Know how to think Make others thinkAnd let others thinkIdea JournalismMiguel Pérez Gaudio
Miguel Argentino Pérez Gaudio• Professional Journalist (1957)• Specialized columnist.• Director of Radio and TelevisionProgrammes.• Director and Founder of “Aquí yAhora” Magazine (1969- 1975).• Founder and Principal of theJournalism University College“Obispo Trejo y Sanabria” (1971- )• Journalism Professor.• Creator of Critical AnalysisMethods: Intercepting Module ofManipulations (IMM) and I See YouViewer and Advisor.• Director of Critical FormationCourses.• Founder and Director of Media,“Cura Brochero” Radio andArgentinean New Television.• Publications’ Author.• International Expert with thesupport of UNESCO.• Director of the First NationalResearch about Health IssuesRelated to SubstancesConsumption; these results havenot been published yet.• Campaign creative “Make AllHuman Rights Credible” (2000) forthe National Ombudsman.• Director of Social Research “Workand Power for Cordoba” (2001)
PI 2 Miguel PEREZ GAUDIO Idea Journalism Know how to think-Make others think-And let others think Edited by Journalism and Social Sciences University Foundation Cordoba, Argentina. Design: Juan P. Gaudio Style Correction: Maria Isabel Robles Copyright by Journalism and Social Sciences University Foundation Ituzaingo 249- 5000 Cordoba- Argentina Telephone- Fax (0351) 4230340/ 4247278 – email: firstname.lastname@example.org No whole or part of this book may be reproduced by any means. Legal deposit made 11.723 SBN 950-9979716 Original edition: 1976 New version 2001 Printed by Graphic Workshop Pugliese Siena Sarachaga 122- Cordoba
PI 3Not ever has the world had as many means tocommunicate ideas as it has today, but neverhas the world lack ideas to communicate as itlacks today
PI 5Mister/MsHuman BeingProtagonist of newsWhoever you are. Wherever you areThis lines that introduce the “IdeaJournalism”, recognize its pilgrimage to theanonymous and varied readers.You, whoever you are, have been chosen asan inspiration and as a key for “IdeaJournalism”. It is our aim – almost anobsession- to reinstall Men in the center ofsocial communication of information and theprocess of history. Miguel Perez Gaudio
PI 6 Silent and Silenced News Watching carefully today’s men psychology is enough to realize that it is soaked in bitterness and skepticism. A moan, almost as a prophecy, lurks around the world to denounce a growth of inner human suffering along with the growth of the supremacy of material wealth and technology, and hunger of cultural and spiritual wealth. Misery, pain, disappointment, suffering seem to spread all around the world; instead of receding due to the peaceful joy that so many progress goods bring us. When we enter the third millennium of humanity, this is expressed in the paradigms of globalization. Changing time, time of change The changing time is characterized by “globalization”. There are many hidden contents and ambiguities in this word that deeply affect our way to interpret the life and the world. Globalization affects every social aspect, from economy to politics, from religion to education.
Silent and Silenced News PI 7In this globalized world, there is not a fairbalance between those who have it all andthose who have little or nothing. We do not talkabout “outcasts” anymore; there is a newcategory: the excluded without face, withoutvoice, without name, without history…It is the world- market that tends to an onlythought. Globalization also involves aconcentration of media in a few hands; and themanipulation of people’s thoughts and criteria.This revealing synthesis, as gloomyanthropological, human and social news,involves mainly media moguls, referents,and leaders; both traditional ones and newones. We can even say that they are trappedand demanded for answers: what is theirresponsibility for today’s man psychology? And,which engages particularly professional andacademic journalism duty?Many answers and statements can be offered,but in the end and in relation with the truth, wecan accept the blame for that “moan” that lurksaround the world.That this responsibility is more hidden isdramatic and puzzling. This brings aboutpressure, struggle and uncontained neutrality inthe use of social communication, and theyextend as a restricted and unaccountablecontinuous agreement.The dizzy pace of history makes it hard for manto keep track of it, in the middle of a realitythat is defined by an amused civilization. Acivilization amused by the technologicaldevelopment and control; that contradicts itselfbecause of the uncontrolled existential crisis,the manipulation and the fear of conflicts. Inthis reality, local and international media walkthe paths of the sad and fleeting jingoism ofsensory, spectacular or superficial effects. Asregards journalism, it is conditioned to the
Silent and Silenced NewsPI 8 terrible routine of senseless communication in order to keep or catch an audience. With the journalism skills for massive communication, such as attractive writing or lecturing, witty or synthesis capacity, along with graphic and audiovisual art and the new digital and multimedia techniques; we can harmonize and limit competitiveness to the density in information, to the sarcastic, deceitful or subtle, to its charming, catching or Confrontations With the journalism skills for massive communication, such as attractive writing or lecturing, witty or synthesis capacity, along with graphic and audiovisual art and the new digital and multimedia techniques; we can harmonize and limit competitiveness to the density in information, to the sarcastic, deceitful or subtle, to its charming, catching or sensationalist presentation; leaving aside the required meaning in order to release pressure on today’s man, and to express higher contents. It is necessary to discover what is essential in this matter – convincing reasons- and be able to turn the tendencies and jingoistic limits into transcending, necessary, fascinating achievements, creatively unlimited. What has journalism achieved that can be considered as social and human science? Which are its great novelties, capable of being supported by principles, theories and methods? Maybe it is about time, in this third millennium to look for other ways, to recreate with prestige, empowering the wealth of its endless
Silent and Silenced News PI 9 Journalism that engages as a Science of Information can not only voice the human blackouts without lighting them up; communicate catastrophes and then abandon them; start changes that ignores; get into the anguish of porn without knowing how to break it down; cling to ultraconservatism, stretching out between stakes the history of humanity itself.Challenges resources and transmit them when using the media in order to get a main, competitive place worthy as a social science and to be service of humanity. This is the challenge for institutions that train professionals and thinkers. “Idea Journalism” wants to take the challenge from its school in this changing time and time of change.
PI 10 TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) method DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM steps SOCIETY- TREND 1 analysis- area - covering FAMILIARIZING 2 documentation - objective INWARDNESS 3 sense - objective RETURN TO SOCIETY 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space length - sequence MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data RESULT CONTROL 7 foreseeable course and effectPeople the same as artworks, when they are introduced for the firsttime, must be identified. “Idea Journalism” does it with a method thatis defended as instrument, linking journalism, science, culture andpromotion to the service of human beings, that we aspire to reinstallas the center of news and history, in its relation with socialcommunication.The layout of this book is not controversial; however, confrontationwith the facts of the matter and with other ideas about it iscontroversial.
