Know how to think Make others thinkAnd let others thinkIdea JournalismMiguel Pérez Gaudio
Miguel Argentino Pérez Gaudio• Professional Journalist (1957)• Specialized columnist.• Director of Radio and TelevisionProgrammes.• Director and Founder of “Aquí yAhora” Magazine (1969- 1975).• Founder and Principal of theJournalism University College“Obispo Trejo y Sanabria” (1971- )• Journalism Professor.• Creator of Critical AnalysisMethods: Intercepting Module ofManipulations (IMM) and I See YouViewer and Advisor.• Director of Critical FormationCourses.• Founder and Director of Media,“Cura Brochero” Radio andArgentinean New Television.• Publications’ Author.• International Expert with thesupport of UNESCO.• Director of the First NationalResearch about Health IssuesRelated to SubstancesConsumption; these results havenot been published yet.• Campaign creative “Make AllHuman Rights Credible” (2000) forthe National Ombudsman.• Director of Social Research “Workand Power for Cordoba” (2001)
PI 2 Miguel PEREZ GAUDIO Idea Journalism Know how to think-Make others think-And let others think Edited by Journalism and Social Sciences University Foundation Cordoba, Argentina. Design: Juan P. Gaudio Style Correction: Maria Isabel Robles Copyright by Journalism and Social Sciences University Foundation Ituzaingo 249- 5000 Cordoba- Argentina Telephone- Fax (0351) 4230340/ 4247278 – email: firstname.lastname@example.org No whole or part of this book may be reproduced by any means. Legal deposit made 11.723 SBN 950-9979716 Original edition: 1976 New version 2001 Printed by Graphic Workshop Pugliese Siena Sarachaga 122- Cordoba
PI 3Not ever has the world had as many means tocommunicate ideas as it has today, but neverhas the world lack ideas to communicate as itlacks today
PI 5Mister/MsHuman BeingProtagonist of newsWhoever you are. Wherever you areThis lines that introduce the “IdeaJournalism”, recognize its pilgrimage to theanonymous and varied readers.You, whoever you are, have been chosen asan inspiration and as a key for “IdeaJournalism”. It is our aim – almost anobsession- to reinstall Men in the center ofsocial communication of information and theprocess of history. Miguel Perez Gaudio
PI 6 Silent and Silenced News Watching carefully today’s men psychology is enough to realize that it is soaked in bitterness and skepticism. A moan, almost as a prophecy, lurks around the world to denounce a growth of inner human suffering along with the growth of the supremacy of material wealth and technology, and hunger of cultural and spiritual wealth. Misery, pain, disappointment, suffering seem to spread all around the world; instead of receding due to the peaceful joy that so many progress goods bring us. When we enter the third millennium of humanity, this is expressed in the paradigms of globalization. Changing time, time of change The changing time is characterized by “globalization”. There are many hidden contents and ambiguities in this word that deeply affect our way to interpret the life and the world. Globalization affects every social aspect, from economy to politics, from religion to education.
Silent and Silenced News PI 7In this globalized world, there is not a fairbalance between those who have it all andthose who have little or nothing. We do not talkabout “outcasts” anymore; there is a newcategory: the excluded without face, withoutvoice, without name, without history…It is the world- market that tends to an onlythought. Globalization also involves aconcentration of media in a few hands; and themanipulation of people’s thoughts and criteria.This revealing synthesis, as gloomyanthropological, human and social news,involves mainly media moguls, referents,and leaders; both traditional ones and newones. We can even say that they are trappedand demanded for answers: what is theirresponsibility for today’s man psychology? And,which engages particularly professional andacademic journalism duty?Many answers and statements can be offered,but in the end and in relation with the truth, wecan accept the blame for that “moan” that lurksaround the world.That this responsibility is more hidden isdramatic and puzzling. This brings aboutpressure, struggle and uncontained neutrality inthe use of social communication, and theyextend as a restricted and unaccountablecontinuous agreement.The dizzy pace of history makes it hard for manto keep track of it, in the middle of a realitythat is defined by an amused civilization. Acivilization amused by the technologicaldevelopment and control; that contradicts itselfbecause of the uncontrolled existential crisis,the manipulation and the fear of conflicts. Inthis reality, local and international media walkthe paths of the sad and fleeting jingoism ofsensory, spectacular or superficial effects. Asregards journalism, it is conditioned to the
Silent and Silenced NewsPI 8 terrible routine of senseless communication in order to keep or catch an audience. With the journalism skills for massive communication, such as attractive writing or lecturing, witty or synthesis capacity, along with graphic and audiovisual art and the new digital and multimedia techniques; we can harmonize and limit competitiveness to the density in information, to the sarcastic, deceitful or subtle, to its charming, catching or Confrontations With the journalism skills for massive communication, such as attractive writing or lecturing, witty or synthesis capacity, along with graphic and audiovisual art and the new digital and multimedia techniques; we can harmonize and limit competitiveness to the density in information, to the sarcastic, deceitful or subtle, to its charming, catching or sensationalist presentation; leaving aside the required meaning in order to release pressure on today’s man, and to express higher contents. It is necessary to discover what is essential in this matter – convincing reasons- and be able to turn the tendencies and jingoistic limits into transcending, necessary, fascinating achievements, creatively unlimited. What has journalism achieved that can be considered as social and human science? Which are its great novelties, capable of being supported by principles, theories and methods? Maybe it is about time, in this third millennium to look for other ways, to recreate with prestige, empowering the wealth of its endless
Silent and Silenced News PI 9 Journalism that engages as a Science of Information can not only voice the human blackouts without lighting them up; communicate catastrophes and then abandon them; start changes that ignores; get into the anguish of porn without knowing how to break it down; cling to ultraconservatism, stretching out between stakes the history of humanity itself.Challenges resources and transmit them when using the media in order to get a main, competitive place worthy as a social science and to be service of humanity. This is the challenge for institutions that train professionals and thinkers. “Idea Journalism” wants to take the challenge from its school in this changing time and time of change.
PI 10 TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) method DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM steps SOCIETY- TREND 1 analysis- area - covering FAMILIARIZING 2 documentation - objective INWARDNESS 3 sense - objective RETURN TO SOCIETY 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space length - sequence MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data RESULT CONTROL 7 foreseeable course and effectPeople the same as artworks, when they are introduced for the firsttime, must be identified. “Idea Journalism” does it with a method thatis defended as instrument, linking journalism, science, culture andpromotion to the service of human beings, that we aspire to reinstallas the center of news and history, in its relation with socialcommunication.The layout of this book is not controversial; however, confrontationwith the facts of the matter and with other ideas about it iscontroversial.
PI 11 Journalism in Social Sciences Sense A deep thought of Francis Bacon * suggests: “Among those who make a living out of knowledge there are some that, hearing only the experience, do not know other than collecting and gathering facts: they are the ants of science. Others, on the contrary, do not listen to other but reason, and build up systems with abstractions of the spirit; they are the spiders. The same as bees that collect pollen of flowers to elaborate it and transform it; real wisdom consults and enquires the cultural history and the experience; and then interprets and explains its facts in the light of principles and reasoning. It is precisely in the junction of these two elements and in the simultaneous application of experience and principles, where true science hope is.” The Media Confrontations Inexcusably and in essence, Social Communication Media in all its context, characteristics and form of *Bacon, Francis. English philosopher, writer and politician. He knew how
Journalism in Social Sciences d NewsPI 12 insertion in the life of people, by its nature and manifestations, turn into instruments of service and public welfare. With this premise they must therefore establish their roles, duties and rights. They are Media: mere public instruments of professional mediation and not ends in themselves. The main aims – permanent and superior- are verified by the intelligence, quality and humanity of the service they compulsory provide to society. By natural and legal rights, society determines the aims. Instrumental media are the source. Service to society is the aim and objective of its works. They are Massive: social communications are offered publicly, and they give media its massive characteristic due to the unlimited potential range with which they are established within all society – local, national or international- without any chance of making distinctions of groups or people, classes or age, culture or quality. They specifically include radio and television broadcasters. Society receive their transmission at no charge or paying agreed fees; newspapers and magazines, agencies and other new technology or more recent means, as the internet. They are different from other means that, even serving the purpose of transmission, are dominated as selective on purpose, when they aim at an identified, specific and consciously determined public, or when they are announced with a clear and precise objective, tendency or ideology that is held by its owners or manipulators. They are of Communication: it is their mission to spread professionally all that is trusted to their mediation, by means of language and techniques in order to satisfy society’s needs and expectations for common welfare making social dialogue possible. They are Social: when communications are
Journalism in Social Sciences PI 13 eminently public and unlimitedly horizontal, they disregard the idea that aims and interests of owners – direct and indirect- and of operators are imposed to those of society. On the contrary, they must be conditioned to the main and permanent aims of society. This social relationship, demanded by the public and tutelary condition of communications, is both a right and duty that is respected and an opportunity that is defended. This is lost when the acknowledgment of that main social gravitation is omitted, or when an abuse is committed with impunity at the time social communication takes place.Journalistic Leadership Within this context we must specify in a particular way, the mission trusted only to professional skill and journalism practice. In other words, to the processing of information in its different manifestations, formats and styles, whatever means this is done. There is an explicit examination that establishes and determines professional skill of journalism when handling information by Media, providing society with an implicitly contractual service that demands and gathers conditions, qualities and ways. For journalism to be able to inform, it has to be informed, defining two moments: search for and/or select information; and treat and transmit that info through its specific languages. Search and/or selection and transmission can not be reduced to unanimated, unconscious, superficial, routine or random tasks. On the contrary, information represents an intellectual, moral and spiritual support, necessary for every man’s development in society. It allows society to update about the events that reverts to its own and from it to the community’s public opinion – society.
Journalism in Social Sciences d NewsPI 14 This journalistic responsibility- professional role, opportunity gift and use of means- can not be reduced and limited to a secondary participation. For example, gather, repeat and broadcast information only linked by syntax, but fragmenting and disregarding its informative substantial qualities: truthfulness, objectivity and validity. This implies framing journalism in something more than a stagnated style that turns monotonous, systematic and dangerous; limiting the role of information to the application of a basic frame that responds to what happened, when, how, where or who, without getting ethically and culturally involved. “Idea Journalism” questions this tendency. Actually, any person with a little training – whether being journalist or not- is able to report news, bringing into line the classic questionnaire mentioned above. This observation warns that giving data or linking data syntactically as information is not performing the contemporary role that engages professional journalists. Journalism, being the only professionalized resort to validate and enhance information by the Media, is the one that has to select and give it the treatment to make us think, covering one of the most relevant layers in the process of society and in men’s lives. If information comes from the summary of journalistic methodological technique, the objective vision of events and the subjective gravitation inherent to human behavior, with all its influential manifestations increased by the constant penetration of media, its worth recognizing them as intellectual, moral and spiritual component of people’s lives, therefore of society: they shape the updating budget and humanity’s criteria.
PI 15 Reference InvestigationsTo formulate “Idea Journalism”, it was necessary toinvestigate hard and fairly journalistic behavioralong these latest years, using methods of logicaltest and common sense. Two configurations arose:“system” and “anonymous”.I. Why “SYSTEM * journalism”a) Because its most systematic productions sufferfrom severe methodological deficiencies as regardsthe way they select, treat, make and present thenews. Sustaining this in a stable and constant way,it turns into a one sense only and dominatingvertical “system”.b) These tendencies are present in very variedMedia, according to conceptual levels and politicaltendencies and behaviors.c) This allows us to infer that in the classes andstructures of professional journalists’ formation,the similar tendency validates dominating“systems” and validates methods or practices forthe treatment, making and presentation of news.Or it goes with theories, which are not based on*System: is an organization that includes all relevant moments, in a way
Journalism in Social Sciences d NewsPI 16 operative transferences, and turn them into inflationary theories. c) Consequently, in professional production, ancient guidelines outlast, without great variations except for rhetorical variations that affect technical vocabulary with new substituting or clarifying roles terminologies, which do not modify it. e) At the same time, binding corporations such as international organizations of consensus do not offer determining changes, except for political speeches. An evidence of this is what is seen when we deeply analyze national policies of social communications or corporative perspectives or binding organisms’ reports and at the same time their own inefficiency. f) The overview presented by professional journalists’ organizations and media moguls is not different. They do not outstand as updated and transforming vanguards for scientific, methodological and deontological projects, since they only proceed on the basis of their corporative interests. II. Why “ANONYMOUS* journalism” In analyzed journalistic productions, journalists are forced – and at the same time they accept it like that- to do a routine job that hides its eminently professional character and unconsciously they neglect their productions under protection of anonym and impunity. This way they mutilate the huge potential that as responsible authors and creators would allow them treat, make and finally present the news. Sample, verification and analysis give many guidelines and references, some permanent other innovative that make us confirm and establish that: *Anonymous: everyone and anyone.
Journalism in Social Sciences PI 17 1°) Journalism by culture, habit and necessity,is irreplaceable in the democratic life of society,but at the same time, as new techniques areincorporated to their material resources ofinfrastructure, means and technologies, itbecomes more encircling and its influence moreconditioning of society’s habits and culture.2°) If it reaches a greater level of penetration,it has to respond to that with a more engagedlevel of responsibility. There must be presentthe new conditions that ensure simultaneitybetween media progress and technologicalexcitement, and quality progress of that isbroadcasted; in this case, the news.However, from the journalistic behavioranalyzed arouse contradictions: a) Universal society is shaken by agreater amount of news, among the increasingbroadcasting and reception possibilities, butthere is less responsibility in its selection andqualitative treatment; b) Inadequacy of the professional staffthat has to manage information – in a loweramount of that required by a greaterbroadcasting and reception- and their notalways updated training – rather individualistic– diminish the importance, complicate and spoilthe quality of news treatment; with this theproblem worsen.From this diagnoses “Idea Journalism” statesfor professional discipline the followingprinciples:Journalism universalityResponsible objectivityRestoring of man as the center of informationJournalism profession and social science.
PI 18 Principles of Idea Journalism Universality Human family, intrinsically universal, needs more that ever before of communication towards the strengthening of peoples’ interrelation. This depends mainly on media. When its admirable technical resources – image and sound communication satellites, increasing number of teletype, telex, mobile phone, fax, photo-teletype lines, computing network- connect with the massive broadcasting platforms, which are the local, national and international media, formulate, in joint effort, a great opening to all men that are assisted by television, radio, newspaper and Internet communications. Those who make possible all dynamic for that communication of universal cohabitation are called addressors or social communicators. They, in one way or another, transmit culture and shorten distances between the most diverse communities. Due to this determining function, their professions must be recognized as the main right-duty and universal service.
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 19In the case of journalism, being in fact a localservice in every place that it is practiced; by itsrole, it is open to all humanity and even obligedfor the globalization gravitation and the newtechnologies that feed back and determinenews’ universality.There are no doubts now that technologicalprogress has solved the extension andimmediate traffic of news. What must be caredfor almost simultaneously is to resolve what todo with so much information; taking care of itsqualities to avoid distortions, inequality, andthat globalization turned into ideology andsystem of power for human thoughtmanipulation.Actually, it is not appropriate to say that thishas been achieved yet, but we are on thatdirection.News has reached greater irradiation andpenetration due to technological conquests, butnew questions arouse:Are they mere rhetorical products to makeeasier and more effective the quantitativebusiness of news?Is it about improving life quality, or istechnology used just to condition it, misleadingpublic opinion more easily?Is it just a technological evolution that turnsout of control because is not accompanied by adynamic in news quality?The universality sense, therefore, make usverify and even denounce partiality oftechnological-quantity progresses without ethic-cultural simultaneity in all their manifestations.It is appropriate then to ask: irradiate more,what for?Therefore, the sense of universality injournalism consists in being aware of the greatopening to all men in the universe through thetechniques, and incorporate selection andquality criteria that justify this universalitywhen making news.
