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Persuasive Computing - Design for the Mind

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Presentation of research material towards an individual project for Ambient Visualisation with Devices (DESC9179), semester 2, 2007, Faculty of Architecture Design and Planning, The University of …

Presentation of research material towards an individual project for Ambient Visualisation with Devices (DESC9179), semester 2, 2007, Faculty of Architecture Design and Planning, The University of Sydney, by Piotr Kulaga.

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  • 1. Persuasive Computing “Design for the Mind” Research Presentation by Piotr Kulaga desc9179 – Semester 2, 20075 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 1
  • 2. The theme ofmy presentation Assimilate - Para-functional electric bath- duck. Design is aimed at the ‘mind’ (rather than just satisfying desired functions). Design can provoke action. An object can form meanings which remain with us for life. Meaning is conveyed through the process of gaining of an understanding of the object’s form and its behaviours.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 2
  • 3. PersuasiveComputing Visualise - the invisible nature of energy. A design methodology employing various technical (computing) and theoretical (behavioural science) solutions. The main proponent is B.J. Fogg of Stanford University. Proactive technologies that unobtrusively encourage changes of lifestyle and behaviour. The best known class of persuasive devices are Recommender Systems (www.amazon.com), these are not covered here.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 3
  • 4. My Approach Identify – personalising the phone. A designer adapting the Persuasive Computing methodology to design problems. Design itself can be a device of persuasion. Aspects of design that reach beyond the first impressions and penetrate our intuition. Dilemma – not many papers with strong academic credentials support this approach.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 4
  • 5. Papers chosen [1] Your image - Wearable electronics. Range from Computer Science projects and appropriations in Specialist Disciplines to purely design focused deliberations. Conscious of the social impact and context of persuasive computing techniques. Focused on the promotion of health, well-being and our synergy with the environment.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 5
  • 6. Papers chosen [2] Foresee - BioLogic, a vision of appliances. “Reflection through interaction - Raising energy awareness among young people with interaction design and speculative re-design of personal objects”, Mattias Ludvigsson, MSc Thesis in Interaction Design, IT University Göteborg. “Embedding behavior modification strategies into a consumer electronic device: a case study” J. Nawyn, S. S. Intille, and K. Larson, Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing, 2006. “Playful Tray: Adopting Ubicomp and Persuasive Techniques into Play-based Occupational Therapy for Reducing Poor Eating Behaviour in Young Children” Jin-Ling Lo, Tung-yun Lin, Hao-hua Chu, Hsi-chin Chou, Jen-hao Chen, Jane Yung-jen Hsu, Polly Huang, National Taiwan University.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 6
  • 7. Common issues Reflect - ‘Accessories for Lonely Men’. The mode of implementation; Based on personal devices (rather than SMS or other mobile phone push technologies). The human problems addressed; Aimed at changing existing lifestyle patterns and personal habits, rather than entice people to a given new proposition. Not centred on improving web services, e-commerce or aimed at advertising or promotional activities.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 7
  • 8. The Differences Interact – P. Ramette’s Praise of Laziness. Different age groups and varying level of user sophistication are targeted. Level of specificity in the proposed solutions. (from general awareness and values to particular habits and tasks) Authors’ academic background and orientation. (from science to design). Formality of the pilot studies and the evaluation of effectiveness of the proposed solutions.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 8
  • 9. Mattias Ludvigsson Provoke - The hood phone jacket.“Reflection through interaction” Interaction Design Master Thesis. The Static! Project, IT University Göteborg Sweden. “Can personal objects raise young people’s awareness of energy consumption.” Prototypes of products for a study of Persuasive Device Design. Discussion of provocative, critical and reflective design approaches. Extensive study of design process methodologies to support the objectives of persuasion.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 9
  • 10. Mattias LudvigssonPersuasion Critique - ‘Fashion Victims’, garments which react to mobile phone radiation and stain. Communicating through the form. Products can be used to influence people’s behaviour, attitudes, feelings and thoughts (Fogg) Provoke thought and discussion about ideas. Aims to stimulate and empower the users to identify themselves with and to communicate their attitude through interaction with their objects.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 10