PI 11 Journalism in Social Sciences Sense A deep thought of Francis Bacon * suggests: “Among those who make a living out of knowledge there are some that, hearing only the experience, do not know other than collecting and gathering facts: they are the ants of science. Others, on the contrary, do not listen to other but reason, and build up systems with abstractions of the spirit; they are the spiders. The same as bees that collect pollen of flowers to elaborate it and transform it; real wisdom consults and enquires the cultural history and the experience; and then interprets and explains its facts in the light of principles and reasoning. It is precisely in the junction of these two elements and in the simultaneous application of experience and principles, where true science hope is.” The Media Confrontations Inexcusably and in essence, Social Communication Media in all its context, characteristics and form of *Bacon, Francis. English philosopher, writer and politician. He knew how
Journalism in Social Sciences d NewsPI 12 insertion in the life of people, by its nature and manifestations, turn into instruments of service and public welfare. With this premise they must therefore establish their roles, duties and rights. They are Media: mere public instruments of professional mediation and not ends in themselves. The main aims – permanent and superior- are verified by the intelligence, quality and humanity of the service they compulsory provide to society. By natural and legal rights, society determines the aims. Instrumental media are the source. Service to society is the aim and objective of its works. They are Massive: social communications are offered publicly, and they give media its massive characteristic due to the unlimited potential range with which they are established within all society – local, national or international- without any chance of making distinctions of groups or people, classes or age, culture or quality. They specifically include radio and television broadcasters. Society receive their transmission at no charge or paying agreed fees; newspapers and magazines, agencies and other new technology or more recent means, as the internet. They are different from other means that, even serving the purpose of transmission, are dominated as selective on purpose, when they aim at an identified, specific and consciously determined public, or when they are announced with a clear and precise objective, tendency or ideology that is held by its owners or manipulators. They are of Communication: it is their mission to spread professionally all that is trusted to their mediation, by means of language and techniques in order to satisfy society’s needs and expectations for common welfare making social dialogue possible. They are Social: when communications are
Journalism in Social Sciences PI 13 eminently public and unlimitedly horizontal, they disregard the idea that aims and interests of owners – direct and indirect- and of operators are imposed to those of society. On the contrary, they must be conditioned to the main and permanent aims of society. This social relationship, demanded by the public and tutelary condition of communications, is both a right and duty that is respected and an opportunity that is defended. This is lost when the acknowledgment of that main social gravitation is omitted, or when an abuse is committed with impunity at the time social communication takes place.Journalistic Leadership Within this context we must specify in a particular way, the mission trusted only to professional skill and journalism practice. In other words, to the processing of information in its different manifestations, formats and styles, whatever means this is done. There is an explicit examination that establishes and determines professional skill of journalism when handling information by Media, providing society with an implicitly contractual service that demands and gathers conditions, qualities and ways. For journalism to be able to inform, it has to be informed, defining two moments: search for and/or select information; and treat and transmit that info through its specific languages. Search and/or selection and transmission can not be reduced to unanimated, unconscious, superficial, routine or random tasks. On the contrary, information represents an intellectual, moral and spiritual support, necessary for every man’s development in society. It allows society to update about the events that reverts to its own and from it to the community’s public opinion – society.
Journalism in Social Sciences d NewsPI 14 This journalistic responsibility- professional role, opportunity gift and use of means- can not be reduced and limited to a secondary participation. For example, gather, repeat and broadcast information only linked by syntax, but fragmenting and disregarding its informative substantial qualities: truthfulness, objectivity and validity. This implies framing journalism in something more than a stagnated style that turns monotonous, systematic and dangerous; limiting the role of information to the application of a basic frame that responds to what happened, when, how, where or who, without getting ethically and culturally involved. “Idea Journalism” questions this tendency. Actually, any person with a little training – whether being journalist or not- is able to report news, bringing into line the classic questionnaire mentioned above. This observation warns that giving data or linking data syntactically as information is not performing the contemporary role that engages professional journalists. Journalism, being the only professionalized resort to validate and enhance information by the Media, is the one that has to select and give it the treatment to make us think, covering one of the most relevant layers in the process of society and in men’s lives. If information comes from the summary of journalistic methodological technique, the objective vision of events and the subjective gravitation inherent to human behavior, with all its influential manifestations increased by the constant penetration of media, its worth recognizing them as intellectual, moral and spiritual component of people’s lives, therefore of society: they shape the updating budget and humanity’s criteria.
PI 15 Reference InvestigationsTo formulate “Idea Journalism”, it was necessary toinvestigate hard and fairly journalistic behavioralong these latest years, using methods of logicaltest and common sense. Two configurations arose:“system” and “anonymous”.I. Why “SYSTEM * journalism”a) Because its most systematic productions sufferfrom severe methodological deficiencies as regardsthe way they select, treat, make and present thenews. Sustaining this in a stable and constant way,it turns into a one sense only and dominatingvertical “system”.b) These tendencies are present in very variedMedia, according to conceptual levels and politicaltendencies and behaviors.c) This allows us to infer that in the classes andstructures of professional journalists’ formation,the similar tendency validates dominating“systems” and validates methods or practices forthe treatment, making and presentation of news.Or it goes with theories, which are not based on*System: is an organization that includes all relevant moments, in a way
Journalism in Social Sciences d NewsPI 16 operative transferences, and turn them into inflationary theories. c) Consequently, in professional production, ancient guidelines outlast, without great variations except for rhetorical variations that affect technical vocabulary with new substituting or clarifying roles terminologies, which do not modify it. e) At the same time, binding corporations such as international organizations of consensus do not offer determining changes, except for political speeches. An evidence of this is what is seen when we deeply analyze national policies of social communications or corporative perspectives or binding organisms’ reports and at the same time their own inefficiency. f) The overview presented by professional journalists’ organizations and media moguls is not different. They do not outstand as updated and transforming vanguards for scientific, methodological and deontological projects, since they only proceed on the basis of their corporative interests. II. Why “ANONYMOUS* journalism” In analyzed journalistic productions, journalists are forced – and at the same time they accept it like that- to do a routine job that hides its eminently professional character and unconsciously they neglect their productions under protection of anonym and impunity. This way they mutilate the huge potential that as responsible authors and creators would allow them treat, make and finally present the news. Sample, verification and analysis give many guidelines and references, some permanent other innovative that make us confirm and establish that: *Anonymous: everyone and anyone.
