Design ethics as inspiration

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Lecture given at a meeting of the Berlin chapter of IxDA on 6 February 2012

Lecture given at a meeting of the Berlin chapter of IxDA on 6 February 2012

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  • Since we started to develop an use technology, it has affected how we experience the world. The way we experience of the world affects what we think can be and our choices. Peter Paul Verbeek has proposed that technology mediates our perceptions & our actions
  • Don Idhe has proposed that technology mediates our experience of the world in four ways – he calls these phenomenological relations. These relations affect how we experience the world all the time - as humans we do not experience the world without technology, it shapes our understanding of the world, it allows us to interpret the world and affects our reactions. We understand the world and the possibilities we have in that world via technology. We are technological beings (it almost does not make sense to try to separate us from our technology)
  • Peter Paul Verbeek suggests that mediates perception & praxis
  • Peter Paul Verbeek suggests that mediates perception & praxis
  • This mediation means we understand the world via technology which shapes our idea of what is possible and what is not and so affects our choices.
  • The technology of weather forecasting allows us to take an umbrella when it’s going to rain – this is not really a problem
  • Ultrasound and other technologies related to pregnancy have presented us with ethical dilemmas that we did not have before. These are often unintended consequences. Peter Paul Verbeek suggest that engineers and designers should (be trained to) think about how their creations might offer these new choices so as to anticipate possible ethical issues. But sometimes this influence is deliberate…
  • Facebook often tries to deliberately influence our behaviour in ways that are beneficial to them but not necessarily for us (my opinion)

