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Th Thomas Hardy Love Triangles
 

Th Thomas Hardy Love Triangles

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A lengthy program that analyzes the use of "love triangles" through the novels of Thomas Hardy. Designed to facilitate the teaching of Thomas Hardy's novels to college students, it also outlines the ...

A lengthy program that analyzes the use of "love triangles" through the novels of Thomas Hardy. Designed to facilitate the teaching of Thomas Hardy's novels to college students, it also outlines the plots and characters prevalent in all of Hardy's novels.

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    Th Thomas Hardy Love Triangles Th Thomas Hardy Love Triangles Presentation Transcript

    • LOVE TRIANGLES IN THE NOVELS OF
      THOMAS HARDY
      Designed by Charles Henderson:
      Dayspring Instructional Materials Inc.
      Ozark, Missouri
    • The novels of Hardy are all based on a series of triangles, principally with a female at the apex and competing males at each base. Hardy’s genius is
      founded in his ability to take a time-tested premise and reveal the many ways the “love triangle” can be plottedwhile retaining the reader’s interest.
    • Hardy’s view of fatalism, however, rarely allows for the happy ending that we have learned to expect from Dickens’ novels. In fact, only four novels,
      The Laodician,
      Far From The Madding Crowd,
      Desperate Remedies, and
      Under The Greenwood Tree,
      end with what can be deemed happy endings.
    • This study is designed to make the triangles more
      apparent and facilitate an easy analysis for teaching
    • DESPERATE
      REMEDIES
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      AMBROSE GRAYE: father of Owen and Cytherea, an
      architect who loved CythereaBradleigh
      to be known as Miss Aldclyffe.
      OWEN GRAYE: an architect and brother to Cytherea.
      EDWARD SPRINGROVE: a handsome young man who
      fell in love with CythereaGraye.
      MISS ALDCLYFFE: widow of Captain Aldclyffe who
      loved Ambrose Graye but couldn’t marry him. Her
      real name is CythereaBradleigh.
      EUNICE MANSTON: first wife of AneasManston
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      ANEAS MANSTON: Illegitimate son of Miss Aldclyffe
      by a cousin. He was abandoned on a widow’s door
      as a baby.
      ANNE SEAWAY: a woman of suspect reputation who
      consented to act as Manston’s wife for a time.
      ADELAIDE HINTON: cousin of Edward Springrove to
      whom he had been engaged for sometime.
      PARSON RAUNHAM: the bachelor rector of the
      church, a relative of Miss Aldclyffe by
      marriage who was instrumental in bringing
      out the details about Manston and his wife.
    • AMBROSE GRAYE
      EDWARD SPRINGROVE
      CYTHEREA
      BRADLEIGH
      FIRST WIFE
      CYTHEREA
      GRAYE
      EUNICE HINTON
    • CYTHEREA GRAYE
      MISS ADELAIDE
      ANEAS
      MUNSTON
      EDWARD
      SPRINGROVE
      AMBROSE
      GRAYE
      CAPTAIN
      ALDYCLYFFE
    • ANEAS MUNSTON
      ADELAIDE
      HINTON
      CYTHEREA
      GRAYE
      MRS.
      MUNSTON
      EDWARD
      SPRINGROVE
      FARMER
      BOLLENS
    • MISS ALDCLYFFE
      CYTHEREA GRAYE
      MANY WOMEN
    • Plot Summary
      • Ambrose Graye fell in love with Cytherea
      Bradliegh who would not marry him because
      she had already had a child by her cousin, a
      military officer who was killed in India.
      • Ambrose dies on the job leaving his children,
      Owen and Cytherea without any money.
      • Owen has been trained as an architect but
      has difficulty supporting his sister.
      • She takes a job with the eccentric
      Miss Aldclyffe as an maid.
    • Plot Summary
      • Cytherea meets Edward Springrove whom
      she loves immediately. But she also gets the
      attention of AneasManston, an older man.
      • The dynamics that drives Hardy’s plot and
      creates suspense because the reader doesn’t
      know the following facts:
      • Miss Aldclyffe is CythereaBradleigh.
      • She would not marry Ambrose Graye
      because she had a child by her cousin.
      • That child was Aneas whom she abandoned
      at the Manston door step. But she
      continued to provide for him during his life.
    • Plot Summary
      • Miss Aldclyffe hires Aneas as her steward
      and sets out to have him marry Cytherea even
      though she did not love Manston.
      • Two developments helped Manston’s cause:
      (1) Owen Graye became seriously ill, could
      not work, and had poor medical help.