Journalism in Social Sciences PI 17 1°) Journalism by culture, habit and necessity,is irreplaceable in the democratic life of society,but at the same time, as new techniques areincorporated to their material resources ofinfrastructure, means and technologies, itbecomes more encircling and its influence moreconditioning of society’s habits and culture.2°) If it reaches a greater level of penetration,it has to respond to that with a more engagedlevel of responsibility. There must be presentthe new conditions that ensure simultaneitybetween media progress and technologicalexcitement, and quality progress of that isbroadcasted; in this case, the news.However, from the journalistic behavioranalyzed arouse contradictions: a) Universal society is shaken by agreater amount of news, among the increasingbroadcasting and reception possibilities, butthere is less responsibility in its selection andqualitative treatment; b) Inadequacy of the professional staffthat has to manage information – in a loweramount of that required by a greaterbroadcasting and reception- and their notalways updated training – rather individualistic– diminish the importance, complicate and spoilthe quality of news treatment; with this theproblem worsen.From this diagnoses “Idea Journalism” statesfor professional discipline the followingprinciples:Journalism universalityResponsible objectivityRestoring of man as the center of informationJournalism profession and social science.
PI 18 Principles of Idea Journalism Universality Human family, intrinsically universal, needs more that ever before of communication towards the strengthening of peoples’ interrelation. This depends mainly on media. When its admirable technical resources – image and sound communication satellites, increasing number of teletype, telex, mobile phone, fax, photo-teletype lines, computing network- connect with the massive broadcasting platforms, which are the local, national and international media, formulate, in joint effort, a great opening to all men that are assisted by television, radio, newspaper and Internet communications. Those who make possible all dynamic for that communication of universal cohabitation are called addressors or social communicators. They, in one way or another, transmit culture and shorten distances between the most diverse communities. Due to this determining function, their professions must be recognized as the main right-duty and universal service.
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 19In the case of journalism, being in fact a localservice in every place that it is practiced; by itsrole, it is open to all humanity and even obligedfor the globalization gravitation and the newtechnologies that feed back and determinenews’ universality.There are no doubts now that technologicalprogress has solved the extension andimmediate traffic of news. What must be caredfor almost simultaneously is to resolve what todo with so much information; taking care of itsqualities to avoid distortions, inequality, andthat globalization turned into ideology andsystem of power for human thoughtmanipulation.Actually, it is not appropriate to say that thishas been achieved yet, but we are on thatdirection.News has reached greater irradiation andpenetration due to technological conquests, butnew questions arouse:Are they mere rhetorical products to makeeasier and more effective the quantitativebusiness of news?Is it about improving life quality, or istechnology used just to condition it, misleadingpublic opinion more easily?Is it just a technological evolution that turnsout of control because is not accompanied by adynamic in news quality?The universality sense, therefore, make usverify and even denounce partiality oftechnological-quantity progresses without ethic-cultural simultaneity in all their manifestations.It is appropriate then to ask: irradiate more,what for?Therefore, the sense of universality injournalism consists in being aware of the greatopening to all men in the universe through thetechniques, and incorporate selection andquality criteria that justify this universalitywhen making news.
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 20 Responsible Objectivity Recognizing and establishing journalism as a profession for universal service, it must validate through responsible objectivity to practice the right to manage news and comply with the duty to do it with truth, validity and credibility. Responsible objectivity is sustained with objective truth, appreciated with critical distance, according to the rules of logic, of principles and social experience, with methodological and methodic supports. Idea Journalism proposes them. Making news ideological, forces objectivity; when events, context and processes’ selection and treatment are manipulated, subduing them to political, economic, cultural interests. Restoring Man in the center of information News in the journalistic process cannot do other than assisting man and society, always that we understand assisting as an objective and industrious search for the truth. There are some that wrongly sustain that we have to give people what they want in order to please them, even acknowledging that we are not giving always the best; but treating them as objects. Who can seriously determine what people want? Is not it more important to know them and discover what is really useful and necessary for them? In the case of news, only the truth is supreme. Every arrangement or instrumentation of truth to distort it, or every omission on purpose is a direct aggression to man’s freedom and dignity. This worsens when media is used for this. Media reaches a huge, heterogeneous and anonymous audience. In a small circle of people, the effect of a piece
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 21of news that is given deliberately orunconsciously distorted can be correctedbecause communication is direct and undercontrol. But through Mass Media, the effect isunpredictable.The belief about who are the truth and newsreal owners is frequently incorrect.Media owners or operators may believe thatpracticing the power of managing informationgives rights to them, but never the right toappropriation of the truth. The truth does notbecome private through social mediation.The rightful owner of information, withexclusive and excluding rights, is every man, allmen and every man that constitute humanity.That is why is appropriate, for the commonwelfare, to preserve that social right, fragileand unclearly settled in Human Rights andConstitutions.In the universe – even though unfortunately isstill the same in theory- it is said andrecognized that the truth must be guaranteedto public opinion, society and men.It cannot be understood or practiced in anotherway, since information –as it is being sustainedin this proposal- is an intellectual, moral andspiritual support, essential for men’s life. And inthe same way nobody can encourage genocide,by any means, as regards men’s physicalintegrity –human history verdict-, we cannotpretend intellectual, moral and spiritualgenocide either, whatever refined ways to trythis against humanity.News, being a vital intellectual support, cannotbe altered in their basic principles and even intheir shapes. It is not news, freedom of speechor truth that are finally violated, but it is men’sintegrity that is at risk; that as they cannotgrow biologically healthy with contaminatedmaterials, or preserve and lengthen theirhealthy lives with adulterated medicines, theycannot grow with news – intellectual support-
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 22 that are contaminated by manipulation or wrong treatment of them. That is also corruption. Any of these figures represent – especially when they represent systems or campaigns- submission of men: they condition, excite, degrade and subdue him to seductive forms, more and more subtle and more and more irradiated and penetrating. “Idea Journalism” –as seen later in theory and methods- proposes restoring man in the core of information, as a supreme subject, authentically worthy of being served and promoted for the truth. Man who is cause, basis and aim of all social organization, must be in plenitude of all his rights, the only reference factor in the processing of information. For a simple and irrefutable reason: because he is a human being and not a profane consumer behind every radio or television receptor, behind every newspaper or magazine page, or behind every web page as digital journalistic mediation. Journalism profession and social science The three proposed and distinguished values, namely: journalism universality, responsible objectivity and the urge to restore man, in his sublime dignity, to the core of news; imply reconsidering professional journalism in its principles and central role. This process has to be backed up by theories and methods. The reflection of complying with the universal approach of information demands understanding and positioning journalism as a professional and universal activity, and insert