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 20 Responsible Objectivity Recognizing and establishing journalism as a profession for universal service, it must validate through responsible objectivity to practice the right to manage news and comply with the duty to do it with truth, validity and credibility. Responsible objectivity is sustained with objective truth, appreciated with critical distance, according to the rules of logic, of principles and social experience, with methodological and methodic supports. Idea Journalism proposes them. Making news ideological, forces objectivity; when events, context and processes’ selection and treatment are manipulated, subduing them to political, economic, cultural interests. Restoring Man in the center of information News in the journalistic process cannot do other than assisting man and society, always that we understand assisting as an objective and industrious search for the truth. There are some that wrongly sustain that we have to give people what they want in order to please them, even acknowledging that we are not giving always the best; but treating them as objects. Who can seriously determine what people want? Is not it more important to know them and discover what is really useful and necessary for them? In the case of news, only the truth is supreme. Every arrangement or instrumentation of truth to distort it, or every omission on purpose is a direct aggression to man’s freedom and dignity. This worsens when media is used for this. Media reaches a huge, heterogeneous and anonymous audience. In a small circle of people, the effect of a piece
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 21of news that is given deliberately orunconsciously distorted can be correctedbecause communication is direct and undercontrol. But through Mass Media, the effect isunpredictable.The belief about who are the truth and newsreal owners is frequently incorrect.Media owners or operators may believe thatpracticing the power of managing informationgives rights to them, but never the right toappropriation of the truth. The truth does notbecome private through social mediation.The rightful owner of information, withexclusive and excluding rights, is every man, allmen and every man that constitute humanity.That is why is appropriate, for the commonwelfare, to preserve that social right, fragileand unclearly settled in Human Rights andConstitutions.In the universe – even though unfortunately isstill the same in theory- it is said andrecognized that the truth must be guaranteedto public opinion, society and men.It cannot be understood or practiced in anotherway, since information –as it is being sustainedin this proposal- is an intellectual, moral andspiritual support, essential for men’s life. And inthe same way nobody can encourage genocide,by any means, as regards men’s physicalintegrity –human history verdict-, we cannotpretend intellectual, moral and spiritualgenocide either, whatever refined ways to trythis against humanity.News, being a vital intellectual support, cannotbe altered in their basic principles and even intheir shapes. It is not news, freedom of speechor truth that are finally violated, but it is men’sintegrity that is at risk; that as they cannotgrow biologically healthy with contaminatedmaterials, or preserve and lengthen theirhealthy lives with adulterated medicines, theycannot grow with news – intellectual support-
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 22 that are contaminated by manipulation or wrong treatment of them. That is also corruption. Any of these figures represent – especially when they represent systems or campaigns- submission of men: they condition, excite, degrade and subdue him to seductive forms, more and more subtle and more and more irradiated and penetrating. “Idea Journalism” –as seen later in theory and methods- proposes restoring man in the core of information, as a supreme subject, authentically worthy of being served and promoted for the truth. Man who is cause, basis and aim of all social organization, must be in plenitude of all his rights, the only reference factor in the processing of information. For a simple and irrefutable reason: because he is a human being and not a profane consumer behind every radio or television receptor, behind every newspaper or magazine page, or behind every web page as digital journalistic mediation. Journalism profession and social science The three proposed and distinguished values, namely: journalism universality, responsible objectivity and the urge to restore man, in his sublime dignity, to the core of news; imply reconsidering professional journalism in its principles and central role. This process has to be backed up by theories and methods. The reflection of complying with the universal approach of information demands understanding and positioning journalism as a professional and universal activity, and insert
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 23journalists capable to do so. This is also usefulto require and ensure cultural interceptionachievements in such process.In order to have easy and clear rules foruniversal communication, this must beunquestionably guaranteed by responsibleobjectivity and subjectivity; by the honesty andrichness of the treatment; reasonable criteriafor selection and promotion of news.Restore man in the center of news with all hisqualities, freedom and dignity as a humanbeing and with identical possibilities in face ofmedia that has to serve him substantially,promotes his consideration as vital subject andcorrects the distortions that limit him as a merenews consumer. It is only this way that the addresser acquiresrelevance in every professional instance ofcommunication.This way, the one that conditions the rules isthe addressee, accepted in all his majesty ashuman being, irreplaceable main factor ofMedia, consequently, the rules of the “system”must subordinate to him and not the other wayround.“Idea Journalism” proposes to revise behaviors,ensuring the inalienable principles of man andsociety, and that demand a “counter-system”with methods.It is pertinent to accept that news universalityis not so only for its traffic through the mostadvanced technical media, but because it isbased on human, social and intellectualprinciples. All this takes to a change in culturalreasoning, formation and institutionalization ofprofessional journalist.Public information by Massive Media andsupreme service to humanity must combinethrough a prestigious professional disciplinethat ensures character in the treatment of newsand ethics over its moral sense.A new professional discipline that demands a
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 24 strong and engaged training, this guarantee must be offered since the superior level of learning. Discipline journalism in its preparatory and functional instances within a humanist and universal framework of our time leads to its characterization as a social science. What is science but a search for theories and methodologies? What is journalism but searching and finding truth, with strong theories and methodologies to communicate it as information? Framing journalism as a social science, it is conceived as part of human and social sciences. In this way it has to launch in the search for new reliable requirements to satisfy, with the greatest professional capacity, the demands of validity required by social communication and with this credibility, universality and responsible objectivity for the superior service of humanity. The reasons for this adaptation emerge as natural and logical demand of contemporary challenges and from the close relationship of journalism with the accelerated benefits of other sciences and technologies, which impose the dynamic of social communications. We have to favor and find the ways for a mentality and discipline that modifies old concepts and that helps to adapt to cultural changes of society. The advances of sciences are greater and greater. Journalism can not be outdated or it will remain just as a “run, go and tell” activity. Consequently, journalism is called to a methodic discipline to improve human knowledge that nourishes from what is shown in the media, they are more and more involving, penetrating and determining. But, let other know, demands knowing what to do and how to do it, in a methodological and convincing way, with hierarchy and stability, avoiding or preventing the risks of
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 25improvisations.This is placed as a demand for the humanfamily to elevate to the sublime concepts oftruth, kindness, justice, dignity as universalrequirements, distinguishing that human spiritthat grows by the revelation and living of truth,at the same time explains and orientates whyman starts feeling less objects-dependant andmore served by them.The truth cared as the essence for theinformative and in cultural function, excites theminds to a deeper and more carefulintelligence. Universality of the profession, itsprestige, its discipline, are constituted inauthorized way of relation between men,enlightening their miseries and joys, theirdeficiencies and abilities, projecting themtowards a better future.But such aspirations cannot be elucidated andapplied only with scattered intentions or forindividualistic qualities. They must be carriedand admitted as a sort of normative school ineach mean of communication, in eachcommunity, in universal society; therefore inthe practice of journalism.It is a hard way due to its sacrifices, but theonly one capable of precisely characterizing thereal role of social communication in the processof information. This process is born in the man,grows, and if it is elevated to a superiorcategory in its content and treatment, it returnsto society to serve it, providing intellectualsupport to improve human being andknowledge.This circuit is the one that turns the simpletreatment of information into responsiblemaking, which in “Idea Journalism” issummarized these premises facilitated in itsmethodologies: know how to think, makeothers think and let them think. This is what wecall the message-information.
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 26 “Idea Journalism” proposes: • To consider information not as a rhetoric service of gathered words, sounds and images, but as a service of messages that are elaborated with the contribution of news, facts, opinions, as intellectual, moral and spiritual support for people’s lives. • The treatment that message- information should receive must be consequence of a harmonic professional training, with the support of sufficient, progressive and ethically- social scientific methods to ensure the thought vitality ,and the universal and social responsibility of the media. The transformation we propose cannot only be oriented to recognizing the addressees of communication –the audience- but also praise professional addressors: the journalists. Consequently, “Idea Journalism” promotes authorial and autonomous professionalism, which implies for every journalist to take responsibility of information in its treatment, to grow as a thinker and to give himself as a creator. It is the journalist himself who will be vindicated as a person, practicing all his faculties, freeing from anonym that for its vices has made possible to systematize impunity in the wrong process of information. This way “Idea Journalism” justifies itself as a search for man, finds addressors and addressees again. And the state of Autonomy is incorporated, vouched for society through the certificate and training promoted and guaranteed by superior studies, in order not to be dependant on a
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 27 uniformed and only informing system, but capable of making autonomous, active, creative and profitable journalistic productions of self- management and of offer to a globalized and multimedia market, but in this case to make it more human.Self-management and MultimediaJournalism As an answer to contemporary challenges, our school has incorporated to professional training, knowledge, skills and abilities that allow journalists multifunctional roles and multimedia resolutions in the processes of preproduction, production and postproduction. In accordance with the particular dimension in which “Idea Journalism” is given to professionals, they will be able to manage with his own methodology in independent developments and systematically recreate his authorial charisma. It is this way, because he does not alienate his creative talent to the Media with which he might have dependency relations –limited but not absolute-. If he is not in those conditions, he is restrained as professional. He can and should continue producing pieces of social communication such as those allowed by a creative and recreated journalism of research, protocol, abstracts, reports, documentaries, essays –invigorating his professional role and conditions-. These are useful not only for their specific growth but also to be offered to editorials or audiovisual companies that are interested in broadcasting. It is the self- management and multimedia journalism for the modern market. There are many Media that outsource a big part of their special productions now, and there are many proposals through internet. “Idea Journalism”, rescuing a new weighing order in social communication, wants to
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 28 highlight the journalist as a professional, permanent manager and leader of information, a continuous promoter of ideas and journalistic productions. A panorama is pretended to be widen with this, and at the same time to provide and answer to skepticism that usually invades many professionals, graduate and undergraduate university students. Universal reality shows how great works were made by professionals of different activities, who without the support of structures that made them independent, were able to establish formidable contributions for human welfare. This made them deserve their geniality and intellectual ownership.
PI 29 Theory and MethodologyInformation supposes as generality “action ofcommunication”, in “Idea Journalism” it isparticularized with some kind of property,because its contents are activated through theuse of Mass Media.Media are those instruments for publicbroadcasting that make use of social interestinformation and must use them to keep socialdialogue and discussion between addressors andaddressees. The most common ones are radioand television broadcasters, sound andaudiovisual broadcasting, newspapers andmagazines, graphic broadcasting; news agencies,even though their news services reach theaudience indirectly through media that providesdirect service to all society and every other meanand format developed and used with newtechnologies and with that purpose, as webpages, internet, and other technologicalnetworks.The varied ways of presenting news –in anyinstance or form of development-, is reflectedaccording to the broadcasting Mean and the style
Theory and Methodology d NewsPI 30 used. Whatever the genre or journalistic characteristic applied, and the way or reason for its insertion in mass media, it is all information. For “Idea Journalism”, information does not only consists of news and journalistic service, but by the nature and function of Mass Media, it encompasses any broadcasting carried out by these means as a tutelary good*. In the journalistic spaces only, they acquire definite shapes, depending on whether they are daily news and topics, the aspects that society cares about. In the case they are not journalistic, but channeled as broadcasting through mass media, they require particular and very distinctive qualifications, avoiding confusions. This is the case of commercial information (direct or institutional publicity) or ideological information (propaganda). Publicity and propaganda cannot be handled with privileged rules. As these rules are now, they certainly oppose to the superior aim appointed in the principles of this book. These distinctions in “Idea Journalism”, as regards all “communicative action”, signal interest, not only for informing itself but because they take into account the reasons for informing and the social and democratic effects that are aimed at when doing so. Summing up, it is considered journalistically professional, which preponderant in this theory, all that is constituted formally and effectively in the process of Social Communication for it most structured manifestations and of multimedia and alternative broadcasting (radio, TV, press, internet, etc.). That is to say: *UNESCO definition “One world, multiple voices”
Theory and Methodology PI 31 News Articles Column Comments Interviews Editorials In “Idea Journalism”, Theory and Methodology explain the process of making information- message. It consists of seven steps as a referential and potential structure: 1° Society – Trend 2° Familiarization 3° Inwardness 4° Return to society, news sustenance 5° Message to society – Information pedagogy 6° Journalistic discourse in news- Message 7° Result controlInformation – Message Information – our subject matter- is not limited as “communicative action”, but it is important to care about the cause and effect of information, applying a method in accordance with the essential aims of this proposal. Information- message demands a main role that cares for, guides and elaborates it. It is this active participation the one that enables the journalist or communicator in his entire dimension as a responsible and creditable professional. Moreover, the quality of message is the demand for every piece of news that by its content allows it, to carry a necessary and practical formulation, capable of constituting a proposal for man in society, not by doing a simple listing of events and circumstances merely routinely. It is called “information-message” because this
Theory and Methodology d NewsPI 32 way it structures the association of the described event or the gathered opinion, with the vital contribution, the creation, that reflects what benefits man and society. The message is as an act of deep reflection that preserves life quality as a constant, implementing the articulation of these key premises in Idea Journalism: Know How to Think, Make Others Think, and Let Them Think: Vouching for their validity and credibility Précising information due to lack of components Clarifying the focus and sense of information when proving its negativity for man and/or society’s welfare. Highlighting information when for its strength is determining in man and/or society’s promotion. Incorporating necessary and practical ideas as proposals that may also require for experts, as regards the information or topic. Developing a pedagogic action In order to comply with these and other complementary requirements, it is necessary to explain and contextualize information-message with unity sense. It has been said that professional, active, thinking, and creative main role is the generator. Any information becomes useless or spoiled as message if journalistic management only facilitates knowledge about an event, opinion, document, etc, according to whether the text was produced or prepared by third parties outside the media, or journalists just repeat or fragment it when broadcasting, without any substantial treatment and selection, except for adapting its syntax and elementary journalistic forms. To avoid giving thinking and creative qualities to information is insisting on simplifying the professional’s role to a simple, elementary
Theory and Methodology PI 33 reproducer. It is overriding his responsibility, neglecting to take it and forgetting what society has passed to him, for him to care for the information to be something more than just a collection of written or sound words or images, which are unlinked, confusing or socially useless. For the information to acquire sense, it must reflect and give a better future for man, as a constant. Information-message, due to the journalist’s valuable contribution, starts being the center and core of a complex but exciting effort to be useful, in each case, in favor of man’s superior welfare, counteracting the evil generated by human miseries. The vitality in this task –in which information technology is incorporated- cannot be effectively applied with “electronic brains”. These allow accelerating and endlessly reproducing a great number of pieces of information –provision of allusive documents, composition or broadcasting-, but we would never go any further of getting information. For this to be a message, professional participation is irreplaceable.Autonomous and authorial That professional participation that elaborates, cares, and guides information, and that also takes moral and social responsibility for it; confirms and habilitates in “Idea Journalism” the authorial quality that distinguishes and is given to every journalist, preserving: Professional freedom Knowledge demand Methodic and methodological behaviors Not because the journalist necessarily has to identify in every one of his professional acts before public opinion, but as a direct consequence that every one of those acts is a personal work, which does not pretend an
Theory and Methodology d NewsPI 34 unnecessary appearance, a vain nomination. It is because it has assumed its responsible, professional, vital, creative participation in the information process. We have stressed the recreation of the profession, pointing at self-management, as an independent alternative. Referential method Having outlined these explanations, we will explain now every one of the spaces that compose the elaboration method for information-message that does not have any intention of bureaucratizing the journalistic job. The essential is that with this, it is established and stabled that all journalism is research journalism, because it supposes professional management if it is carried with methodological support and in a methodological way.
