may be seen as bias as we’re young people, But then again we may have a different angle to many past documentaries as we are young people and know how young people feel about how the media is portraying us so maybe people would feel more for young people and try to stop it or ignore what the media say to a certain extent. A good example of this is ‘Supersize me’ as he his head was set on what was going to happen and didn’t really change his mind throughout the documentary.
REPRESENTATION We will be representing young people in a fair balance. A good example of this is ‘Aileen’ because the interviewer is representing Aileen and everything she stands for by letting her get her side into the documentary.
RECONSTRUCTIONS Original text from ‘independent producer handbook’- All reconstructions must be just and correct. If there is a risk that viewers might be deceived, reconstructions should be labelled as such to avoid confusion. Where there is risk of causing distress by reconstructing actual events, appropriate parties should be informed. We may reconstruct some interviews but we’ll make sure it’s fair and accurate, and all we will do is cut bits out.
PAYMENTS Text from ‘independent producer handbook’- Do not make payments to sources or contributors without reference to and the approval of the broadcaster. This does not include modest out-of- pocket expenses e.g. to cover meals and taxi fares, which are unlikely to be problematic. You must seek advice from the programme lawyer before making or promising to make any payment to a convicted or confessed criminal. You must not make any payment or promise to make any payment to any witness or defendant involved in any kind of legal proceedings without the consent of the commissioning editor and programme lawyer. We have not/will not be paying for our interviews and it’s not for professional purposes although if it was we would choose out interviewees well and only interview people who are willing to volunteer.
SECRET FILMING Text from ‘independent producer handbook’- Individuals must not normally be filmed or recorded secretly for inclusion in a programme unless approved by the broadcaster in advance. Programme-makers must set out in writing their justification for covert filming/recording. Our documentary will not contain any secret filming as it contains mostly interviews, photos, news clippings and studio.
PRIVACY We must avoid the unfair treatment of individuals or organisations in programmes. If the programme you are making involves criticising or making any damaging allegation about any living individual or organisation, seek advice from your programme lawyer. Any significant infringement of privacy of an individual or organisation, in the making or broadcast of a programme, must be warranted by the public interest. – Independent Producer handbook We have to understand the interviewee’s privacy so if they don’t want to be on camera we can’t force them and we need to make sure none of our questions are intruding there privacy and asking nothing we wouldn’t want on camera. A good example of this is ‘Aileen’ as ‘Nick’ has to protect the privacy of Aileen.
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