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 23journalists capable to do so. This is also usefulto require and ensure cultural interceptionachievements in such process.In order to have easy and clear rules foruniversal communication, this must beunquestionably guaranteed by responsibleobjectivity and subjectivity; by the honesty andrichness of the treatment; reasonable criteriafor selection and promotion of news.Restore man in the center of news with all hisqualities, freedom and dignity as a humanbeing and with identical possibilities in face ofmedia that has to serve him substantially,promotes his consideration as vital subject andcorrects the distortions that limit him as a merenews consumer. It is only this way that the addresser acquiresrelevance in every professional instance ofcommunication.This way, the one that conditions the rules isthe addressee, accepted in all his majesty ashuman being, irreplaceable main factor ofMedia, consequently, the rules of the “system”must subordinate to him and not the other wayround.“Idea Journalism” proposes to revise behaviors,ensuring the inalienable principles of man andsociety, and that demand a “counter-system”with methods.It is pertinent to accept that news universalityis not so only for its traffic through the mostadvanced technical media, but because it isbased on human, social and intellectualprinciples. All this takes to a change in culturalreasoning, formation and institutionalization ofprofessional journalist.Public information by Massive Media andsupreme service to humanity must combinethrough a prestigious professional disciplinethat ensures character in the treatment of newsand ethics over its moral sense.A new professional discipline that demands a
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 24 strong and engaged training, this guarantee must be offered since the superior level of learning. Discipline journalism in its preparatory and functional instances within a humanist and universal framework of our time leads to its characterization as a social science. What is science but a search for theories and methodologies? What is journalism but searching and finding truth, with strong theories and methodologies to communicate it as information? Framing journalism as a social science, it is conceived as part of human and social sciences. In this way it has to launch in the search for new reliable requirements to satisfy, with the greatest professional capacity, the demands of validity required by social communication and with this credibility, universality and responsible objectivity for the superior service of humanity. The reasons for this adaptation emerge as natural and logical demand of contemporary challenges and from the close relationship of journalism with the accelerated benefits of other sciences and technologies, which impose the dynamic of social communications. We have to favor and find the ways for a mentality and discipline that modifies old concepts and that helps to adapt to cultural changes of society. The advances of sciences are greater and greater. Journalism can not be outdated or it will remain just as a “run, go and tell” activity. Consequently, journalism is called to a methodic discipline to improve human knowledge that nourishes from what is shown in the media, they are more and more involving, penetrating and determining. But, let other know, demands knowing what to do and how to do it, in a methodological and convincing way, with hierarchy and stability, avoiding or preventing the risks of
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 25improvisations.This is placed as a demand for the humanfamily to elevate to the sublime concepts oftruth, kindness, justice, dignity as universalrequirements, distinguishing that human spiritthat grows by the revelation and living of truth,at the same time explains and orientates whyman starts feeling less objects-dependant andmore served by them.The truth cared as the essence for theinformative and in cultural function, excites theminds to a deeper and more carefulintelligence. Universality of the profession, itsprestige, its discipline, are constituted inauthorized way of relation between men,enlightening their miseries and joys, theirdeficiencies and abilities, projecting themtowards a better future.But such aspirations cannot be elucidated andapplied only with scattered intentions or forindividualistic qualities. They must be carriedand admitted as a sort of normative school ineach mean of communication, in eachcommunity, in universal society; therefore inthe practice of journalism.It is a hard way due to its sacrifices, but theonly one capable of precisely characterizing thereal role of social communication in the processof information. This process is born in the man,grows, and if it is elevated to a superiorcategory in its content and treatment, it returnsto society to serve it, providing intellectualsupport to improve human being andknowledge.This circuit is the one that turns the simpletreatment of information into responsiblemaking, which in “Idea Journalism” issummarized these premises facilitated in itsmethodologies: know how to think, makeothers think and let them think. This is what wecall the message-information.
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 26 “Idea Journalism” proposes: • To consider information not as a rhetoric service of gathered words, sounds and images, but as a service of messages that are elaborated with the contribution of news, facts, opinions, as intellectual, moral and spiritual support for people’s lives. • The treatment that message- information should receive must be consequence of a harmonic professional training, with the support of sufficient, progressive and ethically- social scientific methods to ensure the thought vitality ,and the universal and social responsibility of the media. The transformation we propose cannot only be oriented to recognizing the addressees of communication –the audience- but also praise professional addressors: the journalists. Consequently, “Idea Journalism” promotes authorial and autonomous professionalism, which implies for every journalist to take responsibility of information in its treatment, to grow as a thinker and to give himself as a creator. It is the journalist himself who will be vindicated as a person, practicing all his faculties, freeing from anonym that for its vices has made possible to systematize impunity in the wrong process of information. This way “Idea Journalism” justifies itself as a search for man, finds addressors and addressees again. And the state of Autonomy is incorporated, vouched for society through the certificate and training promoted and guaranteed by superior studies, in order not to be dependant on a
Principles of Idea Journalism PI 27 uniformed and only informing system, but capable of making autonomous, active, creative and profitable journalistic productions of self- management and of offer to a globalized and multimedia market, but in this case to make it more human.Self-management and MultimediaJournalism As an answer to contemporary challenges, our school has incorporated to professional training, knowledge, skills and abilities that allow journalists multifunctional roles and multimedia resolutions in the processes of preproduction, production and postproduction. In accordance with the particular dimension in which “Idea Journalism” is given to professionals, they will be able to manage with his own methodology in independent developments and systematically recreate his authorial charisma. It is this way, because he does not alienate his creative talent to the Media with which he might have dependency relations –limited but not absolute-. If he is not in those conditions, he is restrained as professional. He can and should continue producing pieces of social communication such as those allowed by a creative and recreated journalism of research, protocol, abstracts, reports, documentaries, essays –invigorating his professional role and conditions-. These are useful not only for their specific growth but also to be offered to editorials or audiovisual companies that are interested in broadcasting. It is the self- management and multimedia journalism for the modern market. There are many Media that outsource a big part of their special productions now, and there are many proposals through internet. “Idea Journalism”, rescuing a new weighing order in social communication, wants to
Principles of Idea Journalism d NewsPI 28 highlight the journalist as a professional, permanent manager and leader of information, a continuous promoter of ideas and journalistic productions. A panorama is pretended to be widen with this, and at the same time to provide and answer to skepticism that usually invades many professionals, graduate and undergraduate university students. Universal reality shows how great works were made by professionals of different activities, who without the support of structures that made them independent, were able to establish formidable contributions for human welfare. This made them deserve their geniality and intellectual ownership.