PI 35 Methodological Process THINKER IWhat is a method?Philosophically, it means “Order in sciences forinvestigating and teaching the truth; it is in twoways: analytical and comprised”.Analytical: “The one that decomposes everything inits constituting parts and studies every one of themseparately, to get to know its principles orelements, going from particular cases to generaltruths that encompass them.”Comprised: “The one that goes from general truthsto conclude in the deduction of particular casesencompassed in them.”Methodology: Science about the method. “Group ofrules that must be followed when studying ascience.”* TopicWe call Topic to every matter of social, local,regional, national or international interest, whicharises and/or is proposed for journalistic mediationto be broadcasted in Mass Media.It is of professional character when it isoriginated by journalistic management, or when it*Universal Encyclopedia. Sciences Encyclopedia.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 36 it arrives by cable or news agency service, that gives it for granted. It is not professional, when is given with interest by institutions –private or public- of social organization; or spontaneously by experts or particular people –contacts, spontaneous coworkers, etc- or when it means the expression of popular murmur (gossip, version), that being interesting and useful for society, demands professional interception to acquire category and social relevance. steps
Methodological Process PI 37Primary facts arrives by cable or news agency service, that gives it for granted. It is not professional, when is given with interest by institutions –private or public- of social organization; or spontaneously by experts or particular people – contacts, spontaneous coworkers, etc- or when it means the expression of popular murmur (gossip, version), that being interesting and useful for society, demands professional interception to acquire category and social relevance. steps TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISMVital Professional Participation SOCIETY- TREND 1 analysis- area - covering TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) FAMILIARIZING 2 documentation - objective DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM INWARDNESS 3 sense - objective SOCIETY- TREND 1 analysis- area - covering RETURN TO SOCIETY 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space FAMILIARIZING length - sequence 2 documentation - objective MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) INWARDNESS 3 sense - objective inform – educate – guide make others think – promote RETURN TO SOCIETY JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space indicative shape data length - sequence RESULT CONTROL 7 foreseeable course and effect MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data RESULT CONTROL 7 foreseeable course and effect
Methodological Process d NewsPI 38 Every Topic requires a minimum of primary facts or components: what happened; how; when; where; who; and any other reference. TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM With this mark of the authorial, Topic can the the origin of the introduces be SOCIETY- TREND distinguished: formal involved in a vital professional language, facts, case, 1 emergent; participationthe itscharacter in elaboration,that to analysis- area - covering and 2 FAMILIARIZING documentation - objective treat information with efficacy, geographically locates it: local, regional, INWARDNESS provincial, aware ofinternational. this has in national, the value 3 sense - objective society. RETURN TO SOCIETY This professional projection acquires 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space the vital sign, because it must length - sequence nourish from principles, knowledge Development of Idea Journalism MESSAGES TO SOCIETY and life experience; replacing all 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote improvised and impersonal tendency. The orientation that the object of JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE social communication has in order to indicative shape data ensure quality and common welfare 7 RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect depends on this vital participation. Society - Trend Society - Trend The journalist’s role in the process of information-message, with the distinguishing
Methodological Process PI 39 avoid being updated about man and society’s problems. To strengthen his knowledge in such wide respect, he must resort in a routine and disciplined way to whichever mean allows him to be informed about such complex and even unpredictable topics. The logic of a topic will be considered solved when the problematic and joint trend of the surrounding society has been taken into account. The answer will be easy, as far as the professional journalist or the professional group in charge of a topic has some cultural basis and keeps updated about the process of humanity, summarized by events, values, opinions. Even though reality provides its evidence, or sometimes they are the result of valuable pre- existing analysis works, in the way the idea of journalism with methodological basis advances, new explanations can be encountered. They will update legitimate parameters about the trend of humanity and of every social society, in a serious and continuous way – above all without ideologies-. Journalism has spoiled its efforts many times – except for on purpose intentions- when it did not know how to solve the Topic-Context- Society assembly, caused by the ignorance of the controversial and complex reality. In this first step we have the spaces dedicated to Analysis, Area and Covering of the Topic.Interception analysis Analysis virtually puts to test the entire professional’s potentiality. It is the time when methodology, knowledge and logic combine to support decisions about the Topic as event- process. It is at this point that every Topic must be framed by its intrinsic characteristics, qualities and social importance and as regards its categories to get a place in social
Methodological Process d NewsPI 40 communication. These are questions that demand a core decomposition and exploration. It is a kind of social challenge to cultural and technical capacity, to ethics and responsibility, and above all, to maturity and vitality of thought of professional journalists. The Topic is analyzed with the gathered components and conditions and according to the service it will provide to man and society. As regards the first point, it is clear about its minimal informative strengths and weaknesses to justify its development. Its real importance, urgency, and interest for society and its trend will be determined in its qualities. The moment of analysis is important, crucial and key point, because it is when the professional decides whether the Topic has to be feasible and installed as public information, or disregarded; whether it is of immediate inclusion in broadcasting or it must be kept until its verification and greater treatment. And so on and so forth, successive alternatives. These resolutions are virtually a privilege in the process of Topic treatment, because the only witnesses are the professionals that have the internal responsibility in the Media. Errors of Analysis can encompass: hiding the truth, censorship, exclusion, desecration or mutilation of the truth; promotion of untruth news, neglect a truth, etc. These risks are taken when choosing to promote or disregard information, or when its treatment is partial or exaggerated. “Idea Journalism” rescues every professional as a responsible in these stages of methodological development of Analysis, allowing the writing body of each mean to participate, according to the form of working and organization. This is done not only to recognize that there is a hierarchical structure constituted in every Media but to propose teamwork with a
Methodological Process PI 41 cooperative sense – and every time it is possible- before the great social responsibility in the management of topics that become public and tutorial information.Area In all the topics – without exceptions- there is a formal range of origin and direct or indirect reference, explicit or implicit from which it has arouse or started. In a direct way when the source is mentioned. In an indirect way, when it is about an event and when it is implicitly deducted, or when the source is anonymous and must be intercepted, deduced or confirmed. The one who has to make the effort to shape the area is the Professional in journalism that cannot be content only with what might be explicit or implicit in the proposal or event. To precise the area of a topic helps journalism to investigate the causes and order what will be the unfolding of such topic, in the process of treatment as information, and at the same time, to find the protagonists involved, which possibly will be able to feed it back through facts, interviews, documents and reasoning. topic area coveringCovering Whereas the Area is the space reserved to shape the starting range of a Topic, Covering encompasses the comprising segment of movement of that, concrete or possible. It is located or uncovered here, by reasoning and deduction, to which in society the Topic will interest or affect, and its possible broadcasting when it is promoted to public information. For example: if the Topic is originated in a
Methodological Process d NewsPI 42 State organization – a resolution in taxes or wages, for instance- the professional in journalism is the one that, disregarding that he knows about the topic and the society, should point who are directly or indirectly, explicitly or implicitly implicated in such Topic – wage earners, unions, businessman, taxpayers, etc- through the social structure. This way, it is determined the logical and possible circuit that tackling suggests, when moving to society. In the space of Covering is proposed, besides solving where to get the references and the concurrent repercussions to complement the journalistic management, to give a real place to the Topic in society and that society participates. This way, it stops being only the consumer of information by the Media, it allows to widen treatment resources balancing the possibilities for everyone, making contributions, giving opinions, supporting, criticizing, giving it legitimate belonging. The division in Area and Covering, done in this step, is used to order ideas about social organization, facilitating the location of the stage and the protagonists involved in the topics, and it makes journalists think about the ones implicated and about the implications of each Topic in society. Finally, if the Topic is installed as anonymous, version or gossip that justifies the potentiality for taking public state, it demands to be dimensioned in the covering due to its social impact. topic analysis area covering
Methodological Process PI 43 In the second methodological step, TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) accurate and dynamic researches are DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM carried out to deepen the Topic. SOCIETY- TREND 1 Familiarizing is a joint and/or historic analysis- area - covering documentation, evidential of each 2 FAMILIARIZING documentation - objective Topic, and every fact or opinion INWARDNESS taken from the experts, 3 sense - objective representative and knowledgeable RETURN TO SOCIETY people that can support it. 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space length - sequence MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGYDocumentation (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote As a documental and bibliographic JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES source, documentation helps as 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data illustrative support for a serious RESULT CONTROL treatment of any Topic. 7 foreseeable course and effect Its characteristics are many. They can be documents, bibliographies, recordings, interviews, field investigations, statistics, photographs, videos, etc. This first step proposes locating the topic within It can be given to each Media along with the the social context in which it is produced and topic proposal, or otherwise, it must be from which it is projected. collected or looked for in the appropriate Every Topic is local when it belongs to a field of places: public or private libraries, newspaper concrete geographic origin. But to the media it libraries, and video libraries, Media and is interesting for; it might be local, regional, institutions archives, informatics’ memory, national or international according to its origin internet, etc. It will depend on the Topic. and projection. The truth is, that when historic-joint It is correct to make this observation for documentation as documentation is looked for, making possible that the Topic receives a besides imposing in journalism the trend that treatment according to surrounding reality, at links problematic and culture in the process of the time it is produced, and to avoid that, by information, it is not done other than link and any reason that ignores such references, the accept that every present has a history; a treatment could be inappropriate or confusing. concurrent or compared explanation, It results obvious that the journalist references, studies, statistics, cues and professionally trained, must know the better expressions, probably recorded and valid. possible universal society reality in its main To admit certain Topics – that demand manifestations and problematic. More documentation- isolating them from particularly, the one from his country and antecedents, do not effort to get them, or region of influence of his activity or of coverage of the Mean he works for.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 44 antecedents, do not effort to get them, or omitting facts and experiences that can satisfy any documentation, is wasting the chance for enriching the cultural-informative task of Media and disregard methodological requirements. Experts The word Expert is used to individualize all those people that can provide testimonial facts or justified opinions for the treatment of Topics. The meaning of Expert is applied to any person that has witnessed an event, or that is related to its origin or consequences, and to every qualified person to provide authorized opinion about the Topic. Those who have responsibility in society about the Topics can be included in this category. Summing up, the protagonists, specialists, or people inherent to a piece of information to balance it in objective responsibility comprise Experts. They are necessary to extend facts about the information and the journalist’s cultural universe. To assure it and make contributions, giving permanent and systematic place to society’s participation in the process of social communications and making truth fruitful, through the possibility of participation and equality by the contest of different opinions. The opinions taken from the Experts could be used in different way in the treatment of a Topic, whether it is by transmitting those opinions as part of the information or making use of them to justify the news treatment.
Methodological Processomitting facts and experiences that can PI 45satisfy any documentation, is wastingSumming up, the protagonists, specialists, orthe chance for enriching the cultural-people inherent to a piece of information toinformative in objective responsibility comprisebalance it task of Media and disregard TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)methodological requirements.Experts. DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM SOCIETY- TREND 1 analysis- area - covering FAMILIARIZING 2 documentation - objectiveThe It is aExpert is usedthe individualize word challenge for to journalist INWARDNESSall in his discipline and knowledge of those people that can provide 3 sense - objective methodology and for his essencetestimonial facts or justified opinions for RETURN TO SOCIETY as a creative being, capable ofthe treatment of Topics. 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space length - sequenceThe knowing of Expert is applied that meaning how to think and to any MESSAGES TO SOCIETYperson that has witnessed merit and or way legitimate the an event, 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)that opportunity thatto was given to or is related he its origin inform – educate – guide make others think – promoteconsequences, let think. every qualified make and and to JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSESperson to provide authorized opinion 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape dataabout the Topic. Those who haveThe opinions taken from the Experts could be7 RESULT CONTROLresponsibility in society about the Topics foreseeable course and effectused in different way in the treatment of acan be included in this category.Topic, whether it is by transmitting thoseopinions as part of the information or makinguse of them to justify the news treatment. InwardnessInwardness demands the greatest professional,humanist, intellectual, moral and cultural effortto enhance and recreate the Topic-Informationwith a sense and objective.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 46 personal concepts, prejudice or ideologies in order to make his professional responsibility prevail and coincide with a kind of social subjectivity that arises from society with lasting and valid values of what is natural in collective consciousness and culture. The ideological subjectivity of the journalist will never come before to condition or subdue society. Inwardness goes beyond. It is its mission to point and suggest necessary transformations for the man and the community, defining the Objective of every information-message. An inevitable consequence of the potential effect desired by means of this, for Common Welfare. It is spontaneously present when the positive and transcendental of human events is excelled, and when the negative and degrading in them is discouraged and fought. However, it may grow in a more effective way, when adding ideas and concrete projects that are shown in the aim-objective that the journalist will propose and support with the sense he will give to every piece of information. This comes from the contributions that have been achieved in that enterprising search in each one of his managements. To sum up, internalize is like diving into each Topic decided as information, to understand it and precise it in its social aim. This way information acquires the vitality transmitted by the journalist that cares for it, which familiarizes it and integrates as his own, and turns it into experience and superior cause. That way a piece of news with an aim and basis is ready to be launched to massive communication, for its solidity and truth and attracting for its newly precision, at the mercy of the Sense and Objective that the authorial journalist claims and resolves: “To teach the human condition…” and “to learn the job of living…”* *Edgar Morin
Methodological Process PI 47Sense The continuum of treatment faces the Topic with the one that will be its real cultural author, decided to turn it into information-message. Up to now it was enough to apply technical knowledge and experience with vital participation, organizing the context for the Topic –its previous expansion and prospective-, this is the moment to define its aim, depth and human benefit. Only this way it will be possible to make it live among the rest when it is broadcasted. Being able to internalize a Topic that is already in information process will demand a cultural engagement with priorities, basis and effectiveness. Inwardness should care not only of the truth ofObjective the information, but also make it effective and useful with responsible objectivity and subjectivity. The layer of subjectivities – for its depth and even mystery- does not have a regulating method for its absolute determination, but it *Casuistry of Human Rights.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 48 Objective that it seeks to achieve with creativity. If the Sense of Information is the cause of its aim, the Objective is the aim with a cause. The journalist will look for that Objective according to the expectations and superior interests of Common Welfare. It must be concrete, useful and fruitful to allow society take decisions. There will be times in which, by broadcasting information, the Objective seeks help or solution to the dramatic problem of a particular person, of a group or community, because it is not determined by the amount of people involved but for the social benefit that encourages. A mother or a wife claims for a child or a husband profaned in their legitimate rights; someone claims for an exceptional medicine; another does it for legitimate social justice. When in war, he will foster peace; in discouragement, hope; to misery, dignity; to injustice, vindication. The important is to take implicit the cause and the effect that assembles every information- message, for man and society welfare. That is why it has to be feasible and ethical; justified and creatively exposed. As with every hypothesis of Social Sciences, and for many reasons, the objective might be restated throughout the course of treatment of information-message and even after this has been broadcasted, feeding it back. The journalist professional, even though being responsible, is not infallible. Neither can he
Methodological Process PI 49foresee all the following, simultaneous,concurrent or modifying course contingencies ofinformation-message in its social displacement.Any Objective correction will do no other thanimprove professional management, adjusted tothe line of principles sustained by the Sense.The Objective, aim-effect of information-message public broadcasting, flexible in itsproposals and directions, does not do otherthan facilitate the destiny of all communication,responding to superior interests that are notthe journalist’s ones or the Media ones, butthey are always and only valid if they are theones of society that bring all into line.Further on Social Pedagogy of Information in“idea Journalism” will be added, in the 5° step(Message to Society), arranging a stableservice of human promotion.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 50 Return to SocietyTOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) Every Topic, which in one way or DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM another interests the Media as an issue SOCIETY- TREND of social event, must resolve in this 1 step the formal and organic aspects for analysis- area - covering 2 FAMILIARIZING documentation - objective public broadcasting. INWARDNESS In its evolution, it has received, 3 sense - objective through methodological treatment, not RETURN TO SOCIETY only informative ingredients. 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space Consequently, every information- length - sequence message is a structured piece “ad MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) intro” in order to constitute “ad extra”, inform – educate – guide make others think – promote as intellectual, moral and spiritual JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES support for man, who has to receive it 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data for any Mass Media. RESULT CONTROL This makes the formal 7 foreseeable course and effect institutionalization of information in full social relation. According to the mean and the characteristics through which broadcasting is made, the way to do it has to be resolved. The Media, according to the resources it has, its policies and style, and the responsible professional, is the one that has to decide the return and the most effective installation of such information in society. This implies specifying: the opportunity, genre, characteristics, format and intensity. All the indicators that have been accumulated are useful to support these decisions. Every journalistic structure should provide not only its material potentialities in these instances, but also the good use it can –and should- do of them; giving communication productions the resources of a dynamic, active and serious journalism, with scientific basis, research and methodology. The relation media- receptor is institutional, due to the demands it makes every Media comply with the transcendental role they are conferred, and at the same time, it is vital because it will provide information with an appropriate treatment,
Methodological Process PI 51 information with an appropriate treatment, documented and creative, thanks to the authorial participation of the professional.Media The universality of methodology encompasses all Media, formats and journalistic genre. Considering that fact, the presentation details will –creatively- define the recommended variations. Multimedia companies as well as news Agencies will give different treatment to the same topic, adapting them in form and language.Genre Determining the genre or journalistic expression that will formalize the information- message is essential for knowing how it will be developed. It is known that in journalism every genre or formal way of expression has its particularities. Such is the case of news, news in brief, interview, comment, column, editorial. It has been proved nowadays that there are not pure genres because in one way or another they are all interactive.Space – extension and sequence The Space – extension really refers to modalities and informative styles of each Media, and to the dimension given to each Topic. The Sequence refers to the evolution and potential guidelines to adapt its sustainability in the interest and for the interest of society. Knowing in which space and with which quantitative dimension the information- message will acquire its social displacement, is a main fact to adapt its preparation. This is determined by those that coordinate the contextualization of the media, including the evaluating team, the writing team, editors and
Methodological Process d NewsPI 52 journalistic producers; and also admit that the professional in charge of the topic can propose and defend to that matter, for the responsibility and authorship that relies on him. Determining the genre or form of expression chosen, is accompanied by the decision about the space it can cover. Anyway, its space-extension will have relation with the importance of its dimension, and certainly, with its final quality; reference that is common to all Means of Communication. It is very interesting to foresee a Sequence of topic sustainability, with successive information-messages, since it has explicit relation with the pursued Objective and possible alternatives. Information-message proposes a more applied development. This leads to questioning about the possibility of doing it in certain Media where information get a fast pace as in radio and television. Of course it is possible. The answer is positive from the substantial: if information is an intellectual, moral and spiritual support that ensures validity and credibility, its content can not be daily and elementary diminished. As regards the Sequence of a Topic, it is important to take some examples, and in the universal panorama we find countless of them. The case of an expansive contamination, natural catastrophes, disturbances, corruption, violence, absence of peace in a community or between nations, wars, etc. There are in all fields: social, political, economic, education, religious, cultural, sport. In all of them, the process of social communication, through the treatment of information as messages, is vital and essential; it contributes to human progress and welfare, sustaining the Topic to the top, according to the Sense and Objective determined by the professional responsibility and the Media.
Methodological Process PI 53 This does not mean denying that the treatment of information, before their multiplicity –by greater universal influx and fast traffic- demands in every moment a careful use of the time available in each mean, as well as all creativeness, art and design to make communication attractive; in other words, the modernization and contextualization of spaces. It is not less true that it does not correspond to establish the speed and quality antinomy of information as opposed and irreconcilable, because this would mean a loss of responsibility superior to communications as protecting good. It is untrue to sustain paradigmatically that so commonly used about the “tyranny of time” – that is claimed a lot on radio and television, more as an excuse than as a truth, in order to avoid improvisations-, since the demands of taking the truth to public opinion cannot be sacrificed and subdued to vices or other interests.Multimedia Journalism Protocol For self-managing and multimedia journalism we have developed the idea of multimedia journalistic protocols. Basis: “The change of time and the time of change” undeniable in this new century, determine the need for a responsible and creative journalism, innovative in response to these challenges. Therefore, the certainty and convenience of an appropriate planning that combines theory and practice of neo investigation Journalism in a methodic and methodological way for the
Methodological Process d NewsPI 54 treatment of relevant topics for society, and with that the scientific-social validity of them, with creativity and originality through the Journalistic Protocols. General Objective: strengthen training from our school, and promote interest in promoting and establishing Autonomous and Authorial Self- managing Journalism. Specific Objective: center in only one topic of investigation (particularly of social interest) and simultaneously assuming its knowledge in depth and the immediate journalistic productions, through and ordered series of articles and/or matrix multimedia productions for its broadcasting offer in a certain period. Basic Diagram: the Protocol requires an appropriate planning through its development in determined periods and following its stages: 1) Topic selection 2) Summary of the proposal or topic description 3) Justification of the topic 4) Formulation and posing of the problem for investigation, clarifying its object of study (framing it in space and time)
Methodological Process PI 55 Process Project design Opposition re-dimensions aproval Production and developmentFinal production and multimedia editionMultimedia formatsSummary for its social transmission: Topic-Central ideas- Revelations- Final multimediaproductionsPress*pages *picture/ pre headline *headline*nose *body matter*linksRadio*dialogue script *a page withsupport recording TV*audiovisualscriptInternet*adapted to the page design*idem press/it adds productionsInvestigation TopicsPolitical/ Social/ Economic/ Cultural/Educational/ Religious/ Specific Problems.People – CelebritiesLife StoriesRevelation of a townWhere they come from, where they go toWhat happens – Why it happens – Projectionsand proposals
Methodological Process d NewsPI 56 Message to SocietyTOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM Admitting the need for journalism to establish as a science, for its universal 1 SOCIETY- TREND analysis- area - covering character; everything that brings it FAMILIARIZING near a methodological effectiveness 2 documentation - objective will make it possible to improve or 3 INWARDNESS sense - objective utterly empower events of men’s daily problems, his intellectual, moral and spiritual faculties. RETURN TO SOCIETY 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space length - sequence Living conditions of our historical time MESSAGES TO SOCIETY have been modified so rapidly in their 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) entire spectrum that can not be inform – educate – guide make others think – promote diminished, and even less disregarded 6 JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE the bridge of information and formation indicative shape data that Mass Media represents, to 7 RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect preserve, perfection and expand the legitimate life quality of men. Journalistic, widening the field of rational knowledge of human events, about the how and why of things, can be summarize in the action of knowing how to think; to justify itself by making and letting others think through the treatment of socialized information. When establishing the Message in the information, it must be borne in mind that it is an action of thought, open to all big, pluralist, heterogeneous and anonymous society. In socialized communication by mass media, the relationship addressor-addressee is exceptionally particular, problematic and difficult because he has to make different beings think, those he does not know, and at the same time, stress through an appropriate pedagogy useful formative contributions that are possible for all of them to assimilate. A dilemma that in each case is resolved by the responsible professional of the treatment of the topic and it becomes one of the most formidable manifestations of communication between men. Thanks to the techniques, which
Methodological Process PI 57formidable manifestations of communicationbetween men. Thanks to the techniques, whichprovide and perfection the instruments moreand more extraordinary to expand thetransmission of these manifestations, and tojournalism that makes good use of suchresources to have less and less men that lackthis benefit.Definitely Mass and Means of SocialCommunication are real schools that shapepeople, therefore, they shape society with thehierarchy and quality of information, that is tosay, it has to give them properly treated,creatively vivid, actively presented.Then journalism acquires the inescapable andundeniable mission of showing and teaching bymeans of well elaborated information. Butadding Message, it has the mission ofpromoting, of lifting man to a superior destiny,without making any type of selection, becauseequalizing virtue of Mass Media is that they canbe offered in the same way to all men. And thatis formidable, because nothing must interferewith the substantial ethic and aesthetic oftransmission and reception. It is the ultimatesign of universality and man appraisal in all hisdignity as a human being. It is the merit oflooking for and projecting the man and world’struth, key and center of information. Truth thatis kindly horizontal and it is vertically qualifiedin depth and presentation, useful to all. This 5°step openly challenges the current process ininformation treatment at a national orinternational level.It is the key, because it is necessary totransform a classical trend, questioned by IdeaJournalism that wants to prove that it ispossible for information to be fruitful asmessage, pedagogical and cultural.When a Topic of local, regional or internationaloccur has been chosen to have public status,according to “Idea Journalism” theory, it has
Methodological Process d NewsPI 58 required a methodological treatment. It has stood out an information-message, since its cause has been found, foreseeing its social effect, reanimated with the life that a person, not a computer, has given to it. In this case, the professional journalist based on ethics, responsibility and methodic discipline faces with his professional character the concrete and cultural resolution of its production. He must structure the final message combining what must be the pedagogy. The preponderantly interesting is for the pedagogical action to be integrative of the concept unit and journalistic production making in each Media. That is to say, to be the permanently sustained tendency as preponderant and not being rigorously imposed and absolute in all information. There are some reasonable exceptions. There will be some cases – especially on radio and television journalism – in which pedagogical action seems much more difficult, as considered before, but we repeat that not all Topics in these dynamic media, for their intensity and speed, are finished in one transmission since they demand projection and sustainability. In this development there must be added the necessary components to cover the informative fruitfulness and the pedagogical as well. However, in most of multimedia manifestations with time and spaces of premeditation and daily, weekly or periodic journalistic edition, or less perishable as investigations, protocols, issues and documentaries, there would be no deep problem except the disvalue of clever excuses.