      (2) A fire destroyed Edward Springrove senior’s
      property which actually belonged to Miss
      Aldcylffe and on which he had no insurance.
      (3) Aneas’ wife is allegedly burned to death
      in the fire.
      • Miss Aldclyffe told Cytherea about Edward’s
      engagement to Adelaide.
    • Plot Summary
      • Aneasofferes to help Owen as a way to get
      her to feel good about him; also he presses
      her for marriage.
      • Miss Aldclyffe has Aneas inform Springrove
      Senior that she will not make him replace
      the destroyed buildings if he will discourage
      Edward with regard to Cytherea.
      • Eventually Cytherea agrees to marry Aneas,
      not knowing that Miss Aldclyffe has forged
      a love letter from Cytherea to Aneas
      and has shown it to Edward Springrove.
    • Plot Summary
      • Cytherea and Aneas are married and leave
      on their honeymoon. But some information
      arose that Aneas’ wife didn’t die in the fire.
      • Owen and Edward manage to get to Cytherea
      and bring her back before the marriage is
      consumated for a hearing.
      • Aneas advertises in the paper for his wife, who
      left, to come back to him, and she does.
      • Still, on moral grounds, Cytherea will not
      marry Edward or anyone.
    • Plot Summary
      • With the help of the Parson Raunham, Owen
      and Edward investigate whether this “wife”
      is actually Aneas’ wife.
      • It is learned that the woman living with
      Aneas is Anne Seaway, a soiled woman, and
      the question arose: why did he do this? And
      not just to eventually marry Cytherea.
      • The story picks up with Ann Seaway who
      follows Aneas one night and finds him pulling
      his wife’s body out of a boarded up furnace.
      • Two other people, Miss Aldclyffe and a private
      detective hired by Parson Raunham
      also follow Aneas.
    • Plot Summary
      • They watch him take her body to the woods
      and bury it where it will never be found. Miss
      Aldclyffe, however, warns Aneas he is being
      watched and he escapes.
      • The men of the town learn of the entire intrigue
      and set they set about to capture Aneas.
      • He is finally caught when he tries to rape
      Cytherea.
      • In his cell he hangs himself and leaves a long
      letter explaining that he accidentally killed his
      when she turned her head as he tried to slap
      her because she enraged him.
    • Plot Summary
      • Aneas revealed that he hired Ann because of
      speculation that he may have killed his wife, and
      he wanted to ally those ideas.
      • On her dying bed, Miss Aldclyffe fills in the
      details about Aneas’ birth and why she tried to
      help him marry Cytherea, the daughter of the
      man she truly loved.
      • She leaves part of her fortune to Cytherea and
      part to the Rector Raunham who is her relative.
      • Cytherea forces the Rector to take her share of
      the Aldclyffe fortune.
      • Owen secures a profitable position.
      • Cytherea and Edward are married, his fiance
      having married a local farmer.
    • Novel’s Resolution
      Marries
      Edward Springrove
      CythereaGraye
    • UNDER
      THE
      GREENWOOD
      TREE
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Fancy Day: a frivolous, vain schoolmistress who is
      easily infatuated, in fact with three men.
      Dick Dewey: trustworthy and dependable young
      businessman who doesn’t give up on Fancy. His
      perseverance wins her.
      Reuben Dewey: Dick’s father, a born leader and band
      organizer.
      Mr. Maybold: intelligent vicar who falls in love with
      Fancy but decides later that she is “less than an
      angel.”
      Geoffrey Day: Fancy’s father who consents to her
      marriage.
      Frederick Shiner: a rich farmer in his thirties, a proud
      man and somewhat of a coward. Fancy had a
      temporary infatuation for him.
    • FANCY DAY
      FANCY DAY
      Mr. Maybold
      Dick Dewey
      Frederic Shiner
      Dick Dewey
    • Plot Summary
      • The story is set around the Christmas
      season in which musical groups travel
      through the area entertaining their
      neighbors.
      • A very simple love story in which Fancy Day,
      a beautiful young girl, teases three men.
      • She eventually makes the right choice by
      choosing the industrious Dick Dewey.
    • Novel’s Resolution
      Marries
      Dick Dewey
      Fancy Day
    • A PAIR OF
      BLUE EYES
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Elfride Swancourt: Beautiful and naïve young
      woman falls in love with Stephen Smith, a poor
      but rising architect who comes to work on the
      church her father pastors.
      Stephen Smith: Aspiring young architect who falls
      in love with Elfride while working for her father on
      a restoration project.