PI 29 Theory and MethodologyInformation supposes as generality “action ofcommunication”, in “Idea Journalism” it isparticularized with some kind of property,because its contents are activated through theuse of Mass Media.Media are those instruments for publicbroadcasting that make use of social interestinformation and must use them to keep socialdialogue and discussion between addressors andaddressees. The most common ones are radioand television broadcasters, sound andaudiovisual broadcasting, newspapers andmagazines, graphic broadcasting; news agencies,even though their news services reach theaudience indirectly through media that providesdirect service to all society and every other meanand format developed and used with newtechnologies and with that purpose, as webpages, internet, and other technologicalnetworks.The varied ways of presenting news –in anyinstance or form of development-, is reflectedaccording to the broadcasting Mean and the style
Theory and Methodology d NewsPI 30 used. Whatever the genre or journalistic characteristic applied, and the way or reason for its insertion in mass media, it is all information. For “Idea Journalism”, information does not only consists of news and journalistic service, but by the nature and function of Mass Media, it encompasses any broadcasting carried out by these means as a tutelary good*. In the journalistic spaces only, they acquire definite shapes, depending on whether they are daily news and topics, the aspects that society cares about. In the case they are not journalistic, but channeled as broadcasting through mass media, they require particular and very distinctive qualifications, avoiding confusions. This is the case of commercial information (direct or institutional publicity) or ideological information (propaganda). Publicity and propaganda cannot be handled with privileged rules. As these rules are now, they certainly oppose to the superior aim appointed in the principles of this book. These distinctions in “Idea Journalism”, as regards all “communicative action”, signal interest, not only for informing itself but because they take into account the reasons for informing and the social and democratic effects that are aimed at when doing so. Summing up, it is considered journalistically professional, which preponderant in this theory, all that is constituted formally and effectively in the process of Social Communication for it most structured manifestations and of multimedia and alternative broadcasting (radio, TV, press, internet, etc.). That is to say: *UNESCO definition “One world, multiple voices”
Theory and Methodology PI 31 News Articles Column Comments Interviews Editorials In “Idea Journalism”, Theory and Methodology explain the process of making information- message. It consists of seven steps as a referential and potential structure: 1° Society – Trend 2° Familiarization 3° Inwardness 4° Return to society, news sustenance 5° Message to society – Information pedagogy 6° Journalistic discourse in news- Message 7° Result controlInformation – Message Information – our subject matter- is not limited as “communicative action”, but it is important to care about the cause and effect of information, applying a method in accordance with the essential aims of this proposal. Information- message demands a main role that cares for, guides and elaborates it. It is this active participation the one that enables the journalist or communicator in his entire dimension as a responsible and creditable professional. Moreover, the quality of message is the demand for every piece of news that by its content allows it, to carry a necessary and practical formulation, capable of constituting a proposal for man in society, not by doing a simple listing of events and circumstances merely routinely. It is called “information-message” because this
Theory and Methodology d NewsPI 32 way it structures the association of the described event or the gathered opinion, with the vital contribution, the creation, that reflects what benefits man and society. The message is as an act of deep reflection that preserves life quality as a constant, implementing the articulation of these key premises in Idea Journalism: Know How to Think, Make Others Think, and Let Them Think: Vouching for their validity and credibility Précising information due to lack of components Clarifying the focus and sense of information when proving its negativity for man and/or society’s welfare. Highlighting information when for its strength is determining in man and/or society’s promotion. Incorporating necessary and practical ideas as proposals that may also require for experts, as regards the information or topic. Developing a pedagogic action In order to comply with these and other complementary requirements, it is necessary to explain and contextualize information-message with unity sense. It has been said that professional, active, thinking, and creative main role is the generator. Any information becomes useless or spoiled as message if journalistic management only facilitates knowledge about an event, opinion, document, etc, according to whether the text was produced or prepared by third parties outside the media, or journalists just repeat or fragment it when broadcasting, without any substantial treatment and selection, except for adapting its syntax and elementary journalistic forms. To avoid giving thinking and creative qualities to information is insisting on simplifying the professional’s role to a simple, elementary
Theory and Methodology PI 33 reproducer. It is overriding his responsibility, neglecting to take it and forgetting what society has passed to him, for him to care for the information to be something more than just a collection of written or sound words or images, which are unlinked, confusing or socially useless. For the information to acquire sense, it must reflect and give a better future for man, as a constant. Information-message, due to the journalist’s valuable contribution, starts being the center and core of a complex but exciting effort to be useful, in each case, in favor of man’s superior welfare, counteracting the evil generated by human miseries. The vitality in this task –in which information technology is incorporated- cannot be effectively applied with “electronic brains”. These allow accelerating and endlessly reproducing a great number of pieces of information –provision of allusive documents, composition or broadcasting-, but we would never go any further of getting information. For this to be a message, professional participation is irreplaceable.Autonomous and authorial That professional participation that elaborates, cares, and guides information, and that also takes moral and social responsibility for it; confirms and habilitates in “Idea Journalism” the authorial quality that distinguishes and is given to every journalist, preserving: Professional freedom Knowledge demand Methodic and methodological behaviors Not because the journalist necessarily has to identify in every one of his professional acts before public opinion, but as a direct consequence that every one of those acts is a personal work, which does not pretend an
Theory and Methodology d NewsPI 34 unnecessary appearance, a vain nomination. It is because it has assumed its responsible, professional, vital, creative participation in the information process. We have stressed the recreation of the profession, pointing at self-management, as an independent alternative. Referential method Having outlined these explanations, we will explain now every one of the spaces that compose the elaboration method for information-message that does not have any intention of bureaucratizing the journalistic job. The essential is that with this, it is established and stabled that all journalism is research journalism, because it supposes professional management if it is carried with methodological support and in a methodological way.