Methodological Process PI 59 Pedagogy of information-message informeducateguidemake others thinkpromote The pedagogical forms of information-message in “Idea Journalism” encompass five potential and interrelated components: inform, educate, guide, make others think and promote. They compose a flexible simultaneity that makes it possible to provide man and society with information, culture and promotion. The characteristic of each Topic and the way to tackle it, present it and sustain it by the media, will offer different possibilities. In some cases it will be feasible to combine all the pedagogical requirements of the method. In others, for justified reasons and obviousness, these will appear briefly. In each Topic, all related to present needs is informed. It is important that all that is informed must be responsibly objective. This instance is defined as classical support ofInform journalism: what happened, when, how, where, who, and that in our model it only constitutes a part. Applying the Area, Covering, Analysis, Documentation, Experts methodology, information will no longer run the risk of being incomplete “sub-information”, or “anti- information” harmful for its lack of substance. Clarified and enriched by its components, the “informing action” becomes consistent after solving its instances that have covered the event or issue, its context, cause, history, basis
Methodological Process d NewsPI 60 and joint updating as springs of sustainability and realization. Then what is informed, besides giving the objective informative scoop of the event, must become the solid core of its components that will help turning it into a message. Educate The educative action as every pedagogy that summarizes the art of teaching qualifies the Topics in the process of “Idea Journalism”, and aims at all information clarifying and teaching, confirming Media as schools that shape people. Information and informal education are connected in all communicative expressions of society by Mass Media. It concerns the journalist, responsible author of information treatment to incorporate systematically the clarifications and explanations that information requires, whenever necessary. According with the character of each Topic and its social relation with human problems, the educative factor, as intellectual vitamin, becomes clarifying and didactic in many ways, with encyclopedic support and common sense. It is worth mentioning some examples that justify pedagogic mediation of a professional regarding ideas and concepts as inflation, deflation, stand by, “country risk”, habeas corpus, epidemic, balkanization, xenophobia, HIV, euthanasia, cloning, life quality, atmospheric pressure, thermostatic sensation. Everything that educates assembles added values in this direction, and as such they are essential and excelling of a system that neglects them. Guide The treatment of Information with the Message category aims at its perfection adding the resource of guiding, systematizing the
Methodological Process PI 61 information-man-society relation. What is guiding? “To recognize the place where one is and determine a good path to avoid getting lost.” The receptive man, member of a society in continuous movement, precisely informed and honestly guided, will know better what to expect about a topic or event and consequently make decisions. There will be cases in which foreseeing that orientation would be simple to explain because it will arouse as a natural consequence of its content and relation with people’s expectations. However, there will be difficult cases in which the action of guiding will necessarily be the result of effort of inquiries to expert and related experts, and then creative and thought elaborations. In those cases, the journalist assumes the responsibility of guiding. “Recognizing the place were one is and determine a good path to avoid getting lost”, becomes a kind of axiom to guide information in its process as Message and it is valid for endless instances and languages in journalistic elaborations. The guiding influence that Media explicitly or implicitly practices gravitates in society; and as basic proof, it is enough to see the influence and guidance that information and weather forecast supposes. It is necessary to establish this instance as methodology in professional practice in a serious and responsible way, for every issue or topic that demands it. The journalist is forced to exert himself in order to pinpoint such operations.Make Others Think Thinking capacity is present in all communication for its nature and effects. Due to the role and the power that Mass Media practices, in journalism is more gravitating.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 62 Possibly this matter, for its subjective influence, is one of the most delicate ones to be considered in the frame of deontology in social communication because it is essentially supported in human nature and freedom of conscience, the axles for an authentic freedom of information. Meanwhile, we specifically care –within the “Idea Journalism” context – of that is more related with the professional practice in the treatment of public information, as part of the methodological theory that suggests a new composition of these. If the capacity of thinking is common to every man, the act and effect of making others think in the relation addressor-addressee by Media must have guidelines that ensure its well use and limitations. The problems of contemporary world offer many arguments to worry about survival and future of humanity, marked by courses of stressed unbalance. The overwhelming technology, the explosive social expectations, the advances and the contrasts, the conflicts that are seriously dimensioned in each nation and between nations, life expectations and the limitations that are imposed to it, make a serious, complex and difficult panorama. All this worries the man of our time – as it would have done for every time in all history- and it places people in sharp tensions that empower their thoughts. However, not all of them are hurtful problems; they are not all wounding and deplorable situations, but they cross the flow of communication in a fast and abundant form by the Media. Unfortunately, the diversity of encouraging and positive information for human progress and welfare are not enough to balance or prevail over the negative, and then, they do not prevail to modify courses and concepts.
Methodological Process PI 63Today’s man – especially in communities thatare more intensely supplied with information-finds himself burdened, discouraged for thisprevailing trends, that even though they arereal, they are not unique.Many times, when we ask ourselves how andwhat about man of our time thinks, it is easy toplace the answer according to the trends listedby the information transmitted. The bigheadlines of the daily Media use to be thedominant thought in people.Journalism that must be sustained in thepromotion of truth does not seem to know howor want to modify the hurtful trends. And it isnot about hiding discouraging facts aboutmiseries and conflicts that shake in our presenthistory.We are not interested in looking back. Andlooking ahead we can assure that journalismcan help man and society in a much moreeffective way, and practicing the power ofmaking others think from a humanist andhopeful vision, it can provide the necessary tobalance the knowledge of temporal events andat the same time, apply a determining line.One of the risks of the traffic of information,and of its wrong treatment is to allow manstagnate his thoughts, to uniform them,subdued to predominant trends, andunconsciously to cancel his capacity of thinkingwith autonomy and to empower his legitimateand deserved his intellectual, moral andspiritual expectations.In the treatment of each Topic, the elaborationof the information-message by itsmethodological deontology must allow andfacilitate the “make others think and letthem think”, for which the journalist must“know how to think.”The Media through journalism have cooperatedthrough the years, encouraging society in itsaccomplishment and achievement paths,
Methodological Process d NewsPI 64 broadcasting life and progress guidelines of other man and peoples that have made think and have lead to officially approve legitimate human rights, instead of imitating. The important is that every Topic, as it grows documentarily and creatively in the truth and vitality of information-message, is a trigger towards the extraordinary potential of every man thought, for all the man and for the men in freedom of consciousness. Herein, as novelty and cultural support, it acquires solvency in the sense of information- message: the values that are recognized or denied; man’s vision; society’s vision. Promotion Pedagogy, finally, must promote. Information must be now carrier of message: practical and concrete. The action of promoting through information is a new, methodic, methodological, creative and stable way. It is an action that demands reflection to consider what is at hand, which are just elementary components. With these only, information would keep a passive attitude. Even though it has been activated through the proposed pedagogy, it is appropriate now to turn it into something similar to a seed in which a new situation, a new proposal for society takes root, capable of joining others. Information-message puts journalism in the role of social promoter. Now, not only as the activator of echoes of human events –local, regional, international- and facilitator of social dialogue, but as able to balance it, able to select the best ideas useful for man and society’s superior promotion, and able to creatively incorporate them exciting attitudes. This way you promote. In methodology, this starts to be configured in the 3° step, the Objectives hypothesis.
Methodological Process PI 65The information that becomes message by theaction of promotion, certainly takes journalismto its consolidation as legitimate change factor. “Idea Journalism” states itself as reason and theory of transformation in human evolution by means of ideas that makes concrete before society.Even though journalism does not carry out thelittle and big changes of human process,nothing indicates that it has to quit promotingor defending them.For this to be feasible, it is previously requiredto activate a first major change: the one ofjournalism, in the area of academic training, inthe Media, in corporations and associations,and certainly in the journalist, and in societyitself that cannot resign to its rights and dutiesin this process.Such mental and behavior changes pave theway for the scientific, the human, the creative,in a new stage that clarifies journalism’suniversality.Every information that began as a topic,according to its origin, character andcomponents, that clarified locating the area;that was projected in its covering; that wasanalyzed and resolved in its continuation; thatwas familiarized with documentation andexperts and internalized in its sense andobjective; that later on set a broadcastingstrategy; that received a pedagogical treatmentin order to not only inform but also educate,guide, make others think and promotenecessary transformations for man and/orsociety; it constitutes an information-message.This is “Idea Journalism”.
Methodological Process d News PI 66 Journalistic Discourse in Information MessageTOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) We take in this step journalistic DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM discourse in information message: its SOCIETY- TREND styles and forms of external 1 analysis- area - covering expression. 2 FAMILIARIZING documentation - objective In almost all times, in the practice of journalism, writing and oratory have been privileged over the contents. This INWARDNESS 3 sense - objective RETURN TO SOCIETY concept has been questioned 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space throughout this book without the length - sequence intention of neglecting the essential MESSAGES TO SOCIETY value of aesthetic presentation and 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote rhetoric of information. We highlight that professional rigor can JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data not be limited to how to write for printed press, know how to talk for RESULT CONTROL 7 foreseeable course and effect audiovisual press, know how to fascinate with the images. Knowing how to write, sight-read, and attractively communicate, is vital for journalism, shock with all that, but substantially. Leave aside the neat literary care to eminently literary communication; leave writers them fables, novels, stories, and tales; leave graphic artists the designs; leave the audiovisual experts the spectacular shootings; and to us journalists to be the real professionals of intellectual architecture, methodic and methodological with an original style, with a central, clear and accurate journalistic discourse, full of content. Let’s be journalists, and in these functions, do not usurp others, even though we accept logical complementary combinations, and do not allow other professions to absorb or block ours. Our function is knowing how to evaluate, treat and elaborate information that are produced and that must be transmitted to humanity, with reasons, content, sense and objective; give them a pedagogy, with message; elevate them to the category of background intellectual
Methodological Process PI 67to the category of background intellectualsupport, more than for its forms.Information-message methodology has notcome out to solve the problem of finalpresentation of information, but to justify thebeginning, course and ending of every messageto society.The discourse will adapt to the type ofjournalistic expression according to the Media inwhich it takes place. Differences will be markedby themselves if it is on radio or television, forprinted press or for news informatics networks.Having as a referential base the contentsresolved by the methodology, the professionalwill write the piece of news, it will take it as aguide for his oral sight-reading; he will developthe notes, construct and guide his interviews,make the script, and so on and so forth,according to the Media, the genre or the mostappropriate language.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 68 Results Control This step labeled Results Control –TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) effect and foreseeable course- DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM demands reasons. 1 SOCIETY- TREND analysis- area - covering A great number of information with potential projection cannot be FAMILIARIZING 2 documentation - objective considered finished in their first INWARDNESS transmission, when they require 3 sustainability. sense - objective RETURN TO SOCIETY Only some issues journalistically 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS treated are sustained by the addressor, mean- genre – space length - sequence MESSAGES TO SOCIETY and in general these cases often show 5 interests or intentions, sometimes MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote good and others doubtful or JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES dangerous. 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data It is not right to make Topic 7 RESULT CONTROL sustainability dependant on interested foreseeable course and effect or purely pragmatic or isolated attitudes because this way society will continue exposed to manipulations. The tenacity and virtuosity of some Media and of some journalists can not be ignored. They have known how to make formidable campaigns with certain topics, supporting them until the reach their objectives. But even though these cases historically collected are countless, it would be easy to prove that were only in certain cases and not as a consequence of a moral imperative and a methodological rigor for all the Topics they gave for that. Which has been the reason? Simple: there is not as a moral imperative and as a method, the prevision of a journalistic management control, that is what in this stage and its development is pretended to be introduced, strengthening a communicative strategy. Foreseeable course and effect There are topics promoted to information that are finished in one transmission. There will be
Methodological Process PI 69others- even though they did – that did notdeserve to be broadcasted. But if we proposedto order ideas and ensure information anobjective –especially in those important onesfor man and society – the circuit of journalisticmanagement through information-messagewould be completed only when such objectivehas been achieved, shaped enough, ordisregarded and replaced by reasons.It is not to rush supposing that what isproposed is the mounting of a bureaucratic,pernicious and utopist structure for informativeorganization. What is simply pretended is not toquit to a social responsibility and to objectivesbeing compensators and that they justify theexpectations that society puts in socialcommunication.Results Control in some cases will refer toimmediate effects, in others, for the type ofinformation, it will not be necessary.Here we deal with those specific and joint topicsthat by their own nature require attention andcontinuity. Resigning or omitting theircontinuation and results control would givecomfort to the professional, simplifying hiseffort, removing his responsibility. But it mustbe thought whether a man or many men havebeen left with frustrated hope.Information has known how to constitute asmessages. They are like doves willing to flyhigh and far, and that way get to a trusting aimas the journey of its trip. If it does not get tothe aim –that is the Objective-, as a carrierpigeon would, is because someone arbitrarilyinterrupted it or intentionally locked it away.Results Control requires updated interest.Sometimes repeating the proposal; other times,resettling the focus, correcting the objective,adapting it for its perfection.The exploration of information developmentthat is launched to public opinion, measuring itsforeseeable courses, calculating its effects and
Methodological Process d NewsPI 70 controlling its results, is a responsibility inherent to the most categorical professional function of journalists. The way to do it will also depend on the available resources and the way to administrate them. Lately, the new information technologies make it possible to develop excellent and dynamic programs to control these processes.
PI 71Tables of JournalismReferential structure and guidelinefor selection, configuration andinformation-message projection inthe Methodic and Methodologicaljournalistic process
Tables of Journalism d NewsPI 72 Of Formal Categories Table N° 1: Surprising Events Table N° 2: Foreseen Events Table N° 3: Joint Documents Table N° 4: Independent Opinions Table N° 5: Permanent Information Table N° 6: Rumors and Versions Of Values Table N° 7: Permanent Priorities Table N° 8: Regional Priorities Table N° 9: The Human Being Table N° 10: The Family Table N° 11: The National State Table N° 12: The Community Table N° 13: The Province or Federal State Table N° 14: The Immediate Inter- provincial Region Table N° 15: The Country as Geographical Unit Table N° 16: The Region of Neighboring Countries Table N° 17: The Region of Countries of the Continent Table N° 18: All the Countries and Regions of the Universe
Tables of Journalism PI 73Causes The Tables are interceptors of a communicational conflict: the torrent of News and Topics the journalism has to face daily, the gathers fast, nourished by the most diverse sources, creating the need of selection that cannot be disordered or of pure intuition or routine, conscious, logical, systemic and vital. We know – following the methodological development of Idea Journalism- which the requirements that each Topic has to fulfill are, to access the category of information-message and be able to acquire public broadcasting. But the problem is not all solved with that, facing the multiplicity of information. One thing is to resolve why and how to promote a piece of information by its interest and composition; and another is how to distinguish and integrate it with the rest in the universal context. We propose an orientation for this, with a range of priorities and requirements –inquiries, references and categories- taking into account the immense and versatile spectrum of events, in which News and Topics are revealed, that take us from one place to the other, with characters, consequences, causes and emotions, similar and different, representing this way the fascinating and even more complex universe of the events that are offered to Journalism. It is necessary to respond with a referential systematization, that orders categories and values that makes the decision of selecting information stronger and quieter. The main starting point is acknowledging that each Media –except some News Agencies, Internet and Multinational Projects- is primarily a local service, not only for its location, but for representing the cultural and identity expectations of each people.