      Henry Knight: Intellectual and idealist friend of
      Smith, he comes from noble heritage. Ironically he
      meets and wins the heart of Elfride, who rejects
      Smith. (continued)
    • MAJOR Characters Continued
      Spencer Luxellian: Wealthy widower whom Elfride marries on the rebound after being abandoned by Henry Knight.
      ChristopherSwancourt: Father of Elride, a small town minister who refuses to allow Stephen Smith
      to marry Elfride because he is not wealthy and does not have noble blood. It turns out later that he and his wife had adopted Elfride.
    • ELFRIDE SWANCOURT
      Henry Knight
      Stephen Smith
      ELFRIDE SWANCOURT
      Secondary Triangle
      Henry Knight
      Spencer Hugo Luxellian
      Stephen Smith
    • Plot Summary
      • Elfride Swancourt almost marries Stephen Smith
      in secret.
      • At the last minute, she backs out but promises to
      marry him later, swearing that he is her “husband.
      • Coincidentally Smith’s older best friend, Hendry
      Knight shows up at Elfride’s home.
      • Through a series of circumstances, Elfride falls
      for Knight and promises to marry him, rejecting
      Smith very callously without any explanation.
      • Knight rejects Elfride, however, when he forces
      from her the admission that she had been kissed
      before and had even been “promised” to
      someone else.
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Smith finds out that Knight is her fiancé and goes
      to India to live.
      • Knight leaves Elfride for a long time but Smith
      never knows this.
      • They meet by chance in London where Knight
      learns about Smith’s involvement with Elfride, and
      Smith learns that Elfride and Knight had never
      married.
      • They both leave for her hometown to individually
      court her again.
      • They learn that she had married the much older
      Lord Luxellian after Knight had left her.
      • They also learn that Elride has died and is being
      buried that very day.
    • NOVEL’S RESOLUTION
      Henry Knight
      Stephen Smith
      AND
      BOTH LOSE
      ELFRIDE SWANCOURT
      (WHO IS DEAD)
    • FAR FROM
      THE MADDING CROWD
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Bathsheba Everdene:A confused female who
      inherited a farm. She desired to be her own boss,
      but she consistently showed her heavy reliance on
      men. She marries characterless Frank Troy, looses
      him, and eventually marries Gabriel Oak.
      Gabriel Oak:A sheep rancher who lost his farm
      due to the actions of a novice sheep dog. Early in
      the novel, he proposed to Bathsheba only to have
      her reject him for two other men in succession.
      Ironically, while working for Bathsheba, he saves
      her ranch on two occasions, yet she still marries
      Frank Troy. After Troy’s murder, he finally marries
      Bathsheba. (continued)
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS CONTINUED
      Frank Troy:A womanizing soldier who wins Bathsheba’s heart because of his experienced ability to deceive women. He is a man of poor character having already gotten another girl, Fanny Robin, pregnant. Later he is believed to have drowned only to show up and ruin the engagement of Bathsheba to farmer William Boldwood.
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS CONTINUED
      William Boldwood: A wealthy, older bachelor
      and owner of land adjacent to Bathsheba’s
      farm. Bathsheba, through a whimsical trick,
      causes Boldwood to fall in love with her.
      After Sgt. Troy “drowned,” he secures her
      promise of marriage, but Troy is not dead
      and shows up to ruin the impending
      marriage. Boldwood kills Troy in a jealous
      rage and is subsequently executed.
      Fanny Robin: Jilted lover of Troy whose
      death reveals Troy’s real nature as well as
      real love.
    • SERGEANT TROY
      BATHSHEBA EVERDENE
      1
      2
      Sgt. Francis Troy
      Fanny Robin
      Gabriel Oak
      Bathsheba Everdene
      BATHSHEBA EVERDENE
      3
      Secondary Triangle
      Sgt. Francis Troy
      William Boldwood
    • Plot Summary
      • Gabriel Oak proposes crudely to Bathsheba; she
      rejects him.
      • Oak’s entire sheep herd is killed because of a
      novice sheep dog.
      • Oak pays his debts and leaves the area.
      • Bathsheba moves away to her uncle’s farm and
      eventually inherits it.
      • Oaksaves a farm, which turns out to be
      Bathsheba’s farm, from a terrible fire.
      • Oak is hired on as a farm worker.
      • Wealthy nearby bachelor farmer Boldwood falls
      in love with Bathsheba.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Sgt. Troy shows up and courts Bathsheba.
      • Fanny Robin is pregnant by Troy but no one
      else one knows this.