PI 35 Methodological Process THINKER IWhat is a method?Philosophically, it means “Order in sciences forinvestigating and teaching the truth; it is in twoways: analytical and comprised”.Analytical: “The one that decomposes everything inits constituting parts and studies every one of themseparately, to get to know its principles orelements, going from particular cases to generaltruths that encompass them.”Comprised: “The one that goes from general truthsto conclude in the deduction of particular casesencompassed in them.”Methodology: Science about the method. “Group ofrules that must be followed when studying ascience.”* TopicWe call Topic to every matter of social, local,regional, national or international interest, whicharises and/or is proposed for journalistic mediationto be broadcasted in Mass Media.It is of professional character when it isoriginated by journalistic management, or when it*Universal Encyclopedia. Sciences Encyclopedia.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 36 it arrives by cable or news agency service, that gives it for granted. It is not professional, when is given with interest by institutions –private or public- of social organization; or spontaneously by experts or particular people –contacts, spontaneous coworkers, etc- or when it means the expression of popular murmur (gossip, version), that being interesting and useful for society, demands professional interception to acquire category and social relevance. steps
Methodological Process PI 37Primary facts arrives by cable or news agency service, that gives it for granted. It is not professional, when is given with interest by institutions –private or public- of social organization; or spontaneously by experts or particular people – contacts, spontaneous coworkers, etc- or when it means the expression of popular murmur (gossip, version), that being interesting and useful for society, demands professional interception to acquire category and social relevance. steps TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISMVital Professional Participation SOCIETY- TREND 1 analysis- area - covering TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) FAMILIARIZING 2 documentation - objective DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM INWARDNESS 3 sense - objective SOCIETY- TREND 1 analysis- area - covering RETURN TO SOCIETY 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space FAMILIARIZING length - sequence 2 documentation - objective MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) INWARDNESS 3 sense - objective inform – educate – guide make others think – promote RETURN TO SOCIETY JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space indicative shape data length - sequence RESULT CONTROL 7 foreseeable course and effect MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data RESULT CONTROL 7 foreseeable course and effect
Methodological Process d NewsPI 38 Every Topic requires a minimum of primary facts or components: what happened; how; when; where; who; and any other reference. TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM With this mark of the authorial, Topic can the the origin of the introduces be SOCIETY- TREND distinguished: formal involved in a vital professional language, facts, case, 1 emergent; participationthe itscharacter in elaboration,that to analysis- area - covering and 2 FAMILIARIZING documentation - objective treat information with efficacy, geographically locates it: local, regional, INWARDNESS provincial, aware ofinternational. this has in national, the value 3 sense - objective society. RETURN TO SOCIETY This professional projection acquires 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space the vital sign, because it must length - sequence nourish from principles, knowledge Development of Idea Journalism MESSAGES TO SOCIETY and life experience; replacing all 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote improvised and impersonal tendency. The orientation that the object of JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE social communication has in order to indicative shape data ensure quality and common welfare 7 RESULT CONTROL foreseeable course and effect depends on this vital participation. Society - Trend Society - Trend The journalist’s role in the process of information-message, with the distinguishing
Methodological Process PI 39 avoid being updated about man and society’s problems. To strengthen his knowledge in such wide respect, he must resort in a routine and disciplined way to whichever mean allows him to be informed about such complex and even unpredictable topics. The logic of a topic will be considered solved when the problematic and joint trend of the surrounding society has been taken into account. The answer will be easy, as far as the professional journalist or the professional group in charge of a topic has some cultural basis and keeps updated about the process of humanity, summarized by events, values, opinions. Even though reality provides its evidence, or sometimes they are the result of valuable pre- existing analysis works, in the way the idea of journalism with methodological basis advances, new explanations can be encountered. They will update legitimate parameters about the trend of humanity and of every social society, in a serious and continuous way – above all without ideologies-. Journalism has spoiled its efforts many times – except for on purpose intentions- when it did not know how to solve the Topic-Context- Society assembly, caused by the ignorance of the controversial and complex reality. In this first step we have the spaces dedicated to Analysis, Area and Covering of the Topic.Interception analysis Analysis virtually puts to test the entire professional’s potentiality. It is the time when methodology, knowledge and logic combine to support decisions about the Topic as event- process. It is at this point that every Topic must be framed by its intrinsic characteristics, qualities and social importance and as regards its categories to get a place in social
Methodological Process d NewsPI 40 communication. These are questions that demand a core decomposition and exploration. It is a kind of social challenge to cultural and technical capacity, to ethics and responsibility, and above all, to maturity and vitality of thought of professional journalists. The Topic is analyzed with the gathered components and conditions and according to the service it will provide to man and society. As regards the first point, it is clear about its minimal informative strengths and weaknesses to justify its development. Its real importance, urgency, and interest for society and its trend will be determined in its qualities. The moment of analysis is important, crucial and key point, because it is when the professional decides whether the Topic has to be feasible and installed as public information, or disregarded; whether it is of immediate inclusion in broadcasting or it must be kept until its verification and greater treatment. And so on and so forth, successive alternatives. These resolutions are virtually a privilege in the process of Topic treatment, because the only witnesses are the professionals that have the internal responsibility in the Media. Errors of Analysis can encompass: hiding the truth, censorship, exclusion, desecration or mutilation of the truth; promotion of untruth news, neglect a truth, etc. These risks are taken when choosing to promote or disregard information, or when its treatment is partial or exaggerated. “Idea Journalism” rescues every professional as a responsible in these stages of methodological development of Analysis, allowing the writing body of each mean to participate, according to the form of working and organization. This is done not only to recognize that there is a hierarchical structure constituted in every Media but to propose teamwork with a
Methodological Process PI 41 cooperative sense – and every time it is possible- before the great social responsibility in the management of topics that become public and tutorial information.Area In all the topics – without exceptions- there is a formal range of origin and direct or indirect reference, explicit or implicit from which it has arouse or started. In a direct way when the source is mentioned. In an indirect way, when it is about an event and when it is implicitly deducted, or when the source is anonymous and must be intercepted, deduced or confirmed. The one who has to make the effort to shape the area is the Professional in journalism that cannot be content only with what might be explicit or implicit in the proposal or event. To precise the area of a topic helps journalism to investigate the causes and order what will be the unfolding of such topic, in the process of treatment as information, and at the same time, to find the protagonists involved, which possibly will be able to feed it back through facts, interviews, documents and reasoning. topic area coveringCovering Whereas the Area is the space reserved to shape the starting range of a Topic, Covering encompasses the comprising segment of movement of that, concrete or possible. It is located or uncovered here, by reasoning and deduction, to which in society the Topic will interest or affect, and its possible broadcasting when it is promoted to public information. For example: if the Topic is originated in a
Methodological Process d NewsPI 42 State organization – a resolution in taxes or wages, for instance- the professional in journalism is the one that, disregarding that he knows about the topic and the society, should point who are directly or indirectly, explicitly or implicitly implicated in such Topic – wage earners, unions, businessman, taxpayers, etc- through the social structure. This way, it is determined the logical and possible circuit that tackling suggests, when moving to society. In the space of Covering is proposed, besides solving where to get the references and the concurrent repercussions to complement the journalistic management, to give a real place to the Topic in society and that society participates. This way, it stops being only the consumer of information by the Media, it allows to widen treatment resources balancing the possibilities for everyone, making contributions, giving opinions, supporting, criticizing, giving it legitimate belonging. The division in Area and Covering, done in this step, is used to order ideas about social organization, facilitating the location of the stage and the protagonists involved in the topics, and it makes journalists think about the ones implicated and about the implications of each Topic in society. Finally, if the Topic is installed as anonymous, version or gossip that justifies the potentiality for taking public state, it demands to be dimensioned in the covering due to its social impact. topic analysis area covering
