Angiosperms (flowering plants)• Plants that protect their seeds within the body of a fruit.• Make up ¾’s of all plants, including: – Trees, shrubs, herbs, grasses, water plants…
What is a fruit?• Orange tree?• Avocado tree?• Pumpkin plant?• Zucchini plant?• Tomato plant?
Structure of a FlowerPage 138 Life Science Text 1. Pistil 2. Stigma 3. Style 4. Ovary 5. Stamen 6. Filament 7. Anther 8. Petal 9. Sepal 10. Receptacle 11. Stem
The Stamen:Male Reproductive Structure Consists of two parts: Anther and Filament The filament is a stalk that supports the anther The anther is where meiosis occurs to produce haploid pollen Each pollen grain contains sperm cells.
The Pistil:Female Reproductive Structure Consists of the stigma, style and ovary The sticky stigma receives the pollen from the anther The pollen grows a tube down through the style Meiosis occurs in the ovary to produce haploid ovules Each ovule contains an egg cell.
Reproductive Structures• Petals: colorful • Sepals: surround and structures that attract protect the flower bud. pollinators.
Pollination Wind, insects or other animals transfer pollen from the anther of one flower to the stigma of another Flowers vary depending on pollination mechanism
Pollination Vectors Wind Pollination: Dull, scentless flowers with reduced petals Bees/Butterfly Pollination: Bright color, nectaries, scent. They sip nectar, get pollen on coats, transfer pollen from flower to flower Bird Pollination: Nectaries, bright colors, tube-like flowers Moth Pollination: White petals, open at night Fly Pollination:Rank odor, flesh colored petals
• Pollen Grain • Anther SacPollen grains contain two haploid cells produced throughmeiosis. 1- The Tube cell – will grow the pollen tube. 2- The Generative cell – will go through mitosis to create two sperm cells.
Seed and Fruit Development After fertilization, the petals and sepals fall off flower Ovary “ripens” into a fruit The ovule develops into a seedSee Fig 13 on page 139 LifeScience Text
Seed Dispersal Mechanisms-Allow plants to colonize new areas and avoid shade of parent plant Wind Dispersal - Flight mechanisms, like parachutes, wings, etc. Ex. Dandelion, maples, birch Animal Dispersal - Fleshy fruits which animals eat, drop undigested seeds in feces or burrs which stick to animals’ coats
Gravity Dispersal -Heavy nuts fall toground and rollex. acornsWater Dispersal - Plantsnear water create floatingfruitsex. coconuts