Honours minor – Clean Tech

Design ethics workshop!

Charlie Mulholland!
18 December 2013!
Agenda!
•  Introduction!
–  Who are we?!
–  What is ethics?!
–  Why design ethics?!

•  Tools for a designerly approach to...
Five things about me!
•  Who are you?!
•  Do a quick sketch to introduce yourself that
visualizes:!
–  Something personal ...
Five things about me!
What is ethics?!
Ethical does not necessarily mean legal!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Jess Loughborough: http://flickr....
Not all unethical behaviour is illegal !

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by val.pearl: http://flickr.com/phot...
Not all laws raise serious ethical issues!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Eduardo Llanquileo: http://flic...
Not everything legal is ethical!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ) flickr photo by dusted: http://flickr.com/photos/41894170408...
Ethics is not the same as a moral system!
Moral systems consist of values (or ideas of
the good)!
Truth
Fairness
Justice

Self-discipline

Transparancy
Family

Loya...
Ethics is about understanding how to live!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Live Life Happy: http://flickr....
“Ethics begins when elements of a moral
system conflict” (Deni Elliot)!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Ke...
Community or individual autonomy?!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Bernard Burns: http://flickr.com/photos...
Truth or harm?!

Source: IAMCore
Freedom of ideas or desert?!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Pierre (Rennes): http://flickr.com/photos/equ...
Privacy or safety?!

Source: Charlie Mulholland!
Ethics is about finding your way through this
maze!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Cyberslayer: http://fli...
Why design ethics?!
Technology mediates our experience of the
world!
Technology mediates our perception of the
world…!
Ihde's phenomenological
relations
Embodiment relations
(Human-technology...
…and (thus) it mediates how we (can) act on
the world!

Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Jason Weaver: http://flic...
Electric vehicle charging station etiquette!

Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0GzQumYXsH0#t=107 (Stanford Journalis...
Essentially technology provides and denies
choice and so influences our behaviour!

Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr ph...
Sometimes this is not problematic!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Jake Kitchener: http://flickr.com/pho...
But sometimes it is (even if it is an unintended
consequence)!

Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by Salim Fadhle...
And sometimes this influence is problematic
and deliberate!

Source: http://wiki.darkpatterns.org/File_Facebook2-470x510.pn...
These design decisions are based on values!
Values in the goal of the artefact!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Steve Fleischer: http://flickr.com/p...
Values in the quality of the artefact!

Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgOxWPGsJNY&feature=related
Values in the processes used!

Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ) flickr photo by Bas Bogers: http://flickr.com/photos/bogers/5...
Values in the actual design decisions!

Source: Charlie Mulholland!
So in effect you are doing ethics for others!

Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by kate hiscock: http://flickr.com/...
But whose idea of “the good” do you or should
you use?!

Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/...
Tools for a designerly approach to ethical
thinking!
Thinking about ethics can add more
complexity to the design process!

Source: Charlie Mulholland!
The ethical cycle!

Source: Poel, I. van de, & Royakkers, L. (2011). Ethics, Technology, and Engineering: An Introduction....
Step 1: Define the problem (1st pass)!

• 
• 
• 
• 

What was your (design) problem statement?!
Who are the main actors (st...
Step 2: Analyse the problem (1st pass)!

•  Identify stakeholders, their interests, values and power!
•  Check your facts!...
Step 2a: Stakeholder analysis (1st pass)!
•  Who is affected by
the problem?!
•  Who is affected by
the solution?!
•  Who ...
Step 2a: Stakeholder analysis (1st pass)!
•  How is each
stakeholder
affected?!
•  What are their
interests?!
•  What is t...
Step 2b: Fact checking (1st pass)!
•  Are you missing
any important
information?!
•  Are your insights
into the
stakeholde...
Step 2c: Stakeholder mapping (1st pass)!
More
influence
on decision

Less
impacted
upon

More
impacted
upon

Less
influenc...
Step 2a: Stakeholder mapping (1st pass)!
More
influence
on decision

Government

Less
impacted
upon

More
impacted
upon

L...
Step 2a: Stakeholder mapping (1st pass)!
More
influence
on decision

Client(s)

Less
impacted
upon

More
impacted
upon

Le...
Step 1: Define the problem (2nd pass)!