  • 11. Mattias LudvigssonDesign Issues Confront - Techno-parasite climbs a lantern post, destroys the light bulb (its source of life), and falls to the ground. Interaction with objects in everyday life. Technology as a tool for persuasion. Responsibility of the designer. Ambiguity of design. The user needs to interpret the design, hence forming a personal relation to the suggested issues.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 11
  • 12. Mattias LudvigssonConcept development Think – Initial sketches. Probe packages (returned material) Personal Inventory (individuals in the study) Secondary sources (inspiration)5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 12
  • 13. Mattias LudvigssonFinal Prototypes Inspire - Philips Vision of the Future. The wind music player (mock-up) Medallion sensor accessory (mock-up) Toothbrush phone charger (mock-up)5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 13
  • 14. J. Nawyn et al. Shape - Buckminster Fuller geodesic dome.“Embedding behavior modification strategiesinto a consumer electronic device” - ViTo Master of Science Thesis, Supervisor: Kent Larson, Principal Research Scientist, MIT Department of Architecture. The daily “screen time” with TV and entertainment systems continues to rise. The sedentary lifestyle is linked with obesity and Type 2 diabetes. The ViTo system is intended to decrease user’s television viewing while increasing the non-sedentary activities.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 14
  • 15. J. Nawyn et al.The problem situation The intrinsic rewards of TV viewing (relaxation, passivity) are immediate and self-reinforcing. In contrast, physical activity is impeded by the perceived ‘high costs’ of entry into the pursuit and the lack of short-term rewards.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 15
  • 16. J. Nawyn et al.Persuasion via a computer The proposed ubiquitous computing system employs a sensing infrastructure to recognize the TV viewing and wearable accelerometers to detect physical activity. The interface consists of a pocket PC used as a remote control and planning/reviewing daily activity. The system employs behavioural science strategies to moderate habitual TV viewing and to promote the user to undertake physical activities.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 16
  • 17. J. Nawyn et al.The ViTo approach Behaviour modification depends on the delivery of motivational strategies at the precise place and time the behaviour occurs. The task is to pre-empt or disrupt the stimulus-reward cycle of TV watching. Decrease the costs of entry into physical activity and provide immediate positive reinforcement.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 17
  • 18. J. Nawyn et al.The Methodology Cast aside previously tried methods like motivational material and locking or exercise-contingent TV activation systems. (Eg Telecycle requires the user to pedal an exercise bicycle in order to watch the TV and Square Eyes uses step-counting shoe insole.) Instead, by value-adding features to a remote control we provide information that is timely, tailored to their situation, subtle and easy to process. The features include built-in program listings, access to a media library, activity management, and games to entice users into adopting the persuasive technology into their routines.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 18
  • 19. J. Nawyn et al.The psychology of persuasion Use strategies that promote intrinsic motivation and self-reflection. Avoid nagging, punishment or the use of coercion for motivation. Brief interaction sequences along with a time-out period between presentations. Focus on elements of fun, reward, and novelty to induce positive effect rather than guilt. Eg simple puzzles that use physical activity as input and the TV for display. The puzzles start with provocative but incomplete information and as user’s movement is sensed, they are rewarded with further information.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 19
  • 20. J. Nawyn et al.The ViTo system [1] The ViTo system architecture5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 20
  • 21. J. Nawyn et al.The ViTo system [2] ViTo handheld interface showing the main menu and the assignment of hardware buttons to the remote control functions.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 21
  • 22. J. Nawyn et al.Behaviour Modification Strategies Methodology is derived from research on learning and decision-making. Behavioural sciences derived phenomena like; suggestibility, goal-setting, and operant conditioning, have been well studied and are empirically supported. The main areas include; User experience strategies - satisfaction and rewards to promote the adoption and use of the device. Activity transition strategies - to promote less sedentary alternatives to TV viewing. Proactive interface strategies - that encourage behaviour change.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 22