      • Troy marries Bathsheba and begins to gamble
      as well as being a bad manager.
      • Oak again saves the farm while Troy and the
      workers sleep in a drunken slumber.
      • Fanny Robin and her baby die.
      • Bathsheba learns Robin was pregnant by Troy
      • Troy finally runs away after Fanny Robin’s
      death and is reported dead in a suicide attempt.
      • Troy has admitted to Bathsheba that he really
      only lovedFanny Robin.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Oak saves the sheep herd, and the farm, for a
      third time and is made manager.
      • Boldwood gets a commitment from Bathsheba
      to marry him in a few years.
      • On the night of their engagement party, Troy
      suddenly appears.
      • He had not drowned and had been working
      as an actor in a traveling carnival.
      • Boldwood kills Troy in rage in Bathsheba’s
      house and is subsequently executed.
      • Oak and Bathsheba are finally married.
    • THENOVEL’S RESOLUTION
      The following characters are dead:
      • Francis Troy
      • Fanny Robin and her baby
      • William Boldwood
      Marries
      GABRIEL OAK
      BATHSHEBA EVERDENE
    • THE HAND OF ETHELBERTHA
      (TO BE INSERTED)
    • THE RETURN
      OF
      THE NATIVE
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Eustacia Vye: A bright young woman who desires
      to escape from her mundane existence in the
      county. She unwisely marries Clym Yeobright; hates
      her life; and dies with Damon Wildeve when they fall
      in a swollen creek the night they run away.
      Clym Yeobright: An astute scholar who returns to
      his home town after studying and living in the big
      cities. He marries Eustacia who thinks he will take
      her to live in Paris. When this doesn’t happen, she
      tries to run away with a former boy friend,
      Damon Wildeve, and drowns. Clym spends the rest
      of his life as a preacher.
      (continued)
    • MAJOR Characters Continued
      Damon Wildeve: A womanizer who decieves Thomasin Yeobright. He runs away with Eustacia; and causes both their deaths during a rain storm.
      Thomasin Yeobright: Cousin to Clym, she is used by Wildeve who later rejects her. She eventually marries Deggory Venn an itinerate farm salesman.
      Deggory Vern: Itinerate farm salesman who loves Thomasin and eventually marries her. Venn is a stolid, noble person of integrity.
    • EUSTACIA VYE
      Damon Wildeve
      Clym Yeobright
      THOMASIN YEOBRIGHT
      Secondary Triangle
      Damon Wildeve
      Deggory Venn
    • PLOT SUMMARY
      • Clym Yeobright, a product of the local country,
      returns home after years of living in big cities.
      • He wins the attention of the beautiful Eustaica Vye.
      • She unwisely marries him hoping that he will
      grow tired of the country and take her to Paris.
      • When this doesn’t happen, she turns to Damon
      Wildeve, meeting him clandestinely at night.
      • They plan to run away and attempt to do so.
      • But on the night they leave, there is a rain storm.
      • Their wagon falls into a swollen creek and both
      drown.
      • Yeobright spends the rest of his life as a preacher.
      • Diggory Venn finally marries Clym’s cousin
      Thomasin.
    • NOVEL’S RESOLUTION
      At the end of the novel:
      • Eustacia Vye and Damon Wildeve are dead
      • Clym Yeobright is an itinerant preacher
      Marries
      Deggory Venn
      Thomasin Yeobright
    • THE
      TRUMPET
      MAJOR
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Anne Garland: Beautiful young woman who
      rejects John Loveday for his brother
      Robert.
      John Loveday: Loves Anne exclusively to
      his downfall. When he thinks he has won
      her heart, his brother shows up after a
      long absence only to have Anne go back
      to him.
      Robert Loveday: Two timing brother of John
      who jilts Anne only to show up in time to
      ruin John’s chances with her.
    • ANNE GARLAND
      John Loveday
      Robert Loveday
    • Plot Summary
      • John Loveday, a military trumpet major, loves
      Anne Garland.
      • However, she prefers his brother Robert.
      • Robert jilts Anne many times, but she always
      accepts him back.
      • John saves Anne from being raped one night.
      • Finally, when Robert has been gone some
      years, John persuades Anne to marry him.
      • Just before the wedding, Robert shows up.
      • Anne promptly takes him back.
      • John leaves for a remote military outpost
      and is subsequently killed.