Tables of Journalism d NewsPI 74 Concept The “Tables of Journalism”, complement and facilitate the central core of “Idea Journalism” through a Referential and Methodological Guide. They facilitate the vital systematization for the development of information, according to the sense of “Idea Journalism” that does not point at closed models of informative organization. It is a Methodological Guide constituted by a minimal number of rules that can be followed along with other universals in journalism and that can be enriched innovatively with other efforts.
PI 75 Tables Formal CategoriesIt is Journalism’s duty, in its competence andpractice of its mission, to consider the whole ofinformative proposals that it is given in the courseof local and universal events.It is its obligation to serve public through media,giving it all that it needs of its information asintellectual, moral and spiritual support: about allthat happens, about the foreseeable and novelty,and about that, which is not new anymore, stillcreates particular expectations in peoples that keepgreater information and contents for necessaryupdating and cultural feedback.It will be offered as solved in a coherent way fromJournalism, the type of Proposals (whether News orTopics) that are certainly justified to be madepublic, and consequently with what type oftreatment.It all concerns to professional knowledge, but notnecessarily all has to become public information.The application of Idea Journalism, which implies amethodological process of Familiarization and
TablesPI 76 Inwardness, does not exclude any proposal from analysis before making it public. It is a holistic proposal, and not a close methodology that proposes the following Table of Formal Categories applicable to matters and issues, concrete or fortuitous, aiming at a better organization. 1°) Surprising Events 2°) Foreseen Events 3°) Joint Documents 4°) Independent Opinions 5°) Permanent Information 6°) Rumors and Versions This listing, merely representative, seeks to adjust and characterize what is habitually considered, detailing its meaning and the reason for its framing in Categories. The order must also be considered flexible. A permanent order cannot be ensured because it will all depend on the evolution of each piece of News or Topic, of the concrete interest it represents before professional and/or media judgment, that is by which it will be decided its promotion or rejection, location, time, sustainability, etc. However, this order is proposed here as the most appropriate for journalistic communication. N° 1 Surprising Events Nothing authorizes to modify the universal idea – and more or less shared everywhere- that news is all that registers an event or outstanding announcement, of immediate interest for society, channeled through Media
Tables PI 77that distinguishes it as priority, when it isproduced surprisingly and suddenly.It usually occupies a prime place in itstreatment and broadcasting, always that thecritical analysis concludes that it deserves it.When applying the “Idea Journalism”methodology, surprising news taken toInformation-Message do not diminish itsnovelty, neither the media its capacity tocommunicate it.In the case of a radio station, media thatcharacterizes for its instantaneity, the piece ofNews must be graduating in all its contents astime goes by, preserving its qualities, either byanticipating it in newsflash, unfolding it in newsbulletin and panorama, and even dealing with itin opinion spaces.This implies rejecting the conception thatjournalism on radio must limit to Newsheadlines or news brief, leaving to newspapersits extensive treatment. This way, thepedagogical process of information would becancelled, and the professional and responsiblepractice of radio journalism would be quitted.The same happens on television, even more bythe audiovisual effect. In graphic media(newspapers and journalistic magazines), andparticularly in modern informatics networks(Internet) due to the greater time they have tointroduce News, they must compensate with amore elaborated treatment, to take competitiveadvantage over instantaneous media.Anyway, the first place given to “SurprisingNews” is logical, taking care of the categoricalfunction of the mass media, ready tocommunicate faster and more responsibly, allthe novelties of sudden events, complying withtheir priority of service.a) InformationBroadcasting sudden News is only a part of
Tables d NewsPI 78 Information-Message. Around that bit of News, other complementary, central or peripheral information can be obtained, about the event and its origin, information that every journalistic management should take care to constitute a solid piece. They are complementary. In cases of simultaneity with the piece of News or when it is almost simultaneous. b) Echoes It often happens that after a piece of News is known and highlighted, with the appropriate treatment in the Information-Message process, derives and requires echoes in and of different levels included by its influence in society. This is related with the Area and the Covering, explained in the 1° Step (Society Trend) of Theory and Methodology I, in the first part of this book, referring to the initiation and movement of News. Echoes encompass the effective consequences of News and the representative and pertinent opinions, explicitly generated or required to those involved and to experts. c) Topics A surprising, sudden piece of News, can exhaust the novelty and informative circuit, but at the same time generate argumentatively by its cause, context and/or process of a recreation Topic. The decision comes from the fact that once turned into Topic; it will receive a preferential treatment from Journalism in any of its expressions, without going through the competitive news track, which in this case is replaced by the quality and depth of a new perspective, with a strategy and genre different from that of News.
Tables PI 79Take this example: “Vices of improvising in thesecurity system of a metropolitan airport causea catastrophe”. The piece of News is thecatastrophe that the media broadcasts rapidly,and in simultaneous or successive way, newinformation, echoes or opinions that exhaustthis piece of News must be gathered.But due to this piece of News, a Topic arises:the security system in the airport/s of thecountry and this is, for its importance, whatJournalism must investigate deeply, andpromote for the welfare of the society it serves.This leads to determine as necessary thatbehind important News, it is always possible topromote important Topics.N° 2 Foreseen EventsIn the process of journalistic interest events, itis marked the difference between what issurprising –dealt in the previous Table- andwhat is foreseeable, which implies anotherCategory.The foreseen is for Journalism every event orhappening that is known in advance and can beannounced by the media itself, or presented tomedia from public or private fields, throughinstitutional communications, Press agencies,etc.When that anticipated information about anevent or happening is covered – in order ofjournalistic competence-, journalism will belooking for the newsworthy, the novelty anduseful of that event, and even attentivelywaiting for the sudden, as very feasible.With the foreseen news, it is much easier toeffectively deal with the event and its context,in such a way that can be communicated topublic opinion with the maximum of qualitiesrequired by Information-Message.
Tables d NewsPI 80 a) Information b) Echoes c) Topics N° 3 Joint Documents Joint Documents are all written, oral or audiovisual pieces, representative and originated from an organized sector of society. Certain Joint Documents (declarations, messages, laws, speeches, etc.) are naturally, in some cases, instances in the field of Surprising News or Foreseen News that frequently get to media, posing a question about its newsworthy force, priority and the treatment it should be given. Valuing every Joint Document is a responsible act in Journalism every time it is presented. Nothing forces to justify by itself its broadcasting in-extent through public communication. A Joint Document is subjected to the same methodological evaluation –MIM*- of any News and Topic, and can constitute in Information-Message – if it has the required conditions. It is appropriate to point out that a Joint Document (especially when it comes from State jurisdictions, from its officers, from institutions, from its hierarchies, from social organizations and their leaders or qualified experts) must be calibrated in its importance according to its origin, content, influence and possible interest of society. In general, many Joint Documents are prepared for a certain purpose, which is not primarily journalistic, even though the media is required for its broadcasting to society. The media should distinguish between what is facilitating *Manipulation Interceptor Module
Tables PI 81its public installation, inevitably using itsresources, and possibly for its superior interestfor society, and what is considering andtreating that Joint Document methodologicallyin the Journalistic process.In the first case, it may not be journalistic andeven be broadcasted in non journalistic spacesof the media, such is the case of the“solicitudes”, whereas in the second case, thedemand to gather the treatment qualities mustbe complied (critical, active and creativeanalysis).The space given to Joint Documents will dependon their real importance. Not only as regardsjournalistic forms – accuracy, syntax, etc. - butalso for their importance for society. It mayhappen that, certain Documents require all thenecessary space – texts of laws and decrees;State doctrines; exception recommendationsfor population safety and welfare; messagesand speeches, etc.However, nothing disregards the simultaneousor following application of Information-Messageand of these Journalism Tables: a) Information b) Echoes c) TopicsN° 4 Independent OpinionsIn the recurrence that Journalism does toobtain opinions in society about any type ofNews – Surprising or Foreseen- and of JointDocuments, social conversations with experts(protagonists or experts related to the events)are usually collected. These are known by theirforms or genre, as reports or interviews andthey are useful for any massive expression of
Tables d NewsPI 82 social communication: written press, radio, television, cinematography, journalistic informatics, investigations, etc. For many Journalism teachers, the report summarizes one of the most interesting and fundamental resources of professional management, since it allows practicing its main virtue: inquiry and testimonial social conversation that is in fact what really matters to readers and audiences because it allows the validation and credibility of communication processes. But as they are required in relation to News, events and Documents of public concern, rumors and versions, journalism can create the generation of Opinions, independently of what is motivated by them. Independent Opinions come from relevant characters by their social influence. It is also a common practice and already institutionalized that the Journalist as a habit or due to a topic, becomes responsible of assuming his own opinions, practicing the methodological analysis, using the MIM- Thinker. In this Table of Categories, we only call “Independent Opinions” to those that in certain journalistic spaces allow society, through its representative characters, contributing in the promotion of Topics that had not been installed in the field of massive communication until then, undiscovered as regards Surprising or Foreseen News; or exhuming that way some neglected ones in every day life. This way, the range of journalistic activity broadens, beyond what is News for surprising or foreseen events, and facilitates and balances all social event novelty, as a way to justify more accurately the role of media, as for their influence, they work as real schools for shaping people, forum of resonance of all social and human process, participant of a better
Tables PI 83promotion of society.The methodological treatment is the same tothe one in our Methods and Tables.N° 5 Permanent InformationMass media with journalistic proposals cannotremain limited to joint News or exceptionTopics.All the same they are forced to daily andupdated information-service, the ones that inthis Table are labeled “Permanent Information”,analogically considered of service and stable.No media is excluded.It would be appropriate, using popularparaphrasing, to use a classic allusion, saying:“Not only of surprising News can a man live”.He is also intellectually and socially nourished,by public broadcasting, with facts andmessages, permanent and necessary ascommunication service.The same usually happens in almost all media,when the time and weather forecast are given,the forecast is announced, the information isupdated in traffic routes, etc. These areexamples that social communication maintainsas service Information in almost all parts of theworld.Within the process of Information-Message in“Idea Journalism”, new forms of treating andenriching service information have beenproposed, as part of Social CommunicationPedagogy, as in the case of giving the localtime and at the same time add the time ofanother country, signaling its geographiclocation, distance, season. There is a service(local time) and there is a piece of Information-Message of cultural character that methodicallythroughout the day allows endless relations andsuccessive contributions, until it goes all around
Tables d NewsPI 84 the universe; but there are many other creations and examples. About this Permanent Information (service) that can be included in informative spaces or in other varied spaces and places (according to whether they are radio, television or printed media), this Table of Categories, not only seeks to qualify and suggest new qualities, but also proposes explicitly the search for varieties, which may be satisfied by means of mass communication, bearing in mind that all “Permanent Information”, even being Information-Service, can be elevated to the category of Information-Message. Condition of linking Routes Weather condition and forecast Irregular work of public service and transportation Etcetera N° 6 Rumors and Versions This Table of Categories deals with the formal aspects of Information-Message; in that versatile and controversial strip that encompasses Rumors and Versions. Acknowledging the fragility and risks of Rumors and Versions, it cannot be denied that from the murmur of society, great truths and fundamental expectations can arise. And that murmur of society, in many cases, is expressed through Rumors and Versions. As you can infer from the reading of all that “Idea Journalism” encompasses – including its Deontology-, Rumors and Versions should not be promoted by mass media communication, until they are verified or until responsible, solid
Tables PI 85and/or credible supports have been found.They cannot be ignored either, because it istrue that Journalism, in all ages, has been incharge of institutionalize, even with formalspaces, its versions and rumors. Regarding thejudgments for and against will continue dividedthroughout the times and even balanced, whatforces continuing their consideration and notmargining them.However, we are here dealing with rumors andversions relatively logical and verifiable in theiroriginal expression, and that is the case forcollecting and taking them into account, to givethem the appropriate treatment and attentionafterwards, under rigorous methodology.Journalistic ethics summarizes the incorporationand the way they should be treated, and thetechnique is the one proposed in “IdeaJournalism”, in its Methodologies I and II.The threats of Rumor or Version are falsity andits resulting damage. “Idea Journalism” is clearenough about this: nothing is true while it isnot true. Journalistic truth is the oneguaranteed by its validity.Create a rumor or falsely launch a version is aneasy task saturated with premeditation orirresponsibility. If it is not possible to avoid it,and it has already been transmitted to society,even when its inconsistency or falseness hasbeen proved, it has to be covered to avoid itsdamages.If hiding it is the chosen option – even beingpublic- because it is false, journalism would beleaving public opinion to its own fate beforefalseness.It is vital and important to know how to treat aRumor or Version that is already broadcasted insociety when its falseness has been proved, fibor, that in itself is dangerously feeble.In such cases it must be done in a way thatdoes not favor the intention pursued by thosethat launched the falseness or threatening
Tables d NewsPI 86 News. The Rumor and Version included as Categories in these Tables encompasses only all that in one way or another – true or false- motivated real interest in society. “Idea Journalism”, through the theory and methodology of Information-Message, facilitates the means to solve the dilemma. Table of Values N° 7 Permanent Priorities “Idea Journalism” is constructed from the events in Society for an addressee and concrete apex that is man as a human being, whoever he is and wherever he is. All man and every man reinstalled and reinstalling the Sense of Human Rights. It is naturally followed by its main community, which is the Family, and then the organization of men in society and as nations. It is mass media that has to feel obliged to recognize and respect a range of universal values for the selection, treatment and promotion of Topics. Here are its substantial proposals: Human Being Family as a Vital Cell of Society The State Organized for Common Welfare The Community of Nations’ Brotherhood for their Neighboring, Solidarity and Continental Idiosyncrasy All the Universal Community of Nations in their Ways of Cohabitation and Solidarity
Tables PI 87N° 8 Regional PrioritiesEvery piece of news or topic that will constituteInformation-Message in the process of publicbroadcasting by the media and from the Mediaand its geographic location must be selectedand promoted, observing an order, according toits origin and influence (Character, Area,Covering).These regional priorities – which may varyaccording to the geopolitical organization ofeach nation-, are proposed as follows: The Community, Town or City The Communities, Towns or Neighboring Cities The Province or Federal State The Immediate Inter-provincial Region The Country The Region of Bordering Countries The Region of Continental Countries All the Countries of the Universe RegionsN° 9 The Human BeingWith the previous Tables, Journalism isestablished in its field of action and as supportin human development through socialcommunication.Now, instead, the selection and search for Newsand Topics that must be broadcasted asInformation-Message according to contents andpotentialities must be characterized withreasons, values and principles.It is logical and frequent to ask oneself as ajournalist: which news is chosen and which oneis disregarded? Why? Where are the News andTopics pending for discovery and treatment?Why?