•  What was your (design) problem statement?!
•  Who are the main actors (stakehold...
Step 1: Analyse the problem (2nd pass)!

•  Have you missed anything?!
Step 3: Options for action (1st pass)!

•  Develop ideas for solutions!
•  Three strategies!
•  Black & white!
•  Creative...
Step 4: Ethical evaluation (1st pass)!

•  Check your solution(s) using!
•  Intuition!
•  Ethical theories (from philosoph...
Step 4a: Intuitive evaluation (1st pass)!
•  Write the following
down:!
–  What is your
intuitive feeling
about your solut...
Step 4b: Theoretical evaluation (1st pass)!
•  Analyze your
solution using the
three main western
ethical approaches!
•  W...
The “big 3” western approaches to ethics!

52	
  
Virtue-based approach!
•  Persons have a purpose and the good life is one
where they work to fulfil this!
•  A virtuous act...
Virtue is a character trait or habit of action!
Golden Mean
Vice of deficiency

Virtue

Vice of excess

Cowardice

Courage...
Applying a virtue-based approach!
1.  Focus on the purpose of the actors!
–  What is the “purpose” of the conflicting
stake...
Duty-based approach!
•  Persons are unique as rational beings, the good
life is one that acts so as to respect this in all...
Applying a duty-based approach!
1.  What are the acts of the different
stakeholders?!
2.  Could these acts be turned into ...
Consequence-based approach!
•  The good life is acting so as to maximize good
consequences!
•  Utilitarianism – an act is ...
Applying a duty-based approach!
1.  Does your solution increase the overall
welfare?!
2.  Is there a more optimal or faire...
Step 4c: Evaluation against a code of conduct
(1st pass)!
•  Check your
solution against
your
professional or
organization...
Step 5: Ethical evaluation (1st pass)!

• 
• 
• 
• 

How do the views compare to each other? !
What does “common sense” sa...
Final test: would I tell my mum?!

Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by Quinn Dombrowski: http://flickr.com/photos/...
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Design ethics workshop - honours clean tech 181213

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Design ethics workshop for students on the HvA School of Technology's honours minor Clean Tech.

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Design ethics workshop - honours clean tech 181213