    • NOVEL’S RESOLUTION
      Marries
      ROBERT LOVEDAY
      ANNE GARLAND
      JOHN LOVEDAY IS DEAD
    • A LAODICEAN
    • Major Characters
      Paula Power:Current owner of the de Stancey
      estate, her father was a self-made industrialist, a
      “new money” person without nobility. She wants to
      be from nobility and befriends Charlotte de Stancy,
      daughter of the disenfranchised Sir William de
      Stancy. She hires George Somerset to restore the
      de Stancy castle.She also grows to love George.
      George Somerset:Aspiring architect who is hired by
      Paula Power to rebuild the de Stancy property. He is
      very trustworthy and a man of high values. He falls
      in love with Paula only to have Captain de Stancy,
      with the help of William Dare, attempt to defraud him.
      (continued)
    • Major Characters Continued
      Captain de Stancy:Son of Sir William de Stancy and lacking character, he is pushed into trying to win Paula’s hand through deceitful plans originated by
      his bastard son, William Dare. He loses face at the end of the novel.
      Charlotte de Stancy:Daughter of Sir William de Stancy, she is a person of high character and friend of Paula. Her selfless confession revealing the trickery of her brother and nephew restores Somerset’s reputation and his relationship with Paula.
      (continued)
    • Major Characters Continued
      William Dare:Bastard son of Captain de Stancy.
      He poses as a photographer but lives off money
      he gets from his father. He is a person of low
      character and works to have his father marry
      Paula in order to secure his future.
    • PAULA POWER
      Captain de Stancy
      George Somerset
      GEORGE SOMERSET
      Secondary Triangle
      Charlotte de Stancy
      Paula Power
    • Plot Summary
      • The Power family, a “new money” family without
      nobility bought the lost de Stancy property.
      • George Somerset, an aspiring architect, arrives to
      to study the features of de Stancy Castle.
      • He is struck with Paula Power, and she with him.
      • Paula solicits George to restore the castle.
      • He refuses unless a rival, the previous family
      architect, is also allowed to bid.
      • William Dare enables the rival to steal George’s
      plans and both men tie in the bidding process.
      • Will de Stancy (Dare), illegitimate son of Captain
      de Stancy, tries to install his father as the suitor
      of Paula Power, defrauding Somerset.
      (continued)
      .
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Will de Stancy (Dare), illegitimate son of Captain
      de Stancy, tries to install his father as the suitor
      of Paula Power defrauding Somerset.
      • Later, Paula’s brother works with Dare to have the
      Captain win Paula’s heart.
      • They arrange for Paula to go overseas while
      George works on the Castle.
      • George finally follows Paula to Europe.
      • Dare and his uncle plot to demean George before
      Paula and they are successful.
      • George leaves Europe and resigns as Paula’s
      architect.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Paula sadly agrees to marry Captain de Stancy.
      • On the morning of the wedding, Charlotte de
      Stancy selflessly reveals the scheme to Paula
      when she finds out what has been done.
      • Both Dare and the Captain are publicly demeaned
      and are forced to leave in shame.
      • However, in typical character, Dare sets fire to
      de Stancy castle before he leaves.
      • Paula and George are married, but she admits
      that she still desires nobility.
    • NOVEL’S RESOLUTION
      Marries
      GEORGE SOMERSET
      PAULA POWER
    • TWO
      ON A TOWER
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Viviette Constantine: Abandonded wife of a globe
      trotting nobleman and left almost penniless, she
      falls in love with St. Cleeve who is ten years
      younger.
      Sir. Blount Constantine: Husband of viviette, he
      squanders his inheritance on world wide
      anthropological ventures.
      Native Princess: Sir Blount marries her rather than
      come home to his wife.
      Swithin St. Cleeve: Aspiring astronomer, he rents a
      nearby tower from Viviette. He falls in love with
      her, and they marry in secret.
      Bishop of Melchester: A local vicar who had fallen in
      love with Viviette. Eventually he marries her.
    • VIVIETTE CONSTANTINE
      SIR BLONT CONSTANTINE
      Sir Blount Constantine
      Swithin St. Cleeve
      Native Princess
      Vivette Constantine
      VIVIETTE CONSTANTINE
      Secondary Triangle
      Bishop C. Melchester
      Swithin St. Cleeve
    • Plot Summary
      • Viviette Constantine secretly marries the much
      younger St. Cleeve hoping to keep the marriage
      secret until he distinguishes himself as an
      astronomer.
      • Unfortunately, she later discovers that her
      husband, Blount, had not died as had been
      reported.
      • She sends St. Cleeve away; but, in a brief reunion,
      she gets she is pregnant by him.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • While St. Cleeve is gone, she finds out that her
      husband killed himself several months after her
      marriage to St. Cleeve due to guilt over
      marrying a native princes.