Tables d NewsPI 88 This “Table” proposes cultural guidelines to think, what can be answered to such professional questions. News – as Topics- apparently abound, but it must be decided, it must be found in its true sap. What does it nourish from? Where is it? Regarding Human Being 1) Everywhere and anywhere: Not just in preferred places, or at certain times of the day, or even less in just one social layer. The human being always presents the richness and novelty of his nature, due to the exalted dignity that belongs to him in his inseparable duality body and spirit; this reason turns it into an endless source of News and Topics, through which updates its own intrinsic novelty, without any reduction of his physical, cultural, social, economic or religious condition. 2) Where difficulties and violations attempt against human being: Nobody can deny the existence of problems and difficulties, but when they violate or are against growth of human being in freedom, dignity and equality, they deserve a particular dimension in journalistic spaces of means of social communication, in order to restore them and/or overcome them: “All crimes against life itself, such as homicides, genocide, abortion, euthanasia and voluntary suicide itself; all that profanes human being’s integrity, such as mutilation, physical or mental torture, even attempt of mental coercion; all that offends human dignity, such as inhuman living conditions, arbitrary detentions, deportation, slavery, prostitution, drug dealing and teenagers, as well as some ignominious labor conditions, in which the worker is treated as a mere object for profit and not as a free and responsible person; all this and other analog plagues certainly are sores that hurt human
Tables PI 89civilization; they actually diminish those thatbehave in such ways more than those whosuffer injustice”.3) Where solutions promote human being:The contributions and solutions daily revealedor discovered in the process of humanitythrough journalistic management, whether theyare social, cultural, religious, political,economic, technical, scientific, artistic, etc.conquests, must be prioritized equally,highlighting them, communicating them. Butthose conquests, contributions or solutions thatin an unequivocal way are aimed at integrativeand humanizing welfare of the person must behighlighted in a very special way.4) Poles of reference:If it is about taking care of the pain andanguish of human being, as well as his joys,expectations and hopes, as main epicenter ofPermanent Priorities (Table N° 7), it is worthmaking the effort to determine clues that fastlead Journalism to the poles of information insuch sense that they are not others but thepoles of Human Rights.Reflecting these poles in an inventory andlocation of physical objects, programmed in acomputing center (informatics) is similar tomaking a résumé of information, by simpleassociation of the place it is about:Sources of lifeSources of workSources of housingSources of educationSources of healthSources of moralitySources of religionSources of restSources of securitySources of cultureSources of solidarityEndless sources of promotion
Tables d NewsPI 90 Etcetera. Journalistic management that shows, excels, denounces, announces or proposes, will try to intercept or relieve the pain and anguish of men, and promote hope. “Idea Journalism” turns information into messages, doing more than announcing or denouncing. In the case of Man, elevate him, which is not just examining his events, but co- help in their responsibility and participation: “But man would hardly reach to that sense of responsibility, unless living conditions allow him take conscious of his own dignity. Human freedom generally weakens when man falls in extreme poverty, in the same way it degrades when he lets himself lead for an extremely comfortable life, he locks himself in a sort of golden isolation. On the contrary, it strengthens when man accepts the unavoidable needs of social life, he makes responsible for the multiple existences of human association and compromises for community service. Therefore, there must be stimulated in all the will for assuming their role in common companies”. The 24 hours of men as human being are 24 hours under journalism protection, caring for life, for development, for participation, for responsibility and for that person’s welfare. N° 10 The Family The Family is a vital cell in all society. The pluralist society of humanity only separated by geographic, political, ideological, idiomatic boundaries or by other diverse demarcations, in spite of all that, it is Universal because it is
Tables PI 91common ground of the most primitive ofgroups. At the same time, it is theunquestioned essential organization becausefrom the couple generates People.It is admitted that public information that get tosociety by media, characterized as big,heterogeneous and anonymous audience, has apreponderant individual influence; it cannot beunknown that public information has then itspreponderant place of analysis or feedback inthe first little society that is the family, andfrom it to the big society. The reason is simple:Mass media do not shorten or prepare theircontents for only one biological or sociologicalstrip of society, but they have to think in all itscomponents. In the big and small ones, inparents and in children. And so on, it can besaid that they always bear in mind, explicitly orimplicitly, first, the basic core of society, whichis the Family, and not a disordered group ofcreatures.Television – the most interesting discovery anddevelopment as a mean of massivecommunication of the XX century- is the mostappropriate vehicle for this reflection. Is it ornot a mean created for the Family?It is, and something similar happens to radioand newspaper, and in less degree, to Internet,cinematography, theater and literature.Being information eminently social, we canconclude that journalistic information are bornas news or topics anywhere and come backfrom anywhere, they shelter in each Family,where they start to become valid opinions thatwill determine the march or countermarch ofsociety.The concept that wants to be proved andstrengthen with all this is that if information issheltered in Families and from there it grows, isbecause the greatest topics of information arein Families: the ones of society that theyconstitute as vital cell, and the ones of human
Tables d NewsPI 92 being that exists within himself as nowhere else. Then, which are some of the main “Permanent References” that assemble the Information- Message and the Family? Where to wait or search for news and topics? 1) Anywhere and anytime: Not just in preferred places or at certain times of the day: The Family in its natural habitat, which is the home The Family in its extension habitat, which is the society Social organization before Family 2) Recommendation of topics, merely listing Youth and the access to marriage Couple before marriage Matrimony and birth Big families Couples that cannot have babies Family with adopted children Family and culture Family with problems to educate its children The child in the family The youth in the family The elderly and the family Family and the school Family and university Publicity, propaganda and the family Programs in mass media and family Family and salaries State and family Family and the problem of unemployment Family and housing Social organization policies and the family Family and violence Family and sex Family and prostitution Corruption and family Family and drug addiction
Tables PI 93 Family and health Family and psychiatric problems Jails, the inmate and the family Concubines and family The society of the ones without family The family and the moral and material indigenceFamily and the excesses to material abundance Family and weekends Family and vacations Community and family Family and Maternities (Institutions) Birth promotion and the family Social foresight and family Family dissoluteness Family and judicial power Family, moral and religion Family, field of human promotion, shaper of people.N° 11 National StateIt is known and necessary that corresponds toNational State, for common well-being, tooccupy and practice the role that belongs to itin such sense.“The men, the families and different groupsthat constitute the civil community are aware oftheir own incapacity to have a life plentifullyhuman and they perceive the need for abroader community, in which all combine, dayafter day, their strengths for a constantimprovement of common well-being”*.“It is for this that they form a politicalcommunity according to different types. Butthere are many and different men that are in apolitical community and can legitimately bendto diverse solutions. Consequently, in order toavoid spoiling political life because everybody
Tables d NewsPI 94 has his own opinion, it is essential an authority capable of leading the mass of citizens’ energy towards common welfare, not in a mechanic or despotic way, but, above all, working as a moral force based on freedom and responsibility of each one”*. “Also following the practice of political authority to be within the community as such or of institutions that represent the State, it has to be carried out within the boundaries of moral order, in order to secure common welfare, understood in a dynamic way and according to juridical order legitimately established or about to be established. It is then that citizens are forced, consciously, to obey and from there the display of responsibility, dignity and importance of those that govern”*. “As regards concrete modalities, by which political community gives itself the structures and organizes public powers, they can be many according to the each town idiosyncrasy and the march of its history; but it has to aim always at shaping a cultivated , pacifist and benevolent man as regards the others for the advantage of all human family”*. Means of social communication are precisely the ones that, particularly through the expressions of Journalism, practice the treatment of information, with these as a message, who have to alert to justify and consolidate that common well-being, in accordance with the legitimate and organic structures of the political community, every town idiosyncrasy and its historical process, helping to shape cultivated, pacifist and benevolent men, for the benefit of all humanity; watching over to make it possible; taking care of the practice of liberties and responsibilities in an authentic democracy. Emphasizing the excelling of common welfare in our judgment can be briefly defined as the
Tables PI 95mass of spiritual and material conditions thatfavor the total development of human being.Applied concretely this generic definition tojournalistic affairs, we sustain that commonwelfare in the field of social communications isall communicative action of information thatirreversibly tend to favor, stimulate, increase,encourage and develop cultural and socialconditions that allow man, any man, havingmore to be more and not having for not being.This Table does not intent to be a referencecode, but guidelines can be drawn as examplein that daily and close relation of those valuesin order to be crosschecked in the selection andpromotion of News and Topics:1) Knowledge and control of the DemocraticState organization as a juridical- moralorganism permanent for the temporal;2) Knowledge and control of the sense ofcommon welfare, virtues and limits of libertiesand responsibilities;3) The State promoting active cooperation ofall citizens;4) The citizens respecting their responsibilitieswith the State for common well-being;5) The State avoiding and controlling abuses,corruption, chaos or any type of opposition,impunity, immorality or experience in thecommunity;6) The State protecting – and not absorbing –the person, the family and the intermediatesocieties;7) The State and its firmness in the practice oflegitimate and necessary authority;8) The State protecting in society the lifefreedom of people and controlling any type ofcertain damage to common well-being;9) The State guaranteeing common welfare asbelonging to everyone and each one. As agroup of conditions of social life that makespossible for associations and each one of their* Documents of Puebla and Gaudium et Spes.
Tables d NewsPI 96 members the most plentiful and easier achievement of their own perfection; 10) Every action of the State, political, economic, cultural and social, leading to social well-being; 11) The State facilitating the citizens the necessary solutions for its total development: material, intellectual, social, moral and religious; 12) The State and common well-being as the basis that supports society on the final criterion of political life, rule of authority, reason of being the law and keystone of all legislation”. N° 12 The Community The community, municipality, City Government – such is the case of Capital Federal – Argentine Republic- etcetera, result as the political, judicial and moral structure of the State in a more local condition for every geographical area of the Nation, and it has certain roles according to the model of organization. It takes particular functions and it can be said that it represents the surname of each city or town, its neighborhood prestige and façade. But that condition of major neighbor entity – that is to say of families and people – forces the municipality or community to a real relation with their people; and to the Media structurally placed in their jurisdiction, as main service and local voice through the journalistic activity; they are in charge of collecting neighbors’ expectations, news and burning topics, assemble them with community action and agree on a vital and creative broadcasting. It is also necessary in this case to guideline the “Permanent References”, adding them to the ones finished in previous chapters:
Tables PI 971) Knowledge and control of organization andstructure of the community or municipality, inall its areas of action, opinions and resolutions;2) Knowledge and control of the neighbors’organizations intermediate associations ofcommunity or municipality boundary;3) The community or municipality in itsobligations of assistance and physical, moraland social service to the town or city;4) The community or municipality giving andreceiving neighbors’ cooperation, asfundamental immediate structure in the Stateorganization, paying attention specifically to therequirements of people belonging to itsjurisdiction, but prevailing these as a group offamily units.N° 13 The Province or Federal StateThe human being together with other or othersform a family that finds shelter in a house,adjoining this with others, they make aneighborhood, and all together in an specificlocation, they make a community ormunicipality that together with othercommunities or municipalities with boundariesconstitute a province or Federal State thatoccupies an specific geographic territory; whatis more, it is characterized by its idiosyncratic,historical and evolutional reasons within eachNation.The means of social communication that arepreferably a local service for each place, -stressed on these Tables - , reaches anappropriate and fair dimension when theyserve, not only respecting local needs asregards universal information, but also keepinglocal preferences, and at the same time,respecting the idiosyncrasy, history, customs
Tables d NewsPI 98 and characteristics of an entire provincial community. Each province or federal state offers particularities, being and making rich its news and topics spectrum, always that media exists in that territory and practices the concept of balance to assist with a sense of unity and equality all the events of the province, highlighting needs and advances. Each province or federal state has a political organization, which orders and leads common welfare of society according to its structure and in harmony with the national State one. News and topics selection and searching, for journalism that is interested in all that happens or that wait in the province, it is framed in its territorial body, its nature and its people. In this sense, this “Permanent References” can be controlled; they facilitate the organization to administrate News and Topics, to select, to find: 1) Knowledge and control of the organization and structure of the provincial state, in all its areas of action, opinion and resolutions; 2) Knowledge and control of the organization and relation between the national state and the province; 3) Knowledge and control of the intermediate structures of social organization; 4) Knowledge and control of idiosyncrasy, tradition, customs, history and character of the province; 5) Knowledge and control of the different jurisdictions of towns and regions of the province. From their capital cities and the most important ones, to the smallest ones, regardless their extension level, inhabitants or development. 6) Knowledge and interest for the characteristics of each zone, their potentialities, needs and longings, in their nature as well as in
Tables PI 99the cultural, social, political, economic, moraland religious; their celebrations, history,costumes and tradition.N° 14 The Immediate Inter-provincialRegionThe more the geographic perimeter broadens inthe information process, the jealous demandsbroaden.The flow of News and Topics that move andpoint to the social means of communication,immense, endless, presents among its diverserisks the one of altering the criterion to valuepriorities.This may happen when we arbitrary give in tothe impulse of choosing News and Topics,according to the immediate effective impact oftheir content. They can be valuable for theircause, but at the same time not valuable intheir effects. Neither is that News and Topics ofremote origin in physical distance to the placeor territory that the means of socialcommunication covers, or at the same time,imposing that costume or trend, more sensitiveor emotional than intellectual, those News orTopics move and occupy the informative spaceof others with less impact, but regional. This isthe reason why on Table N° 8 “RegionalPriorities” are proposed and an order isprogressively set in stages, which give locationto the immediate inter-provincial region,constituted with neighboring provinces barelyseparated by the tangents of nationalgeography, but surely linked by migratoryrelation, economic, cultural, educativeexchanges, etc.To all that was exposed, these “PermanentReferences” are added, as complementaryideas:
Tables d NewsPI 100 Inwardness, does not exclude any proposal from analysis before making it public. It is a holistic proposal, and not a close methodology that proposes the following Table of Formal Categories applicable to matters and issues, concrete or fortuitous, aiming at a better organization. 1°) Surprising Events 2°) Foreseen Events 3°) Joint Documents 4°) Independent Opinions 5°) Permanent Information 6°) Rumors and Versions This listing, merely representative, seeks to adjust and characterize what is habitually considered, detailing its meaning and the reason for its framing in Categories. The order must also be considered flexible. A permanent order cannot be ensured because it will all depend on the evolution of each piece of News or Topic, of the concrete interest it represents before professional and/or media judgment, that is by which it will be decided its promotion or rejection, location, time, sustainability, etc. However, this order is proposed here as the most appropriate for journalistic communication. N° 1 Surprising Events Nothing authorizes to modify the universal idea – and more or less shared everywhere- that news is all that registers an event or outstanding announcement, of immediate interest for society, channeled through Media that distinguishes it as priority, when it is
Tables PI 101in the geographical and political composition ofthe country, which is integrated by all provincialstates, there is a case of justified interest;regardless the distances: the place where theCapital of the Country is settled.Not as regards the News and Topics of generalcharacter from that zone and its people precedeor leave behind similar ones from zones thathave been marked as priorities (thecommunity, neighboring communities, theprovince, neighboring provinces, provinces ofthe region) but to that which means relationwith the events due to the location of thenational government, of intermediate andprivate national organizations, that usuallycoincide in placing their headquarters.N° 16 The Region of NeighboringCountriesThe News and Topics of foreign origin offer tothe means of social communication, generallythrough News Agencies and internationalMedia, and in less degree throughcorrespondent, what makes possible to verifythe common unity in only one universe,delegating to journalism the most formidableenterprise: the notable intercommunication ofhumanity.Nobody as journalism, until today, can performthat enterprise.Nobody as journalism can stop training betterand better for that enterprise.It is not about the local community or theneighboring communities anymore, which newsand messages can even be transmitted withoutmajor difficulties, even without the media.The international community delimited bynations, but substantially internationalcommunity of people, is familiarized in its
Tables d NewsPI 102 existence by the intercommunication irreplaceably possible through journalistic service. The News and journalistic Topics of international character physically encompass all the spectrum of the universe divided into continents, but in just one globe classified in two hemispheres: the Northern or Boreal, with the European-Asian continents and North America, and the Southern or Austral hemisphere, with the African, Australian and South America continents, giving more precise characteristics for race origin, language and religion instilled during the discovery, colonization and decolonization of towns. Take the case of Spanish spoken American nations, or Latin America that make up a tendency of cultural unity and present common characters under multiple aspects, above all in their religious origin. This label of Latin America is not for free because all of it has received the mark of Spanish and Portuguese culture, religion and language, of Romanic origin, and in the middle of the XX century the postwar European migrations. Causes like these have imposed their mark in many other continents, and even though the relation of the towns with their roots tried to be interrupted, their peoples keep the loyalty and signs of their idiosyncrasy. In the transition and beginning of the XXI century, the “globalization” prints completely new characteristics. For the News and Topics of foreign origin that must be selected or highlighted in a special search, “Idea Journalism” proposal is applicable in all its phases. They must be promoted to the category of Information-Message and receive appropriate treatment, especially when through them the international community is strengthened as community of people and nations.
Tables PI 103As regards the “Region of NeighboringCountries”, the observation andrecommendation that show the tendency ofthese Tables applies, as far as the selection ofNews and Topics respects the range of prioritiesthat arises by placing first that importantinformation coming from neighboring countries,linked by geographic proximity. It is thenpossible to repeat the same example givenbefore, as regards the influence of eventsaccording to the distance, knowledge andfamiliarity with the place of origin and greateridentification with their people.In this case, the following “PermanentReferences” apply.1) Knowledge and control of the geography,political organization, idiosyncrasy, tradition,customs, history and characteristics ofneighboring countries;2) Knowledge of the migratory flow and theexchange between neighboring countries;causes; reasons; stimuli;3) Interest for the realities and multiples orbilateral projects for the development of aninternational neighborhood, in economic,cultural, educational, scientific, tourist andsport aspects, etcetera, and particularly forthose initiatives or important contributions thatpreserve and promote peace, justice andhuman dignity among the countries linked byneighborhood and origins;4) Pay special attention to national orexceptional events that happen in neighboringcountries as a consequence of all human,political, economic, social, cultural and spiritualprocess; celebrations, events, etcetera; notonly as news reason, but as service for thebrotherhood of peoples, for the immigrants ofthose countries, and above all, helping theinternational fraternity with neighboringnations, certainly with common ideals in their
Tables d NewsPI 104 peoples. N° 17 The Region of Countries of the Continent In the case of News and Topics that come from abroad, it comes after the interest for the neighboring countries, the interest for all the non neighboring countries of the continental region: with these “Permanent References”: a) Knowledge and control of the continental region; b) Knowledge of the common exchanges between countries of the continental region; c) Evaluation and preponderant interest of the great projects and continental objectives; d) Knowledge and respect for well-known international organizations and special attention to their aims; e) Interest for the realities and bilateral projects for the development of the continental international neighborhood, in the economic, cultural, educational, scientific, tourist and sport aspects, etcetera, and especially for those initiatives or contributions that best preserve and promote peace, justice and human dignity among the countries linked by continental bonds; f) Pay special attention to national or exceptional events that happen in countries of the continent as a consequence of all human, political, economic, social, cultural and spiritual process; celebrations, events, etcetera; not only as news reason, but as service for the brotherhood of peoples of the continent, for the immigrants of those countries, and above all, helping the international continental fraternity, certainly with common ideals in their peoples.
Tables PI 105N° 18 All the Countries and Regionsof the UniverseA great part of the relation dialog-social amongmen, above geo-political divisions or ideologicaldifferences, is done by means of information;mission delegated to journalism to carry outthat formidable enterprise that implies theintercommunication of humanity.This is why, as “Permanent References” for allthe countries and regions of the universe, weunderline again the categories established inTable N° 7 and its chapters related to theHuman Being and the Family, as well as therespect for each National State.At the same time, the universe of nations,despite all difficulties and divisions, willcontinue as changeless witness of its own andchangeless truth: it is one, even though it istried to be fragmented, by lines on the maps,by wrong decisions of power and control or byhiding or manipulation of topics andinformation.“Idea Journalism” certainly assumes theuniversality of Journalism and in its Tables; ithas distinguished the priorities with reasons.But it never relegates the Human Being and theFamily, common to all Universe, as a “NewDespotic Order” pretends, which is promotedwith the impositions and ambiguities of the“globalization”.Some other guidelines are recommended forthe journalistic treatment of News and Topics,saving that about the relation of informativeinterests according to the distance thatseparates the origin of them:1) Knowledge and control of the great topicscommon to all men and as expression of thefinal sense of every man, within just one time
Tables d NewsPI 106 universe; 2) Knowledge and respect for well-known international organizations and special attention to their aims; 3) Knowledge, support and promotion for the great projects of humanity in the spiritual, moral and material level; 4) Attention for the events of each country and continent.