  • 23. J. Nawyn et al.Convincing Results The ViTo prototype study was tailored for an individual who lives and watches TV alone and was conducted in a specially instrumented research apartment called the PlaceLab. One participant, a 33-year-old male school teacher, was recruited via a flyer in an ice cream parlour. The 14-day evaluation revealed that a persuasive computing device can influence user behaviour with little burden of annoyance. A true ecological validity of this claim, however, would require the deployment of ViTo in real homes over a period of many years.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 23
  • 24. Jin-Ling Lo et al. Be - Youth oriented accessories.“Playful Tray: Adopting Ubicomp and PersuasiveTechniques into Play-based Occupational Therapyfor Reducing Poor Eating Behaviour in Young Children” Jin-Ling Lo, Tung-yun Lin, Hao-hua Chu, Hsi-chin Chou, Jen-hao Chen, Jane Yung-jen Hsu, Polly Huang, National Taiwan University. http://mll.csie.ntu.edu.tw/papers/playful_tray_ubicomp2007.pdf School of Occupational Therapy, Department of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation, Graduate Institute of Networking and Multimedia, Department of Computer Science and Information Engineering, Department of Electrical Engineering, at the National Taiwan University. Product designs and two working prototypes.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 24
  • 25. Jin-Ling Lo et al.The ‘Playful Tray’ project outline Objectives Improve poor eating behaviour in young children after they reached their self-feeding age. Reduce the negative power play interactions between parents and children. Means Utilize Ubicomp technology in occupational therapy to implement behaviour intervention where the target behaviour occurs and when the treatment is most effective.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 25
  • 26. Jin-Ling Lo et al.The Playful Tray operating principles The Playful Tray is embedded with an interactive game played over a weight sensitive tray surface. The tray recognises and tracks the natural eating actions. Child eating actions are then used as game inputs. Changing the weight sensibility of the tray effects the size of the bites required to trigger a game response.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 26
  • 27. Jin-Ling Lo et al.The persuasive situation A young child is performing her imitation skit and not paying attention to eating her food. Same child is actively eating to interact with the game in the Playful Tray.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 27
  • 28. Jin-Ling Lo et al.Play-based feeding behaviour intervention The tray design is based on learning theories and the key components of playfulness, including; Intrinsic motivation - attention on the process (activity) not the outcome. Internal control - participant feels in charge of their actions. Suspension of reality - pretend quality in their actions.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 28
  • 29. Jin-Ling Lo et al.Physical design – initial prototype The first playful tray prototype, the Colouring Game Tray. Problems identified: frustration with the initially plain character, quick onset of boredom, excessive attention distracted some from eating, some ate too quickly - impatient to see the fully coloured character.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 29
  • 30. Jin-Ling Lo et al.Version 2 – the Racing Game Tray5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 30
  • 31. Jin-Ling Lo et al.Playful Tray system architectureThe software and sensor system architecture.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 31
  • 32. Jin-Ling Lo et al.The Playful Tray Game Screen shots for the final Racing Game The character controlled by the child is chosen at random (adding an element of ambiguity).5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 32
  • 33. Jin-Ling Lo et al.The pilot study and results [1] A pilot study was conducted on two child/parent mealtime events to check for the reliability of the data coding. (A modified behaviour coding system created by A. C. Moore) Each parent and child received scores of three behavioural categories reflecting the frequencies at which they exhibited the behaviours. The results suggest that by using the Racing Game Playful Tray children were more focused on self-feeding than without it.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 33
  • 34. Jin-Ling Lo et al.The pilot study and results [2] A high ratio of the on-task/off-task behaviour suggests greater frequency of desired behaviour versus off-task activity.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 34
  • 35. Design for the MindConclusions Paradox - The 22 pop typewriter – email for non-technical people. The papers do not converge on identical solutions. However the approach and methods proposed are in concordance with those identified and established in behavioural science. No need to guess or speculate upon the required strategy for effective persuasion mechanisms. All papers conclude with positive findings and call for further development and more extensive study.5 Sep 07 DESIGN FOR THE MIND by Piotr Kulaga - desc9179 Ambient Visualisation with Devices 35