  1. 1. Honours minor – Clean Tech
 Design ethics workshop! Charlie Mulholland! 18 December 2013!
  2. 2. Agenda! •  Introduction! –  Who are we?! –  What is ethics?! –  Why design ethics?! •  Tools for a designerly approach to ethical thinking! –  The ethical cycle!
  3. 3. Five things about me! •  Who are you?! •  Do a quick sketch to introduce yourself that visualizes:! –  Something personal that you are willing to share! –  Something about your study that excites you! –  Something about your ambitions for the future! –  Something about what think is important to live a good life! –  A random fact that your colleagues do not know!
  4. 4. Five things about me!
  5. 5. What is ethics?!
  6. 6. Ethical does not necessarily mean legal! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Jess Loughborough: http://flickr.com/photos/sunface13/3098344728/!
  7. 7. Not all unethical behaviour is illegal ! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by val.pearl: http://flickr.com/photos/valpearl/5103209989/!
  8. 8. Not all laws raise serious ethical issues! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Eduardo Llanquileo: http://flickr.com/photos/eclib/6022178487/!
  9. 9. Not everything legal is ethical! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ) flickr photo by dusted: http://flickr.com/photos/41894170408@N01/592774/!
  10. 10. Ethics is not the same as a moral system!
  11. 11. Moral systems consist of values (or ideas of the good)! Truth Fairness Justice Self-discipline Transparancy Family Loyalty Moderation No harm Responsibilty Community Equality Charity Liberty Respect Loyalty Safety Integrity Privacy Autonomy Fidelity Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Jim Mead: http://flickr.com/photos/jimmead/5708162698/
  12. 12. Ethics is about understanding how to live! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Live Life Happy: http://flickr.com/photos/deeplifequotes/8512794725/!
  13. 13. “Ethics begins when elements of a moral system conflict” (Deni Elliot)! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Kevin Schraer: http://flickr.com/photos/coyotecreek/234008516/!
  14. 14. Community or individual autonomy?! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Bernard Burns: http://flickr.com/photos/bernardburns/3215375530/!
  15. 15. Truth or harm?! Source: IAMCore
  16. 16. Freedom of ideas or desert?! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Pierre (Rennes): http://flickr.com/photos/equinoxefr/6857129975/!
  17. 17. Privacy or safety?! Source: Charlie Mulholland!
  18. 18. Ethics is about finding your way through this maze! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Cyberslayer: http://flickr.com/photos/cyberslayer/952953634/!
  19. 19. Why design ethics?!
  20. 20. Technology mediates our experience of the world!
  21. 21. Technology mediates our perception of the world…! Ihde's phenomenological relations Embodiment relations (Human-technology)→World Hermeneutic relations Human→(technology-World) Alterity relations Human→technology-(-World) Background relations technology ↓ (Human-World)
  22. 22. …and (thus) it mediates how we (can) act on the world! Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Jason Weaver: http://flickr.com/photos/indyplanets/3926147797/!
  23. 23. Electric vehicle charging station etiquette! Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0GzQumYXsH0#t=107 (Stanford Journalism) !
  24. 24. Essentially technology provides and denies choice and so influences our behaviour! Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by Alan Levine: http://flickr.com/photos/cogdog/5026449698/
  25. 25. Sometimes this is not problematic! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Jake Kitchener: http://flickr.com/photos/kitch/3288387680/
  26. 26. But sometimes it is (even if it is an unintended consequence)! Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by Salim Fadhley: http://flickr.com/photos/salimfadhley/96770312/
  27. 27. And sometimes this influence is problematic and deliberate! Source: http://wiki.darkpatterns.org/File_Facebook2-470x510.png
  28. 28. These design decisions are based on values!
  29. 29. Values in the goal of the artefact! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC SA ) flickr photo by Steve Fleischer: http://flickr.com/photos/flying_tiger/3855182335/
  30. 30. Values in the quality of the artefact! Source: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lgOxWPGsJNY&feature=related
  31. 31. Values in the processes used! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ) flickr photo by Bas Bogers: http://flickr.com/photos/bogers/5062782496/
  32. 32. Values in the actual design decisions! Source: Charlie Mulholland!
  33. 33. So in effect you are doing ethics for others! Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by kate hiscock: http://flickr.com/photos/slightlyeverything/4877537796/
  34. 34. But whose idea of “the good” do you or should you use?! Source: http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/2/28/Insel_Utopia.png/585px-Insel_Utopia.png
  35. 35. Tools for a designerly approach to ethical thinking!
  36. 36. Thinking about ethics can add more complexity to the design process! Source: Charlie Mulholland!
  37. 37. The ethical cycle! Source: Poel, I. van de, & Royakkers, L. (2011). Ethics, Technology, and Engineering: An Introduction. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons!
  38. 38. Step 1: Define the problem (1st pass)! •  •  •  •  What was your (design) problem statement?! Who are the main actors (stakeholders)?! What the conflicts were involved?! How would you write a moral problem statement?!
  39. 39. Step 2: Analyse the problem (1st pass)! •  Identify stakeholders, their interests, values and power! •  Check your facts! •  Map the stakeholders!