      • In order to cover up her pregnancy, she marries
      Bishop Melchester.
      • Melchester, some years older than her, dies
      suddenly.
      • Viviette dies of a heart attack, the very minute St.
      Cleeve returns to her and his son.
    • NOVEL’S RESOLUTION
      At the end of this novel,
      the following persons are dead:
      • Viviette Constantine
      • BlountConstantine
      • Bishop ofMelchester
    • THE MAYOR
      OF
      CASTERBRIDGE
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Michael Henchard: In a drunken stupor, he “sells”
      his wife to a sailor.
      Susan Henchard: Wife of Michael who spitefully
      leaves with a sailor after he “sells” her in a
      mock auction.
      Newson: Sailor who buys Henchard’s wife and
      takes her away.
      Donald Farfrae: Scotsman who goes to work for
      the now successful Michael Henchard.
      Lucetta Templeman: Beautiful woman who lives in
      Casterbridge. Henchard falls in love with her,
      but she rejects him for Farfrae.
    • LUCETTA TEMPLEMAN
      SecondaryTriangle
      Michael Henchard
      Donald Farfrae
      SUSAN HENCHARD
      Michael Henchard
      Newson
    • Plot Summary
      • Michael Henchard, in a drunken state, sells his wife
      Susan in a mock auction to a sailor, Newson.
      • Years later Henchard, who had forsworn liquor for
      20 years, is found by his wife and daughter,
      Elizabeth-Jane, in Casterbridge where he is a
      successful businessman as well as the Mayor of
      the town.
      • Henchard takes Elizabeth-Jane and her mother in
      but Susan soon dies.
      • Henchard hires a Scotsman, Donald Farfrae, to run
      his business but becomes jealous of him and
      refuses to give his permission to Farfrae to marry
      Elizabeth.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • He fires Farfrae who becomes a more successful
      businessman than Henchard.
      • Henchard falls in love with and courts Lucetta
      Templeman only to lose her to his nemesis
      Farfrae, who breaks his engagement to Elizabeth.
      • Henchard loses his business because of bad
      poor speculation on the weather.
      • He is also exposed in court one day as a man who
      sold his wife and child.
      • Farfrae marrys Templeman, but she dies when the
      town mocks them both.
      • Henchard then learns that Elizabeth is not his
      daughter but the offspring of Susan and Newson.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Rejected and broken, Henchard makes a number
      of personal choices that distances him from
      everyone.
      • He is finally found dead in an obscure grave,
      leaving a request that his name not be put on
      the grave and that no one is to remember his
      name or who he was at all.
    • THE NOVEL’S RESOLUTION
      At the end of this novel, the following
      persons are dead:
      • Michael Henchard
      • Susan Henchard-Newson
      • Lucetta Templeman
    • THE
      WOODLANDERS
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Grace Melbury: a beautiful young woman who was
      sent off for formal education by her father. She was
      more or less promised to Giles Winterbourne. She
      causes Giles’ death in the winter when she runs
      away from Fitzpiers on a cold night.
      Giles Winterbourne: a local merchant who lost his
      property due to negligence. He loves Grace but she
      and her dad consider him lower than Grace because
      he is a commoner and not as well education as her.
      During bad weather, though sick, he sacrifices his
      life to save her reputation when she is staying
      in his hut.
      (continued)
    • MAJOR Characters Continued
      Eldred Fitzpiers: a doctor who falls for Grace and marries her; however, he falls for the older but beautiful Felice Charmond. He leaves Grace for her and returns to Grace when she leaves him for another man and dies.
      Marty South: a local common girl who loves Giles but is never able to compete with Grace for Giles, who fails to notice her love for him.
      Felice Charmond: an older, more experienced woman who steals Fitzpiers from Grace. They carry on a public and sordid affair. Fitzpiers leaves with her only to have her run off with another man. She eventually destroys her health and dies.
    • GRACE MELBURY
      ELDRED FITZPIERS
      Felice Charmond
      Giles Winterbourne
      Eldred Fitzpiers
      Grace Melbury
      GILES WINTERBOURNE
      Secondary Triangle
      Grace Melbury
      Marty South
    • Plot Summary
      • Grace Melbury returns from a school where she
      has been educated beyond that of her peers.
      • She and Giles Winterbourne have been engaged
      for a long time.
      • A new doctor, Eldred Fitzpiers, falls in love with
      Grace and courts her.
      • Her father encourages this on the guise that Giles
      is not high class enough for her education.