Methodological Process PI 43 In the second methodological step, TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) accurate and dynamic researches are DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM carried out to deepen the Topic. SOCIETY- TREND 1 Familiarizing is a joint and/or historic analysis- area - covering documentation, evidential of each 2 FAMILIARIZING documentation - objective Topic, and every fact or opinion INWARDNESS taken from the experts, 3 sense - objective representative and knowledgeable RETURN TO SOCIETY people that can support it. 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space length - sequence MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGYDocumentation (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) inform – educate – guide make others think – promote As a documental and bibliographic JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES source, documentation helps as 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data illustrative support for a serious RESULT CONTROL treatment of any Topic. 7 foreseeable course and effect Its characteristics are many. They can be documents, bibliographies, recordings, interviews, field investigations, statistics, photographs, videos, etc. This first step proposes locating the topic within It can be given to each Media along with the the social context in which it is produced and topic proposal, or otherwise, it must be from which it is projected. collected or looked for in the appropriate Every Topic is local when it belongs to a field of places: public or private libraries, newspaper concrete geographic origin. But to the media it libraries, and video libraries, Media and is interesting for; it might be local, regional, institutions archives, informatics’ memory, national or international according to its origin internet, etc. It will depend on the Topic. and projection. The truth is, that when historic-joint It is correct to make this observation for documentation as documentation is looked for, making possible that the Topic receives a besides imposing in journalism the trend that treatment according to surrounding reality, at links problematic and culture in the process of the time it is produced, and to avoid that, by information, it is not done other than link and any reason that ignores such references, the accept that every present has a history; a treatment could be inappropriate or confusing. concurrent or compared explanation, It results obvious that the journalist references, studies, statistics, cues and professionally trained, must know the better expressions, probably recorded and valid. possible universal society reality in its main To admit certain Topics – that demand manifestations and problematic. More documentation- isolating them from particularly, the one from his country and antecedents, do not effort to get them, or region of influence of his activity or of coverage of the Mean he works for.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 44 antecedents, do not effort to get them, or omitting facts and experiences that can satisfy any documentation, is wasting the chance for enriching the cultural-informative task of Media and disregard methodological requirements. Experts The word Expert is used to individualize all those people that can provide testimonial facts or justified opinions for the treatment of Topics. The meaning of Expert is applied to any person that has witnessed an event, or that is related to its origin or consequences, and to every qualified person to provide authorized opinion about the Topic. Those who have responsibility in society about the Topics can be included in this category. Summing up, the protagonists, specialists, or people inherent to a piece of information to balance it in objective responsibility comprise Experts. They are necessary to extend facts about the information and the journalist’s cultural universe. To assure it and make contributions, giving permanent and systematic place to society’s participation in the process of social communications and making truth fruitful, through the possibility of participation and equality by the contest of different opinions. The opinions taken from the Experts could be used in different way in the treatment of a Topic, whether it is by transmitting those opinions as part of the information or making use of them to justify the news treatment.
Methodological Processomitting facts and experiences that can PI 45satisfy any documentation, is wastingSumming up, the protagonists, specialists, orthe chance for enriching the cultural-people inherent to a piece of information toinformative in objective responsibility comprisebalance it task of Media and disregard TOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components)methodological requirements.Experts. DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM SOCIETY- TREND 1 analysis- area - covering FAMILIARIZING 2 documentation - objectiveThe It is aExpert is usedthe individualize word challenge for to journalist INWARDNESSall in his discipline and knowledge of those people that can provide 3 sense - objective methodology and for his essencetestimonial facts or justified opinions for RETURN TO SOCIETY as a creative being, capable ofthe treatment of Topics. 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space length - sequenceThe knowing of Expert is applied that meaning how to think and to any MESSAGES TO SOCIETYperson that has witnessed merit and or way legitimate the an event, 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION)that opportunity thatto was given to or is related he its origin inform – educate – guide make others think – promoteconsequences, let think. every qualified make and and to JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSESperson to provide authorized opinion 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape dataabout the Topic. Those who haveThe opinions taken from the Experts could be7 RESULT CONTROLresponsibility in society about the Topics foreseeable course and effectused in different way in the treatment of acan be included in this category.Topic, whether it is by transmitting thoseopinions as part of the information or makinguse of them to justify the news treatment. InwardnessInwardness demands the greatest professional,humanist, intellectual, moral and cultural effortto enhance and recreate the Topic-Informationwith a sense and objective.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 46 personal concepts, prejudice or ideologies in order to make his professional responsibility prevail and coincide with a kind of social subjectivity that arises from society with lasting and valid values of what is natural in collective consciousness and culture. The ideological subjectivity of the journalist will never come before to condition or subdue society. Inwardness goes beyond. It is its mission to point and suggest necessary transformations for the man and the community, defining the Objective of every information-message. An inevitable consequence of the potential effect desired by means of this, for Common Welfare. It is spontaneously present when the positive and transcendental of human events is excelled, and when the negative and degrading in them is discouraged and fought. However, it may grow in a more effective way, when adding ideas and concrete projects that are shown in the aim-objective that the journalist will propose and support with the sense he will give to every piece of information. This comes from the contributions that have been achieved in that enterprising search in each one of his managements. To sum up, internalize is like diving into each Topic decided as information, to understand it and precise it in its social aim. This way information acquires the vitality transmitted by the journalist that cares for it, which familiarizes it and integrates as his own, and turns it into experience and superior cause. That way a piece of news with an aim and basis is ready to be launched to massive communication, for its solidity and truth and attracting for its newly precision, at the mercy of the Sense and Objective that the authorial journalist claims and resolves: “To teach the human condition…” and “to learn the job of living…”* *Edgar Morin
Methodological Process PI 47Sense The continuum of treatment faces the Topic with the one that will be its real cultural author, decided to turn it into information-message. Up to now it was enough to apply technical knowledge and experience with vital participation, organizing the context for the Topic –its previous expansion and prospective-, this is the moment to define its aim, depth and human benefit. Only this way it will be possible to make it live among the rest when it is broadcasted. Being able to internalize a Topic that is already in information process will demand a cultural engagement with priorities, basis and effectiveness. Inwardness should care not only of the truth ofObjective the information, but also make it effective and useful with responsible objectivity and subjectivity. The layer of subjectivities – for its depth and even mystery- does not have a regulating method for its absolute determination, but it *Casuistry of Human Rights.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 48 Objective that it seeks to achieve with creativity. If the Sense of Information is the cause of its aim, the Objective is the aim with a cause. The journalist will look for that Objective according to the expectations and superior interests of Common Welfare. It must be concrete, useful and fruitful to allow society take decisions. There will be times in which, by broadcasting information, the Objective seeks help or solution to the dramatic problem of a particular person, of a group or community, because it is not determined by the amount of people involved but for the social benefit that encourages. A mother or a wife claims for a child or a husband profaned in their legitimate rights; someone claims for an exceptional medicine; another does it for legitimate social justice. When in war, he will foster peace; in discouragement, hope; to misery, dignity; to injustice, vindication. The important is to take implicit the cause and the effect that assembles every information- message, for man and society welfare. That is why it has to be feasible and ethical; justified and creatively exposed. As with every hypothesis of Social Sciences, and for many reasons, the objective might be restated throughout the course of treatment of information-message and even after this has been broadcasted, feeding it back. The journalist professional, even though being responsible, is not infallible. Neither can he
Methodological Process PI 49foresee all the following, simultaneous,concurrent or modifying course contingencies ofinformation-message in its social displacement.Any Objective correction will do no other thanimprove professional management, adjusted tothe line of principles sustained by the Sense.The Objective, aim-effect of information-message public broadcasting, flexible in itsproposals and directions, does not do otherthan facilitate the destiny of all communication,responding to superior interests that are notthe journalist’s ones or the Media ones, butthey are always and only valid if they are theones of society that bring all into line.Further on Social Pedagogy of Information in“idea Journalism” will be added, in the 5° step(Message to Society), arranging a stableservice of human promotion.