Transcript

  • 1. IxDA Berlin:Design ethics as inspirationCharlie Mulholland - 6 February 2012Amsterdam University of Applied ScienceDepartment of Communication & Multimedia Design
  • 2. Outline• A bit about my background• The basic premise of this talk• Ethics and IxD: problem or opportunity?• Some ethical tools that can be used for inspiration
  • 3. My basic premiseIn the coming years,IxD’ers are likely tocome under increasingpressure to take (atleast some)responsibility for themoral issues raised bythe products theydesign
  • 4. Why do I believe this?
  • 5. Technology mediates our experienceof the world…
  • 6. … it affects how we understand &interact with the world…Source: Ihde, D. (1990). Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth. Indiana University Press.
  • 7. …and (thus) it mediates how we(can) act on the worldSource: Charlie Mulholland
  • 8. …and (thus) it mediates how we(can) act on the worldSource: Aranea Felëus
  • 9. …so it influences our behaviour byallowing or denying us choices…Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by cogdogblog: http://flickr.com/photos/cogdog/5026449698/
  • 10. …sometimes this is notproblematic…Source: cc licensed ( BY NC ND ) flickr photo by kitch: http://flickr.com/photos/kitch/3288387680/
  • 11. …but sometimes it is (even if it is anunintended consequence)…Source: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by salimfadhley: http://flickr.com/photos/salimfadhley/96770312/
  • 12. …and sometimes this influence isproblematic and deliberateSource: http://darkpatterns.org/library/privacy_zuckering/
  • 13. The thing is…
  • 14. …your work is becoming more andmore pervasive…Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by Peter Morville: http://flickr.com/photos/morville/4531186726/
  • 15. …and people have started to worryabout their privacy…Source: Charlie Mulholland
  • 16. …their ability to escape… Okay, I know who you are now, let’s see what ads I can target you with!Source: https://twitter.com/noazark/status/293194207265447937/photo/1 Noah Zerkin
  • 17. …maybe their freedom!Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by miss karen: http://flickr.com/photos/misbehave/2352753067/
  • 18. Moral questions are comingcoming to the agenda
  • 19. So ethics & IxD: problem oropportunity?Source: cc licensed ( BY ) flickr photo by aussiegall: http://flickr.com/photos/aussiegall/276131991/
  • 20. Ethical questions, like designproblems, are wicked problems What decision Describe the would you like to What values are dilemma. Write it make? in conflict? down clearly. Write it down Make a list. clearly. Evaluate who Who are the What does each What does each has the most to stakeholders in stakeholders stakeholders gain and lose this dilemma? have to gain? have to lose? and the fairness Make a list. Make a list. Make a list. of these. What are your duties to What are your What are your What are your yourself and duties to your duties to your duties to society Set priorities for those close to client? user? and the future? your duties you? Make a list. Make a list. Make a list. Make a list. What action What are your How would you What action would a own preference feel if your Now re-evaluate would a duty- consequentialist in terms of the original decision your original based approach approach values? was widely decision suggest? suggest? Make a list. know?Source: Charlie Mulholland
  • 21. Thinking about ethics adds morecomplexity of the design processSource: Charlie Mulholland
  • 22. However, there is another lesscynical, but realistic approach• Embrace ethics as a source of inspiration for: – Research, sensemaking & reframing – Ideation – Definition of requirements – Selection & road mapping – Detailed design
  • 23. Some ethical tools that can beused for inspiration(as well as for assessing the impact ofyour work!)
  • 24. The ethical cycleSource: Poel, I. van de, & Royakkers, L. (2011). Ethics, Technology, and Engineering: An Introduction. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  • 25. The ethical cycle and research,sensemaking & reframingSource: Poel, I. van de, & Royakkers, L. (2011). Ethics, Technology, and Engineering: An Introduction. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  • 26. The ethical cycle and ideationSource: Poel, I. van de, & Royakkers, L. (2011). Ethics, Technology, and Engineering: An Introduction. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  • 27. The ethical cycle and definingrequirementsSource: Poel, I. van de, & Royakkers, L. (2011). Ethics, Technology, and Engineering: An Introduction. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons.
  • 28. Virtues & vices
  • 29. Design patterns and detaileddesign
  • 30. PersuasionSource: http://footprint.wwf.org.uk/
  • 31. NudgesSource: cc licensed ( BY SA ) flickr photo by methodshop.com: http://flickr.com/photos/methodshop/2483875119/
  • 32. ScriptsSource: http://id.hva.nl
  • 33. What type of pattern, when?Source: Charlie Mulholland
  • 34. How to influence?Source: Charlie Mulholland
  • 35. Some specific examplesSource: Lockton, D. (2010). Design with intent: 101 patterns for influencing behaviour through design. Equifine.
  • 36. Some specific examplesSource: Lockton, D. (2010). Design with intent: 101 patterns for influencing behaviour through design. Equifine.
  • 37. Some specific examplesSource: Lockton, D. (2010). Design with intent: 101 patterns for influencing behaviour through design. Equifine.
  • 38. My aim here has been to encourageyou to:• Embrace ethics as a source of inspiration for: – Research, sensemaking & reframing – Ideation – Definition of requirements – Selection & road mapping – Detailed design
  • 39. More information• Resources mentioned in the presentation: – Technology and the Lifeworld: From Garden to Earth, Don Ihde – ‘Where Are the Missing Masses’, Bruno Latour – Design With Intent: 101 Patterns for Influencing Behaviour Through Design, Dan Lockton – Ethics, Technology, and Engineering: An Introduction, Ibo van de Poel & Lambèr Royakkers – Moralizing technology: Understanding and Designing the Morality of Things, Peter-Paul Verbeek
  • 40. More information• Other interesting resources: – Seductive Interaction Design: Creating Playful, Fun, and Effective User Experiences, Stephen P. Anderson – Mental Notes, Stephen P. Anderson (cards with ways to influence behaviour through design) – Predictably Irrational, Revised and Expanded Edition: The Hidden Forces That Shape Our Decisions, Dan Ariley – Persuasive Technology: Using Computers to Change What We Think and Do, B. J. Fogg – Justice lectures, Michael Sandel (videos of Michael Sandel’s introduction to the three main ethical approaches used in western philosophy) – Nudge: Improving Decisions About Health, Wealth, and Happiness, Richard H. Thaler & Cass R. Sunstein
  • 41. Thank you for your attentionQuestions?