      • She and Fitzpiers are married, but he proves to be
      a womanizer.
      • He becomes enamored of Felice Charmond, an
      older woman of the world.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • After he persues and leaves with Charmond, Grace
      decides that she made a mistake in not marrying
      Giles.
      • On a very cold night, Grace leaves home and finds
      a small cottage in the woods which, ironically,
      belongs to Giles.
      • Giles lets her stay in the cottage in the day and he
      sleeps outside to avoid compromising her
      reputation.
      • Grace doesn’t know that Giles is a sick man, and
      exposure to the harsh weather causes his death.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Fitzpiers comes back after Charmond dies.
      • Grace accepts him back.
      • But she had promised Marty South that
      she would attend to his Giles’ grave until
      her death.
      • Marty South, who always loved Giles, is left
      to attend to Giles’ grave.
    • NOVEL’S RESOLUTION
      At the end of the novel the following persons are dead:
      • Felice Charmond
      • Giles Winterbourne
      Grace and Eldred Fitzpiers are reconciled
      Alone, Marty South lovingly attends the
      grave
      of Giles Winterbourne
    • TESS
      D’URBEYFIELD
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Tess D’urbeyfield: Beautiful daughter of a lazy man
      who sends her to beg work from a family he has
      been led to believe he is related to.
      Alec D’urberville: Nobleman who rapes Tess but
      later recants and marries her.
      Angel Clare: First husband of Tess, he elicits a
      confession from her that she is not a virgin, even
      though he also is not. He rejects her on their
      wedding day when he learns of her past.
    • TESS D’URBEYFIELD
      Angel Clare
      Alec d’Urberville
    • Plot Summary
      • Tess’s father, a lazy moocher, learns that his
      family might be related to the noble family,
      d’urberville.
      • Since he has made the family indigent, he
      sends Tess to the noble family to beg for
      work based on the alleged family connection.
      • Ironically, this family only assumed the name
      when they moved into the area.
      • Tess is raped by Alex d’urberville and comes
      home in shame.
      • Eventually, she leaves and works at a number
      of menial, hard labor jobs.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Working as a milk maid on a large farm, she
      meets, falls in love with, and marries the
      young, but promising workman,
      Angel Clare.
      • On their wedding night, Clare solicits a
      confession from Tess that she has had
      carnal relations with another man.
      • Clare then abandons her even though he
      admits to past sins himself.
      • She is again forced to work at hard labor
      jobs.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • While in this condition, she is rescued by a
      “changed” Alec who is now devoting himself to
      preaching in order to atone for his sins.
      • She lives with him, and he changes back to a man
      of the world.
      • Clare finally shows up indicating that he is willing
      to take Tess back.
      • In desperation, she kills Alec and lives a few days
      with Clare while running from the authorities, but
      they are apprehended at Stone Henge.
      • Clare and Tess’s younger sister, Liza Lu, witness
      the moment of Tess’s execution from a nearby
      hill top.
    • THE
      WELL-BELOVED
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Jocelyn Pierston – sculptor who loved many women
      Avice Caro- country girl and childhood friend of
      Jocelyn who he jilted for Marcia Bencomb.
      Jim Caro- cousin of Avice who married her after
      Jocelyn jilted; also father of Ann Avice Caro
      Marcia Bencomb – she agreed to marry Jocelyn; then
      rejected him before the wedding day. She married a
      Mr. Leverre; then Jocelyn in her old age.
      Nichola Pine-Avon – lady who loved Jocelyn but for
      whom he had no affection. She married Somers.
      Mr. Somers – artist and long time friend of Jocelyn who
      later married Nichola Pine-Avon
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS CONTINUED
      Ann Avice Caro – daughter of Avice Caro. She was also
      fickle. She would have accepted Jocelyn’s proposal,
      but she had recently been secretly married to Isaac
      Isaac Pierston – distant relative of Jocelyn who married
      Ann Avice secretly. Jocelyn put him in business, but
      he later ‘ill-used’ Ann
      Avice Pierston – daughter of Ann Avice. She agreed to
      marry Jocelyn, forth years her senior, to please her
      mother; but jilted him was had Ann and Marcia
      Henri Leverre – son of Marcia Bencomb Leverre, he
      helped Avice III jilt Jocelyn by running off an marrying
      her
    • JOCELYN PIERSTON
      NO MARRIAGE
      1
      MARCIA BENCOMB
      Marcia Bencomb
      AVICE CARO
      2
      JOCELYN PIERSTON
      MR. LEVERRE
    • ANN AVICE CARO
      3
      AVICE PIERSTON
      JOCELYN PIERSTON
      ISAAC PIERSTON
      4
      JOCELYN PIERSTON
      HENRI LEVERRE
    • SecondaryTriangle
      NICHOLA PINE-AVON
      5
      MR. SOMERS
      JOCELYN PIERSTON
    • PLOT SUMMARY
      Jocelyn Pierston, a sculptor, believed in a perfect
      phantom spirit-woman, who inhabited the bodies of
      many women he saw, calling her “The Well-Beloved.