Methodological Process d NewsPI 50 Return to SocietyTOPIC: PRIMARY FACTS (origin, character, components) Every Topic, which in one way or DEVELOPMENT OF IDEA JOURNALISM another interests the Media as an issue SOCIETY- TREND of social event, must resolve in this 1 step the formal and organic aspects for analysis- area - covering 2 FAMILIARIZING documentation - objective public broadcasting. INWARDNESS In its evolution, it has received, 3 sense - objective through methodological treatment, not RETURN TO SOCIETY only informative ingredients. 4 SUPPORTING THE NEWS mean- genre – space Consequently, every information- length - sequence message is a structured piece “ad MESSAGES TO SOCIETY 5 MESSAGE INFORMATION PEDAGOGY (INFORMATION- CULTURE – PROMOTION) intro” in order to constitute “ad extra”, inform – educate – guide make others think – promote as intellectual, moral and spiritual JOURNALISTIC DISCOURSES support for man, who has to receive it 6 IN THE NEWS- MESSAGE indicative shape data for any Mass Media. RESULT CONTROL This makes the formal 7 foreseeable course and effect institutionalization of information in full social relation. According to the mean and the characteristics through which broadcasting is made, the way to do it has to be resolved. The Media, according to the resources it has, its policies and style, and the responsible professional, is the one that has to decide the return and the most effective installation of such information in society. This implies specifying: the opportunity, genre, characteristics, format and intensity. All the indicators that have been accumulated are useful to support these decisions. Every journalistic structure should provide not only its material potentialities in these instances, but also the good use it can –and should- do of them; giving communication productions the resources of a dynamic, active and serious journalism, with scientific basis, research and methodology. The relation media- receptor is institutional, due to the demands it makes every Media comply with the transcendental role they are conferred, and at the same time, it is vital because it will provide information with an appropriate treatment,
Methodological Process PI 51 information with an appropriate treatment, documented and creative, thanks to the authorial participation of the professional.Media The universality of methodology encompasses all Media, formats and journalistic genre. Considering that fact, the presentation details will –creatively- define the recommended variations. Multimedia companies as well as news Agencies will give different treatment to the same topic, adapting them in form and language.Genre Determining the genre or journalistic expression that will formalize the information- message is essential for knowing how it will be developed. It is known that in journalism every genre or formal way of expression has its particularities. Such is the case of news, news in brief, interview, comment, column, editorial. It has been proved nowadays that there are not pure genres because in one way or another they are all interactive.Space – extension and sequence The Space – extension really refers to modalities and informative styles of each Media, and to the dimension given to each Topic. The Sequence refers to the evolution and potential guidelines to adapt its sustainability in the interest and for the interest of society. Knowing in which space and with which quantitative dimension the information- message will acquire its social displacement, is a main fact to adapt its preparation. This is determined by those that coordinate the contextualization of the media, including the evaluating team, the writing team, editors and
Methodological Process d NewsPI 52 journalistic producers; and also admit that the professional in charge of the topic can propose and defend to that matter, for the responsibility and authorship that relies on him. Determining the genre or form of expression chosen, is accompanied by the decision about the space it can cover. Anyway, its space-extension will have relation with the importance of its dimension, and certainly, with its final quality; reference that is common to all Means of Communication. It is very interesting to foresee a Sequence of topic sustainability, with successive information-messages, since it has explicit relation with the pursued Objective and possible alternatives. Information-message proposes a more applied development. This leads to questioning about the possibility of doing it in certain Media where information get a fast pace as in radio and television. Of course it is possible. The answer is positive from the substantial: if information is an intellectual, moral and spiritual support that ensures validity and credibility, its content can not be daily and elementary diminished. As regards the Sequence of a Topic, it is important to take some examples, and in the universal panorama we find countless of them. The case of an expansive contamination, natural catastrophes, disturbances, corruption, violence, absence of peace in a community or between nations, wars, etc. There are in all fields: social, political, economic, education, religious, cultural, sport. In all of them, the process of social communication, through the treatment of information as messages, is vital and essential; it contributes to human progress and welfare, sustaining the Topic to the top, according to the Sense and Objective determined by the professional responsibility and the Media.
Methodological Process PI 53 This does not mean denying that the treatment of information, before their multiplicity –by greater universal influx and fast traffic- demands in every moment a careful use of the time available in each mean, as well as all creativeness, art and design to make communication attractive; in other words, the modernization and contextualization of spaces. It is not less true that it does not correspond to establish the speed and quality antinomy of information as opposed and irreconcilable, because this would mean a loss of responsibility superior to communications as protecting good. It is untrue to sustain paradigmatically that so commonly used about the “tyranny of time” – that is claimed a lot on radio and television, more as an excuse than as a truth, in order to avoid improvisations-, since the demands of taking the truth to public opinion cannot be sacrificed and subdued to vices or other interests.Multimedia Journalism Protocol For self-managing and multimedia journalism we have developed the idea of multimedia journalistic protocols. Basis: “The change of time and the time of change” undeniable in this new century, determine the need for a responsible and creative journalism, innovative in response to these challenges. Therefore, the certainty and convenience of an appropriate planning that combines theory and practice of neo investigation Journalism in a methodic and methodological way for the
Methodological Process d NewsPI 54 treatment of relevant topics for society, and with that the scientific-social validity of them, with creativity and originality through the Journalistic Protocols. General Objective: strengthen training from our school, and promote interest in promoting and establishing Autonomous and Authorial Self- managing Journalism. Specific Objective: center in only one topic of investigation (particularly of social interest) and simultaneously assuming its knowledge in depth and the immediate journalistic productions, through and ordered series of articles and/or matrix multimedia productions for its broadcasting offer in a certain period. Basic Diagram: the Protocol requires an appropriate planning through its development in determined periods and following its stages: 1) Topic selection 2) Summary of the proposal or topic description 3) Justification of the topic 4) Formulation and posing of the problem for investigation, clarifying its object of study (framing it in space and time)