  40. 40. Step 2a: Stakeholder analysis (1st pass)! •  Who is affected by the problem?! •  Who is affected by the solution?! •  Who has an interest in the problem?! •  Who has an interest in the solution?! •  Write each stakeholder on a post-it!
  41. 41. Step 2a: Stakeholder analysis (1st pass)! •  How is each stakeholder affected?! •  What are their interests?! •  What is their attitude to the problem and why?! •  What is their likely attitude to the solution and why? ! •  Write your answers on the relevant post-it!
  42. 42. Step 2b: Fact checking (1st pass)! •  Are you missing any important information?! •  Are your insights into the stakeholders facts or assumptions?! •  Develop a research plan to address any problems! Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by Dave Gray: http://flickr.com/photos/davegray/3204274359/
  43. 43. Step 2c: Stakeholder mapping (1st pass)! More influence on decision Less impacted upon More impacted upon Less influence on decision
  44. 44. Step 2a: Stakeholder mapping (1st pass)! More influence on decision Government Less impacted upon More impacted upon Less influence on decision The environment
  45. 45. Step 2a: Stakeholder mapping (1st pass)! More influence on decision Client(s) Less impacted upon More impacted upon Less influence on decision Neighbours
  46. 46. Step 1: Define the problem (2nd pass)! •  What was your (design) problem statement?! •  Who are the main actors (stakeholders)?! •  What the conflicts were involved?! •  Who has power/low impact upon & who has little power/ high impact upon?! •  How would you rewrite a moral problem statement?!
  47. 47. Step 1: Analyse the problem (2nd pass)! •  Have you missed anything?!
  48. 48. Step 3: Options for action (1st pass)! •  Develop ideas for solutions! •  Three strategies! •  Black & white! •  Creative middle-way! •  Co-operative (polderen)! •  Where does your solution fall?! •  What other options can you generate?!
  49. 49. Step 4: Ethical evaluation (1st pass)! •  Check your solution(s) using! •  Intuition! •  Ethical theories (from philosophy)! •  Codes of ethics!
  50. 50. Step 4a: Intuitive evaluation (1st pass)! •  Write the following down:! –  What is your intuitive feeling about your solution – ethical or not?! –  Why do you feel this?! •  Discuss this with your team! Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by hobvias sudoneighm: http://flickr.com/photos/striatic/2144933705/!
  51. 51. Step 4b: Theoretical evaluation (1st pass)! •  Analyze your solution using the three main western ethical approaches! •  What would! Aristotle! Kant! &! Mill! do?! Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by hobvias sudoneighm: http://flickr.com/photos/striatic/2144933705/!
  52. 52. The “big 3” western approaches to ethics! 52  
  53. 53. Virtue-based approach! •  Persons have a purpose and the good life is one where they work to fulfil this! •  A virtuous act or quality is one that helps a person, organization or to fulfil their purpose! •  Based on Aristotle’s Doctrine of the Mean! –  Virtue (or excellence) is moderation in all actions! –  Virtue comes as the result of education, training and practice!
  54. 54. Virtue is a character trait or habit of action! Golden Mean Vice of deficiency Virtue Vice of excess Cowardice Courage Rashness Aloofness Friendliness Obsequiness Meekness Self-confidence Arrogance Self-denial Individualism Egoism
  55. 55. Applying a virtue-based approach! 1.  Focus on the purpose of the actors! –  What is the “purpose” of the conflicting stakeholders in this situation?! –  What is the “purpose” of your solution?! –  What is your “purpose” as a design team?! 2.  What acts and qualities does each have to demonstrate to achieve their purpose?! 3.  Are they doing this? !
  56. 56. Duty-based approach! •  Persons are unique as rational beings, the good life is one that acts so as to respect this in all persons and acts in line with the moral law! •  A good act is one done in accordance with the moral law! •  Based on Kant’s moral law! –  The idea of categorical imperative to act only in a way that could be universalized as a moral law for all persons! –  The principle of humanity that all persons are ends in themselves (because of their liberty and rationality) and should never be treated as a means to an end! •  We have a duty to act morally because of our rationality!
  57. 57. Applying a duty-based approach! 1.  What are the acts of the different stakeholders?! 2.  Could these acts be turned into universal laws without absurdity?! 3.  Are any of the stakeholders using another rational being as a means to an end? !
  58. 58. Consequence-based approach! •  The good life is acting so as to maximize good consequences! •  Utilitarianism – an act is good if would contribute positively to the sum of happiness! •  Welfare consequentialism – an act is good if it increases overall welfare!
  59. 59. Applying a duty-based approach! 1.  Does your solution increase the overall welfare?! 2.  Is there a more optimal or fairer distribution?!
  60. 60. Step 4c: Evaluation against a code of conduct (1st pass)! •  Check your solution against your professional or organizational code of conduct! •  Example: Hippocratic oath “first do not harm”! Source: cc licensed ( BY ND ) flickr photo by Adrian Clark: http://flickr.com/photos/adrianclarkmbbs/3001543858/!
  61. 61. Step 5: Ethical evaluation (1st pass)! •  •  •  •  How do the views compare to each other? ! What does “common sense” say?! What do your stakeholders say?! What next?!
  62. 62. Final test: would I tell my mum?! Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by Quinn Dombrowski: http://flickr.com/photos/quinnanya/4390671785/!

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