      He came home and impetuously asked childhood friend
      Avice Caro to marry him.
      Because she didn’t meet him at a remote location as he
      had requested, he rejected her and asked Marcia
      Bencomb to marry him although he had known her
      for only a few hours.
      She agreed to marry him because she was running away
      from home but changed her mind and left him.
      Avice marries her cousin, Jim Caro.
      Twenty years pass and finds Pierston once again in the
      land of his childhood.
    • PLOT SUMMARY CONTINUED
      Avice has died, but she has a beautiful daughter,Ann
      who does menial housework for a living.
      Pierston sets out to win her hand in marriage, but he
      finds that she also loves a perfect man/spirit that
      inhabits many men.
      After hiring Ann Avice to housekeep for him in London,
      he learns that Ann is already married.
      He sets up the man, Isaac Pierston, in a business and
      leaves the country for another twenty years.
      At the age of sixty, Pierston is asked by Ann to come
      to see her and informs him that Isaac is dead and
      had not been a good husband to Ann.
    • PLOT SUMMARY CONTINUED
      Ann asked to see him because she wants him to marry
      her daughter, Avice, so that she will have a good,
      reliable, and wealthy husband.
      Pierston agrees and sets out to win Avice’s hand in
      marriage who agrees to marry him even though his
      age is a negative issue.
      But the night before the wedding, her real love,
      Henri Leverre, shows up, and he and Avice elope.
      They are missing for some time and Ann dies suddenly
      because of the strain on her weak heart.
      It turns out that Henri is the son of Marcia, the girl who
      had jilted him forty years prior.
      Pierston eventually marries Marcia, completing a
      cycle that began forty years prior.
    • At the end of this novel:
      • Avice Caro is dead
      • Jim Caro is dead
      • Ann Avice Caro Pierston is dead
      • Isaac Pierston is dead
      • Mr. Leverre is dead
      • Somers is married to Nichola Pine-Avon
      • Henri Leverre is married to Avice
      Pierston
      • Pierston is married to Marcia Bencomb
      Leverre
    • Novel’s Resolution
      Marries
      JOCELYN PIERSTON
      MARCIA BENCOMB-LEVERRE
    • JUDE
      THE
      OBSCURE
    • MAJOR CHARACTERS
      Susanna Bridehead:Cousin of Jude, she marries
      the much older teacher, Richard Phillotson but
      later falls in love with Jude and runs off with
      him.
      Jude Frawley:Poor stonemason who wants to be a
      scholarly minister.
      Richard Phillostson:School teacher, much older
      than Susanna, he marries her only to have her
      run away with Jude.
      Arabella Donn:First wife of Jude, a sexually
      experienced farm maid who tricks Jude into
      marrying her; then leaves him because he is too
      boring.
    • SUSANNA BRIDEHEAD
      Richard Phillotson
      Jude Frawley
      JUDE FRAWLEY
      Secondary Triangle
      Susanna Bridehead
      Arabella Donn
    • Plot Summary
      • Jude, a stonemason, wants to become a scholar
      and minister.
      • Because of a lack of formal education, Jude
      cannot get into the ministerial college.
      • He is tricked by Arabella Donn who claims she is
      pregnant.
      • It turns out that she wasn’t pregnant and
      eventually leaves Jude because of his
      passive nature.
      • Jude falls in love with a cousin, Susanna
      Bridehead, but she marries an older school
      teacher, Richard Phillotson.
      (continued)
    • Plot Summary Continued
      • Hating Pillotson, she leaves him to live with Jude.
      • Their life is very difficult, culminating in the death
      of their baby by their older son before he
      commits suicide.
      • Susanna, now stricken with grief, decides she
      cannot live in adultery and leaves Jude to go
      back to Phillotson.
      • Jude gets sick and eventually dies without any of
      his dreams being fulfilled.
    • Novel’s Resolution
      RETURNS TO
      SUSANNA BRIDEHEAD
      Richard Phillotson
    • END OF PRESENTATION