PI 107Methodology of Critical AnalysisTHINKER II
Methodology of AnalysisPI 108 Interceptor of Manipulations* Prolog This thinker method, interceptor of manipulations through information, as instrument for critical, active and creative analysis, is created for every person to use it – especially Professional Journalists and social communicators- test what they are offered or what is broadcasted on mass media to be true or false or doubtful. It is a counter-system: thinker and personalizing, which aim represents the doctrine, theory and methodology of “Idea Journalism” method that informs, educates, guides, makes other think and promotes. It has proposed to help restoring or confirming man’s dignity in the process of information by social means of communication. Know How to ThinkObjectives Make Others ThinkLet Them Think Miguel A. Perez Gaudio *Manipulation Interceptor Method. Thinker. Reg. Int. Prop. 33296. Miguel Perez Gaudio
Methodology of Analysis PI 109Specific Objectives 1° To intercept the Only Sense and Vertical Communication of Information that constitute as public. It must be considered as public information all that has a social destination, regardless the genre, characteristic or format. 2° To promote the total practice of Critical, Active and Creative Sense as Human Right for Freedom of Conscience. 3° To toughen and defend the sense of freedom. 4° To neutralize the trans-cultural effects of national and international Media and Multimedia.
Methodology of Analysis d NewsPI 110 References The Media (*) “The communion and progress of human cohabitation are the final aims of social communication and its instruments: television, radio, press and Internet. Even though they are especially directed to the individual, they really affect and move to all the society. Therefore, no effort must be omitted for the “addressees” (the ones who see, listen to or read) to be able to understand exactly when they are given these instruments to benefit and be able to actively participate in social life; only this way, these instruments will get their total efficacy. The Media, in each place, must be judged and valued as far as they help common welfare; that is: their news, art and amusements must be useful to the life and progress of the community. It is necessary for all communication to adjust to the main law of sincerity, honesty and truth. It is not enough then, the good intentions and a straight will for a communication to be honest. It is also necessary for the communication to broadcast the facts from the truth and for itself to have it own intrinsic truth. The respect and moral value of communication does not come only from its content or its theoretic teaching, but also from the reason that determines it, from the form and technique of expression and persuasion, from the circumstances and diversity of the men it is addressed.” The Addressees (*) “The audience has some possibilities – and therefore obligations as well- more serious than * “Communio et Progressio.”
Methodology of Analysis PI 111what is usually believed.An authentic dialog depends greatly in theaddressees themselves. If they can stand theinflux of information as silent listeners, thecommunication will be oriented in an ONLYSENSE, without answer, even though theinformers try to establish a dialog.The addressees will really be the active part ifthey interpret straightly the contents presentedas information by the Social Means ofCommunication, judging and praising themaccording to their source and context; if theyselect carefully and effectively and with ademanding critical spirit; if, in the cases thatrequire it, they complete the receivedinformation with facts acquired from othersources; if they do not hesitate to franklyexpress their agreement, their doubts or theirdisapproval.”
Methodology of AnalysisPI 112 Instructions on how to use the MIM • Any topic-information can be critically analyzed through the MIM. • If the information to be analyzed is in print, it can be marked or cut; whereas, in the case of audiovisual offer – radio or television -, the alternative may be taking note of their main points, as a reminder, or the recording as faithful reference. If the information was obtained in Internet, it is better to work on the screen or the printed page. • The analysis is interactive and guided by the Tables of Reference, methodologically elaborated and the analytical, printed, oral or audiovisual discourse is sequentially constituted. The Manipulation Interceptor Method is represented in a chart with five pedagogical screens and a referential keyboard. Each of the screens contains a symbolic clue, and each key is sign and symbol of consult, strengthening the pedagogy of critical analysis and construction of information-message in the concept of Idea Journalism.
Methodology of Analysis PI 113Tables of Reference To facilitate the answers The stated definitions and categories are referential and not excluding of others that the user of the MIM may replace or add if he considers it pertinent. INFORMS problem The descriptive analysis according to the Formal Clues (general ideas by which the analyzed material becomes understood as regards its form). 1) Information 2) Mean of origin or of Social Communication 3) Broadcasting 4) Language 1- Intercepted information (material for analysis) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write the title of that information or the reference of what it is about. 2- Mean of origin or of social communication (vehicle of information) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write the name of the mean that was the vehicle for that information and the place, city or country it belongs. Examples: Newspapers; magazines; News Agencies; issues; books; mailings; brochures. Radio or television broadcasters; Internet
Methodology of Analysis d NewsPI 114 (Web pages); videos. CD; cassette; records. Wallpapers; stickers. Note: If the information is not local write down the agency name and the place of origin also – if it is registered – specifying whether it is national or foreign. 3- Public Broadcasting (time precision) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the date when the information was published (in the case of printed media) or the date and time (in the case of radio, television or internet). 4- Formal Language (the way to say it) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the characteristic of the information, taking as a reference the guidelines below. a- In the case of journalistic information news (event) news in brief (tale) comment (interpretation made by the media) interview report (treatment with genre interaction) editorial (opinion of the media) reader’s letter (personal opinion) phone call (personal opinion) opinion of a well-known person representative document of social interest service information (weather forecast, transportation, hospitals, pharmacies, etc) photography (with connotative epigraph) cartoon and sketches (with connotative messages)
Methodology of Analysis PI 115b- In the case of propagandaindividual or institutional “solicitude”official communication of institutionmiscellaneous news (it can be noticed when theinforming institution is named. It usuallyincludes expressions such as “informs”, “says”,“communicates”, “claims”, etc)rumor or version (when information of this typeis confirmed, it becomes journalistic; otherwise,it is propaganda)“disguised” propaganda (this character can bededuce in many cases after the first reading)Ideological message (promotion of ideas ofparticular sector)Message relating to a particular sector(promotion of activities of a particular sector)c- In the case of publicitygraphic commercial adsound commercial adaudiovisual commercial adsigns and wallpapersd- In the case of entertainmentinformationcentered on radio or television shows, Internet(web pages), graphic, gamese- In the case of information in the formatof musical song (musical genres)f- In the case of literary information(poems, essays, etc)g- In the case of information with materialaward as Prizes (commercial contests ontelevision and radio)
Methodology of Analysis d NewsPI 116 EDUCATES decomposition Analysis of informative discourse according to Idiomatic Clues (ideas by which the analyzed material is understood as regards the grammatical role of its expressed or connotative components) 5) Who says 6) To whom it refers 7) With what firmness 8) How to judge 5- Who says (the obvious addressor) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down who shows in the information as the responsible for it, with nouns or names. It can be a person (or more than one), institutions, social groups, companies, etc. If it is not specified, write “it does not say”. 6- To whom it refers In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down to whom it explicitly or implicitly refers as addressee. It can be a person (or more than one), institutions, social groups, companies, etc. Examples: Social sector 7- With what firmness or hesitation (firmness in saying) In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down briefly the sentence/s used by the addressor (identified in 5), which have the most relevant verbs (the ones in indicative mode, etc)
Methodology of Analysis PI 1178- How to judge or determine(qualification)In the appropriate place on the screen or in itsoriginal, write down briefly the sentence/s usedby the addressor (identified in 5), which havethe most qualifying expressions (it is alwayspossible to identify an adjective) GUIDES deductionsInternal analysis of the information according tothe Hidden Clues (ideas by which the analyzedmaterial presents circumstances intentionallyhidden by the addressor)9) Indirect Addressors10) Beneficiaries11) DamagedNote:Essential information must be discovered here,that are usually underlying, hidden. They arededuced with the help of other alreadydetermined information (first and secondscreen). Sometimes the results are probable;other times, just possible.One person, institution, company, etcetera, canshow in both instances, but with valid anddifferent reasons.9- Indirect Addressors(the addressor undercover)In the appropriate place on the screen or in itsoriginal, mark who the probable or possibleaddressor or co-addressor of the analyzedinformation is. It can be one person (or morethan one), institutions, social groups,companies, etcetera, which are not explicitlymentioned.
Methodology of Analysis d NewsPI 118 Bare in mind that: a- In the case of journalistic information, it might be: An announcement or event covered by a journalist (which can be deduced by the reading), or an announcement or event that has been communicated to the media by the relative sector, with their perspective and through their press office. b- In the case of propaganda, it might be: Press offices of any type, providing propaganda “disguised” as miscellaneous; Political parties, political-ideological organizations, organizations relative to any type of sector, etcetera, with identical procedure; Institutional Communication Companies, publicity with non explicit ads “disguised” as journalistic information. They use this resource promoting ideas, products, people, organizations, etc. Companies, undercover, leading information for their own benefit, damaging other companies. The typical examples are cinematographic and show companies, discographers, sport companies, etc. Survey companies for public opinion c- In the case of publicity, it might be: Publicity companies creating explicit ads paid by sponsors that are not always mentioned; or themselves, undercover. 10- Beneficiaries In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the name of the one that benefits from the information, even though there is no explicit name. It may be one or more people, institutions, companies, social
Methodology of Analysis PI 119groups, countries, etc.11- DamagedIn the appropriate place on the screen or in itsoriginal, write down the name of who can feeldamaged with the negative reference of theinformation, even though it may not be explicitin it. Such name can belong to people,companies, social groups, countries,institutions, and etcetera. MAKE OTHERS THINK basis of principles and reasoningProjective analysis of the informative messagecontents, according to Cultural Clues (ideas bywhich the analyzed material shows agreementsor vital contradictions)Every man has the right-duty of demandingmoral, ethic-social and religious basis, in allareas of social cohabitation, and especially inthe field of information and content of massmedia, which are characterized as publicinstruments due to its cultural function. Thebasis belong to the cultural identity and thenational being, concrete in each nation, that atthe same time accepts and respects theuniversal human values, integrating them in alltheir positive aspects. Consequently, it does notdisregard the pluralism of ideas, as far as theyaim at a system of social cohabitation forCommon Well-being. Each user of this methodwill answer in his chart according to culturalconvictions.There are only references given here.12) Values13) Man Vision14) Society Vision12- Values that are accepted or denied in
Methodology of AnalysisPI 120 the message In the appropriate place on the screen or in its original, write down the judgments that you make from the main contents of the analyzed information. This procedure is applicable for journalistic topics, publicity, propaganda, entertainment, etc. The following may help you as a referential guide. Does it respect, cut down or atrophy the rights of the human being? Why? to life to security to freedom to think to express to cultural goods to be more educated to respect to reputation to privacy to his family privacy to his house privacy to his mail privacy to the protection of the law to seek the truth to defend ideas to information to make a family to the resources to support it to progress as a family to give birth to educate the children to family intimacy to the stability of the family bond to believe and spread his faith to educate his children according to the desire of them to a stable job to a fair salary to find with more safety his own subsistence to appropriate housing
Methodology of Analysis PI 121to a fair free timeto a free economic initiative for societyto be free from miseryto property, with social mortgageto protection, in the case of underageto the necessary benefits of security and socialhealthto a dignified life and death, in the case ofelderlyto public representationto participate in public lifeto participate freely of social responsibilitiesto be defended against pornographyto be defended against drug addictionto be defended against alcoholismto be defended against corruptionto a press that defends the familyto make, know and have more to be moreDo you recognize these violations andaggressions against human being?homicide, genocide, euthanasia, abortion,suicidemutilationsphysical and mental torturespoor living conditionsimprisonment without reasondeportationslaveryprostitutionignominious working conditionsdisrespect for man’s freedomconsidering the worker as a mean for incomesubversive terrorismState terrorismDrug dealingSocial discriminationPoverty promotionConsent of povertyIgnoring others povertyDoes it respect or deny religious rights of
Methodology of AnalysisPI 122 man? recognizes God forgets or denies God jeers at God or its faith degrades God’s faith honors the parents teaches life care teaches the true love teaches not to rob teaches to tell the truth teaches not to be envious teaches to be satisfied with the necessary teaches faithfulness between spouses teaches not to be greedy for other people’s praises cleanness of heart supports gentleness teaches justice fosters charity praises peace teaches how to be hopeful Praises or condemns these anti-values? greed desire to increase own duty power abuse people’s avarice avarice of the family as such avarice of the nation (abuse of having) suffocating materialism abuse of property public sensuousness and permissiveness 13- Man vision In the appropriate place on the screen, write the idea given about the man in the analyzed information. For example: Consumerist vision It sees human being as simple instrument of production and consumption Individualist vision (liberal) It sees human dignity only as an instrument of economic efficacy and as subject of individual
Methodology of Analysis PI 123freedomCollective visionIt sees the aim of human existence as thedevelopment of material production forces. Theperson and it conscience give in to the social,materialist and atheistic.State visionIt puts the individual to the unlimited service ofa hypothetical total war against cultural, social,political, economic and ideological conflicts.Individual and State freedom are confused withthe will of the nation.Scientist visionIt subdues all to the technical-scientific andonly recognizes as true all that science canprove. In the name of science it all justifies;including the insults to human being and itsdignity. It recognizes a new power: technocracyand a kind of materialized social engineering inthe arms race, biogenetics, techno electronicand robotics, with their consequences ofgreater economic production, unemploymentand birth control – which attacks the family-,social insecurity, etc.Psychological visionIt sees almost only human being’s psyche. Itpresents man as a victim of erotic instinct or asa mechanism that responds to stimuli, withoutfreedom.Determinist visionIt sees man not as his own owner but as victimof hidden forces with which only cooperation orhumiliation is possible. Subjection tohoroscopes, parapsychology, spirits, occultism,etc.Permissive visionNoticeable deformation in neo-liberal societieswhich, due to a misinterpretation of freedom,tolerate excesses that lead to its distortion:licentiousness.Transcendental-religious visionIt sees a person in man, a conscious being,
Methodology of AnalysisPI 124 owner of himself. A being that, in a horizon of freedom, progressively constructs his pace, engaging with values and engaging in dialog with other people and especially with God. A being with sense, focused to an aim, which is spiritual plenitude, knowledge expansion and love in communion with the Infinite Being. Authoritarian vision Despotic vision 14- Vision of the society and of the world In the appropriate place on the screen, write down which idea of the world and the society is given in the analyzed information. It might be one of these: Atheist That denies or rejects God’s existence Collective It tends to general nationalization, trusting the State the production and distribution of all type of wealth. Conservative That responds to economically privileged and concentrated groups opposed to pacific social transformations. Dissociating (that denies the need for a fair and participative cohabitation order, promoting the suspension of any legitimate authority, by any mean) Hopeful It sees with optimism the development of human events and anticipates a good ending. Fraternal It considers universal brotherhood valid, with all its connotations. Ideologist It watches the world and society in the light of a certain system of ideas. Imperialist colonialist It attributes to highly developed powers the false right of cultural, political, economic, social and ideological dominance over developing
Methodology of Analysis PI 125countries, for geo-political aims. MaterialistIt takes matter as the only principle of thebeing; it denies the existence of other humanvalues, such as the spiritual, intellectual, moral,aesthetic ones, etc. OptimisticIt was funded in society and world’s kindness;it considers positively all the events in whichman participates. PessimisticAs opposed to the optimistic vision, it sees manand his environment as fatal expressions ofevil. PoliticalSeeking common well-being, it tries toconciliate the events and situations accordingwith compatibilities. ProgressingIt sustains the need for renewal beforemoderation. RacistIt inspires racial superiority, ignoring anddenying the equal dignity of any human being. SecularistIt vindicates autonomy of the worldly beforeGod, usually with a religious loss. TriumphingHaving exaggerated self-confidence and senseof superiority as regards the rest overvalues itsown accomplishments. PROMOTES perception of manipulationsThis is the determinant moment in the exerciseof critical, active and creative analysis, throughthe manipulations interceptor thinker. It has tobe discovered by oneself the quality andhierarchy of information – with the capacity toweigh, evaluate and judge-; whether this,intentionally or not, constitutes an act of
Methodology of AnalysisPI 126 manipulation, or on the contrary, it does it as an act of human promotion. This last operation is not “against something”, but it is a reactive interception that promotes vindicating the sublime dignity of human being. 15) Truths 16) Lies 17) Doubts 18) Persuasion techniques 19) Cultural influence Resolution Would it be true, false or doubtful? Firstly, reread the analyzed information. Then, scan the complete, consulted and resolved facts on the major screen. This way, revising the clues and results, you will be able to answer in the manipulation perceptive screen what you discovered or presuppose in the content of the analyzed information. References of potentially manipulating techniques. Intentional It is when inaccuracies substitute authentic facts. Partial When a partial interpretation of that informed is incorporated. For example, using pejorative adjectives (inconsistence, clumsy, disordered, useless, vain, false, shy, uncertain, poor, inconsiderate, etc) and stereotypes (people’s will, liberation, State’s interests, popular struggle, conscience of class, popular democracy, etcetera) Fragmented When information consists of pieces or fragments, and even that, partial truths are assembled to give the appearance of complete truth.
Methodology of Analysis PI 127 InterestedIt is when facts are presented in such way thatthey lead to misinterpretation, and this may befavorable to certain interests. ConditionedWhen they describe events in such way thatthey arouse doubts or exaggerated fearswithout basis, with the specific intention ofconditioning people’s future action (orcommunities’ or governments’)15- TruthsIt can be truth the assertion that is presentedin the information with clarity, accuracy andresponsibility. Think; consult, if necessary; anddecide.16- LiesIt can be lie the assertion that is presented inthe information, and that according to your ownknowledge and judgment are not true. Think;consult, if necessary; and decide.17- DoubtsIt can be considered doubtful, an assertionpresented in the information, which accordingto critical analysis, is confusing, uncertain orambivalent.Decide about the three presented instances(*Truth *Lie *Doubt) with the judgmentelements that you can find in the analyzedinformation, going deeply into the whys?18- Persuasion techniques(Persuading is inducing, moving, and forcingothers with reasons to believe or do something)In the appropriate place of the screen, writedown the technique you discovered in thepresentation of the analyzed information, andwhich ones you consider evident. As areference, there are some categories listed,which might belong or be alternative for eachmean of social communication (press, radio andtelevision)
Methodology of AnalysisPI 128 OverwhelmingIt overwhelms with exaggerated amount of dataConfusingIt seeks to neutralize personality with ambiguous languageDeterministIt seeks to catch the addressee intellectually to make his will work as the message proposesEffective It aims at the easy and fast reception of the messageDisguisedIt tries to hide identity and responsibility of the addressor’s “authorized speakers”, “a faithful source”, etcExcitingIt weakens primary interestsImpressionistIt seeks the fast adherence to the way of presenting the information, more than to the reality of the issue dealt in itInsidiousIt tries to deceive, working maliciously Bad intentionedIt tries to bend the addressee’s positionNegativistIt proposes quietness before all mistake, injustice, immorality, atrocity, etcDisturbingIt tends to arise doubts and vacillations about truths and natural realitiesSeductiveIt seeks adhesionSensationalistIt presents an issue in a highlighted way to create a climate of real interest around it, making use of simple conditional sensations. The elements that can be used, among others, are:
Methodology of Analysis PI 129In press:magnifying headlines, by their text and fontsizeunmeasured photography or picturesexaggerated texts about the issueOn radio and television:sustained emphasis of the voicesannoying background musicexaggeration or manipulation of the imagespresentation and development of the issue withmagnifying intentionSubliminalIt tries to influence theunconscious. It works under the frame ofconsciousness TerrifyingIt tries to inspire fearor exaggerated fright. Intentional headlineIttries to attract with unreal headlinesArbitrarylocationIt seeks the insidious comparison oftwo or more pieces of information, orexaggerates the importance of one ormore.ViolentIt transmits ways of violentactions to provoke identification with them19- Cultural influenceIn the appropriate place of the receiver screen,write down the category that you consider valid
GlossaryPI 132 We make a brief list – in alphabetical order- of the main thematic denominations used and proposed in this book This way we try to preponderantly strengthen the concepts, and give a guideline the easily facilitates the reader to place himself in their meaning. In order not to abound, the ones more commonly used in “Idea Journalism” have been chosen. A Action of educating: it tends for Information-.Message not only to make events known, but also to clarify words, concepts and confusing ideas, because mass media should be schools shapers of people. Action of guiding: it complements the effect of information, guiding human action, deduced from itself, for his good. It is a sequence that gives concrete answers to human needs. Action of informing: all that is informed is constituted by the objective elements, helping the needs as service that updates man in the transformation of society. Action of promoting: the changes and transformations that take place throughout history depend, greatly, on the creativity with which “Idea Journalism” identifies with the aspirations that live in human nature and that tend to a constant promotion and increase of their current condition, with proposals. Action of thinking: in all communication, the action of thinking is present. It is “idea Journalism” responsibility, in the treatment of Information-Message, to suggest that the addressee practice his natural capacity for discernment, for him as a person and for the social context he lives in. All the countries and regions of the universe: they are also object of information-message before the common problems of man in contemporary history (see Tables of Reference). Analysis: is the capacity the Journalist must practice to value the merits for common welfare, which must praise and highlight information treatment and broadcasting. Anonymous: all and any. Without nomination or identity. Area: is the aspect that covers a Topic-Information at its beginning, determining who the responsible/s is/are. Authorial Journalism: it implies that every journalist assumes as autonomous professional with stable dependence to a media, the responsibility on the treatment of productions, growing as a thinker
Glossary PI 133initiatives.CChallenges: is the one that “idea Journalism” launches for theprocess of information to construct it as message; in such way thatits contents are valid in the shaping of people. It seeks a moreperfect justice in the relation Journalism- Society- Man.Chart: basic methodological facts for analysis, treatment andelaboration of Information-Message in “Idea Journalism”.Common welfare: is the group of material and spiritual conditionsthat favor total development of human being. Specifically applyingthis generic definition to journalistic affairs, we can claim thatCommon welfare in the field of social communications is allcommunicative action of information that irreversibly tends to favorand stimulate. To help common welfare is the aim and objective ofits functions, increase, encourage and develop cultural and socialconditions that allow man, any man, to have more to be more.Communications: (journalistic). They have the mission ofbroadcasting by oral or written word, sounds or images –graphic orin motion- all that, trusted to its mediation, is useful to answerinformative and cultural expectations of society for commonwelfare. They are social: which means that the interests of ownersand/or manipulators should never come before to the interests ofsociety (Common Welfare). They are means: consequently, mere public instrumentsand not aims themselves. Help common welfare is the aim andobjective of their functions. They are massive: as opposed to selective messages, itsmassive character is taken from the fact that they are orientedpublicly and unlimitedly to all society regardless the age or social,cultural, ethnic or religious groups.Community (Municipality): is the political, legal and moralstructure of the State with a more local character in eachgeographic zone of the Nation; its roles must deserve a referentialtreatment as group of family units.Control of results (effect and foreseeable course): whenbroadcasted information reaches public opinion, it follows anevolution course that professional responsibility must control toevaluate if it has accomplished the positive role it was assigned bythe conception of “Idea Journalism”.From the permanent topics favoring man (justice, peace, freedom,
GlossaryPI 134 before each one of them and giving himself through his own initiatives. C Challenges: is the one that “idea Journalism” launches for the process of information to construct it as message; in such way that its contents are valid in the shaping of people. It seeks a more perfect justice in the relation Journalism- Society- Man. Chart: basic methodological facts for analysis, treatment and elaboration of Information-Message in “Idea Journalism”. Common welfare: is the group of material and spiritual conditions that favor total development of human being. Specifically applying this generic definition to journalistic affairs, we can claim that Common welfare in the field of social communications is all communicative action of information that irreversibly tends to favor and stimulate. To help common welfare is the aim and objective of its functions, increase, encourage and develop cultural and social conditions that allow man, any man, to have more to be more. Communications: (journalistic). They have the mission of broadcasting by oral or written word, sounds or images –graphic or in motion- all that, trusted to its mediation, is useful to answer informative and cultural expectations of society for common welfare. They are social: which means that the interests of owners and/or manipulators should never come before to the interests of society (Common Welfare). They are means: consequently, mere public instruments and not aims themselves. Help common welfare is the aim and objective of their functions. They are massive: as opposed to selective messages, its massive character is taken from the fact that they are oriented publicly and unlimitedly to all society regardless the age or social, cultural, ethnic or religious groups. Community (Municipality): is the political, legal and moral structure of the State with a more local character in each geographic zone of the Nation; its roles must deserve a referential treatment as group of family units. Control of results (effect and foreseeable course): when broadcasted information reaches public opinion, it follows an evolution course that professional responsibility must control to evaluate if it has accomplished the positive role it was assigned by the conception of “Idea Journalism”.
Glossary PI 135Family: vital cell and basic core of all society. The increasingtechnology in social communication must adjust stages: a) action ofinforming; b) action of educating; c) action of guiding; d) action ofmaking others think; e) action of promoting.GGenre: are the different characteristics of form and journalisticculture in which a topic can be elaborated (news, briefs, reports,comments, round tables, etc.)HHuman being: the human being, its imminent dignity andtranscendence, is inexhaustible source of news and topics. All thelinks in it, in favor or against, must be carefully watched byidentified journalistic affair and caring for life, development,participation, responsibility and well-being of man and all men.IIdea Journalism: its main longing is to effectively reinstalled manas the center of social communication of information and the historyprocess.It is made up of: substantial training; doctrine that justifies it;making theory; methodologies; deontology guidelines andreferential tables.Ideology: its respect must be guaranteed, but informationmanagement cannot be used in predetermined manipulations byMass Means of Social Communication.Immediate inter-provincial region: group of neighboringprovinces linked by migratory relations, economic, cultural andeducative exchanges, etc.Incidence: the journalist, when broadcasting information, must beconscious of the consequences that this will produce on society; hemust keep in mind that the basic is discerning what is positive forman and society.Information: is all action broadcasted by the means of socialcommunication about past or coming events, from a strictlyobjective point of view: however, in our conception, information isall that is communicated, even though that is guided, as in the caseof publicity and propaganda. Information consequently, to be
GlossaryPI 136 From the permanent topics favoring man (justice, peace, freedom, human promotion, etc.) until the most concrete and reduced because they demand sequential care, they should be attentively followed in their development and result. Country, geographical unit: its importance as topic of Information-message relates with the political unit of the country and the news that originate in the place where the capital of the country is. Covering: is the projection (Institutions, people, groups, etc.) of the Topic-Information, baring in mind the repercussion that it has on the social group, considering the logical and possible circuit that the topic suggests when moving in society (to whom). Crisis and journalism: the crisis that destroys humanity must be assumed by “Idea Journalism” with the clear and defined purpose of helping to overcome and solve them. They can not be used to scandalize and sell more information. Critical analysis: investigation task that is developed based on content analysis, with criterion and methodology that facilitates proves and conclusions. (See: MIM Manipulation Interceptor Method). D Documents: it complements the task of familiarization; investigating and enriching the informative process with all the physical or objective elements available. Documents (Joint): they form spontaneously or for necessity in organized sectors of society (public or private). The participation of journalism in them aims at its broadcasting and enrichment in the treatment according to the social importance they have, because they can be generators of important topics. E Events (surprising or foreseen): every event that happens and deserves social communication has implicit elements that can promote the treatment of important issues, whether they are sudden or foreseen events. Experts: are those people that by their knowledge of the event or by their specific cultural capacity must be consulted to truly and correctly inform. F
Glossary PI 137OObjective: it is determined by the social aspect that encouragesInformation-message in man’s favor; it is a harmonic, concrete andstable human promotion service.Opinions (independent): spontaneous appeal to authorized andcompetent people to pass true and concrete judgment or opinion onproblems of public interest, not necessarily as result of preexistinginformation.PPedagogical forms: Information-Message has the followingstages: a) action of informing; b) action of educating; c) action ofguiding; d) action of making others think; e) action of promoting.Pedagogy of the Information-Message: the transmission ofinformation does not exhaust in its communication of the news. Itmust be fruitful as message, enriched by the pedagogical, culturaland relevant for the promotion of man and the human community.Permanent questions: for “Idea Journalism”, they constitute thepermanent questions and problems, which for their meaning andtranscendence for man and society welfare have to be present inthe question of service of the social communicator.Presentation of the Information-Message: in its broadcasting,content must always prevail over the forms. Certainly, journalisticforms and styles, the better they are offered, respected the contentand objective of “Idea Journalism”, are essential for their betterefficacy. The style is formal; the aim responds to the creativevocation of the journalist for the service of humanity.Pressures: competitiveness of different media in their urge tobroadcast news puts sideways the need to relief psychologicalpressures of man today, broadcasting contents that subdue him.Province or federal State: group of places and organizedcommunities that occupy an specific geographical territory,characterized by idiosyncrasy, political division, historical data,physical conditions, etc. within the evolution of each Nation (seeTable of References).Primary facts: every topic needs to have basic primary factsanswering the following questions: what happened? How? When?Where? Who?, and any other reference.Prophetic moan: “A moan, we can even call prophetic, movesaround the world to denounce the growing interior suffering of men
GlossaryPI 138 Familiarization: is the historical and/or joint documentation, and the requested to experts for improving its treatment. Family: vital cell and basic core of all society. The increasing technology in social communication must adjust stages: a) action of informing; b) action of educating; c) action of guiding; d) action of making others think; e) action of promoting. G Genre: are the different characteristics of form and journalistic culture in which a topic can be elaborated (news, briefs, reports, comments, round tables, etc.) H Human being: the human being, its imminent dignity and transcendence, is inexhaustible source of news and topics. All the links in it, in favor or against, must be carefully watched by identified journalistic affair and caring for life, development, participation, responsibility and well-being of man and all men. I Idea Journalism: its main longing is to effectively reinstalled man as the center of social communication of information and the history process. It is made up of: substantial training; doctrine that justifies it; making theory; methodologies; deontology guidelines and referential tables. Ideology: its respect must be guaranteed, but information management cannot be used in predetermined manipulations by Mass Means of Social Communication. Immediate inter-provincial region: group of neighboring provinces linked by migratory relations, economic, cultural and educative exchanges, etc. Incidence: the journalist, when broadcasting information, must be conscious of the consequences that this will produce on society; he must keep in mind that the basic is discerning what is positive for man and society. Information: is all action broadcasted by the means of social communication about past or coming events, from a strictly
Glossary PI 139objective point of view: however, in our conception, information isall that is communicated, even though that is guided, as in the caseof publicity and propaganda. Information consequently, to befaithful to “Idea Journalism”, must be subjected to a selection anddeontology and methodological treatment that make itsbroadcasting compatible.Information- Message: is the demand for each piece ofinformation (fact or opinion) that is broadcasted to have, for thetreatment it received, a beneficial creation for man and society, co-helping a new humanism.Information (permanent): all kind of news service.Inwardness: is the capacity that the journalist must practice forthe information he communicates, understood and assumed, tobecome a message, capable of being interpreted and lived by theaddressees of the communication, in such way that everyone’s well-being prevails over particular’s well-being. (Sense and Objective)KKnowledge: professional responsibility forces the journalist to acertain and deep knowledge of the social reality in its mainexpressions and problems.MMan and information: the only real owner of true information thatmeans of social communication broadcasts is man. Therefore, truthcannot be distorted, changed or silenced. The man has the right-human rights- to receive it to nourish it spirit, with the same righthe has to be given the means for his complete development. Thisimplies restoring man in the center of information.Media: instrument that modern technique offers for socialcommunicationNNational State: the State as organizer of Common Welfare of thesocial group is one of the permanent references to which means ofsocial communication should give special attention, in such way thatthe existing legal order helps the formation of cultivated, peacefuland benevolent men.
GlossaryPI 140 Non conformism: the one existing between man and means of social communication, before pressures, pushes and neutralities without substances in the use of these means. O Objective: it is determined by the social aspect that encourages Information-message in man’s favor; it is a harmonic, concrete and stable human promotion service. Opinions (independent): spontaneous appeal to authorized and competent people to pass true and concrete judgment or opinion on problems of public interest, not necessarily as result of preexisting information. P Pedagogical forms: Information-Message has the following stages: a) action of informing; b) action of educating; c) action of guiding; d) action of making others think; e) action of promoting. Pedagogy of the Information-Message: the transmission of information does not exhaust in its communication of the news. It must be fruitful as message, enriched by the pedagogical, cultural and relevant for the promotion of man and the human community. Permanent questions: for “Idea Journalism”, they constitute the permanent questions and problems, which for their meaning and transcendence for man and society welfare have to be present in the question of service of the social communicator. Presentation of the Information-Message: in its broadcasting, content must always prevail over the forms. Certainly, journalistic forms and styles, the better they are offered, respected the content and objective of “Idea Journalism”, are essential for their better efficacy. The style is formal; the aim responds to the creative vocation of the journalist for the service of humanity. Pressures: competitiveness of different media in their urge to broadcast news puts sideways the need to relief psychological pressures of man today, broadcasting contents that subdue him. Province or federal State: group of places and organized communities that occupy an specific geographical territory, characterized by idiosyncrasy, political division, historical data, physical conditions, etc. within the evolution of each Nation (see Table of References). Primary facts: every topic needs to have basic primary facts answering the following questions: what happened? How? When?
PI 143 Bibliography for Compared Analysis• ACCARDO, Alain – Journalists before the mechanisms of co-option• BUNGE, Mario –Science, its method and philosophy• CALMON ALVES Rosental. Journalism for Internet.• CAMINOS MARCET, Jose Maria – Journalism of investigation.Theory and practice• CASTELLI, Eugenio – Journalism manual – Plus Ultra – Dec.1981• COLOMBO, Furio – Last news about journalism. Internationaljournalism manual• COLOMBO, Furio – Scientific news• COLOMBO, Furio – International news. Trans-national news• COLOMBO, Furio – Economic news• COMMUNIO ET PROGRESSIO• DADER, Jose Luis – Precision Journalism• DEL BONO, Edward – Creativity• FRAGA, R.; BARROS, C.; MARTINEZ VIVOT, A.; BÔLER, W. –Self-perception of journalism in Argentina.• FUNDACION PARA UN NUEVO PERIODISMO EN ARGENTINA.(Fundation for a new journalism in Argentina) G. GarciaMarquez. A new journalism for a new social order• GASTALDI, Italo Francisco – Basic topics of anthropology
PI 144• HALPERIN, Jorge – Journalistic interview, Intimacy of publicconversation• MARIAS, Julian – The Communication of Thought• MERAYO PEREZ, Arturo – Journalists for the informationcentury• Critical Thinking vs. Unique Thinking – Debate Topics• PIEDRAHITA TORO, M. – Modern Journalism. History,perspectives and tendencies towards the year 2000• QUIVY, Raymond – Manual of Investigation in Social Sciences- 1997• RAMONET, Ignacio – The Tyranny of Communication• RAMONET, Ignacio – Effects of globalization in developingcountries• REYES, Gerardo – Investigation Journalism• MOWLANA, Hamid and Wilson, LAURIEL J. – Communication,Technology and Development• UNESCO – Just One World, many voices• ZAVOLI, Sergio – Communicate Our Time
PI 145 Index pageSilent and Silenced NewsJournalism in Social SciencesReference InvestigationsPrinciples of Idea JournalismTheory and MethodologyMethodological Process Society and Trend Familiarization Inwardness Return to Society Message to Society Journalistic Discourse in Information Message Results ControlTables of JournalismTablesMethodology of Critical AnalysisGlossaryBibliography
“Idea Journalism” proposes:• Considering information, not as a rhetoricalservice of gathered words, sounds and images, butas a service of messages that are elaboratedproviding news, facts, opinions as intellectual, moraland spiritual support for peoples’ lives.This demands a solid professional training, beyondthe empiric, re-qualifying the professional role in thedimension of a cultural operator, leader andmanager of information, autonomous and authorial,with technical, methodic and methodological supportthat this book contributes to with the premises:know how to think, make others think and letthem think.