How Does It Feel To Be The Problem?
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White Graduate Students' Experiences with Racial Tension

White Graduate Students' Experiences with Racial Tension

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How Does It Feel To Be The Problem? Presentation Transcript

  • 1. ? HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension A paper presentation at NASPA Annual Conference 2011 .::. Philadelphia, PA .::. March 14, 2011 citation McGuire, K., Chang, C., Berhanu, J., & Davis III,C.H.F. (2011). How does it feel to be the problem? White students’ experiences with racial tension in higher education. In Harper, S.R. & Paton, L. (Eds.) Critical Race Theory in Education. [Forthcoming Book Chapter]. music West, K. (2010) Lost in the world [recorded by Kanye West] My Beautiful Dark Twisted Fantasy [CD] New York, NY: Rocafella, Def Jam. (2010) + excerpts from participant interviewsKeon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 2. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?2 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension about the authors KeonMcGUIRE is a 2nd year Doctoral Student in Higher Education at the University of Pennsylvania JonathanBERHANU is a 1st year Doctoral Student in Educational Leadership & Policy Analysis at the University of Wisconsin - Madison ConnieCHANG is the Coordinator of Student Activities at the University of California San Diego, 2010 graduate M.S.Ed. Higher Education from University of Pennsylvania CharlesHFDAVISIII is a Planner + Strategist at TribalDDB New York, 2010 graduate M.S.Ed. Education, Cultures & Society from the University of PennsylvaniaKeon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 3. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?3 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension about the presentation I. introduction & overview II. review of the literature III. our ‘research’ IV. breakout sessions V. our findings VI. implications for practice VII. question & answer VIII. referencesKeon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 4. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?4 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension a word about words Racial Tension: refers to White students’ participation in critical discourse on race, racism, and Whiteness (and White privilege) in which they are defined as the problem.Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 5. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?5 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension From DuBois “Between me and the other world there is ever an unasked question: unasked by some through feelings of delicacy; by others through the difficulty of rightly framing it. All, nevertheless, flutter round it. They approach me in a half-hesitant sort of way, eye me curiously or compassionately, and then, instead of saying directly, How does it feel to be a problem? [They] say, I know an excellent colored man in my town” (DuBois, 1994, p. 1)Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 6. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?6 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tensionHELMS’ White Racial Identity Model(Helms, J.E., 1990)7 Ego StatusesAbandonment of racism ➡ Contact ➡ Disintegration ➡ Reintegration statusesDefining a non-racist White identity ➡ Pseudo-independence ➡ Immersion ➡ Emersion ➡ AutonomyKeon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 7. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?7 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension what the literature tells us Whites hold an unsubstantiated fear towards racial minorities and have limited substantive interracial interactions (Spanierman, Todd, & Anderson 2009) White students may experience powerlessness/helplessness, shock, surprise, disconnection from their cultural heritage, and discrimination by association (Spanierman et. al., 2008) Whites remain anxious about using racialized terms out of fear that they may be perceived as a racist (Pollock, 2004). Whites may intentionally distance themselves from racial minorities in conversations or other social interactions (Goff, Steele, & Davies, 2008).Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 8. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?8 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension what the literature tells us It is possible that White students may face feelings of guilt, anger, shame, confusion and embarrassment (Arminio, 2001; Case, 2007; Iyer, Leach, & Crosby, 2003; Lawrence & Bunche, 1996; Spanierman et. al., 2008; Steele, 1990; Swim & Miller, 1999; Tatum, 1992) Some students intentionally opt out of further learning by refusing to attend classes or disengaging from conversation (Lawrence & Bunche, 1996; Simpson, 2007). Others may engage in blaming the victim (meaning, persons of color; Helms, 1990), minimize the relevance and pervasiveness of racism in contemporary society, claim reverse discrimination or embrace a color-bind ideology (Bonilla-Silva, 2010)Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 9. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?9 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tensionresearchquestions1. How do White graduate students experience being problematized (e.g., labeled as [a] racist) in discourse on race, racism, and Whiteness?2. How do White graduate students respond to being problematized during discourse on race, racism, and Whiteness?3. In what ways do instructors induce or reduce the problematizing of White students in discourse on race, racism, and Whiteness?Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F.McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS IIIUniversity of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 10. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?10 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension interviewquestions 1. Could you explain what it was like to read class 4. What advice would you give to instructors for assignments where Whites were portrayed as racist engaging White students in discourse on race, (s) (i.e. “the problem”)? racism, and Whiteness? 2. Could you describe your experience in discussing 5. What advice would you give a White [graduate] issues of race, racism, and Whiteness in the student to effectively/productively engage in classroom? discourse on race, racism, and Whiteness? 3. Can you reflect on a moment that was especially uncomfortable for you when discussing race, racism, and Whiteness? Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 11. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?11 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension breakoutquestions 1. What challenges have you seen White (graduate) students experience when participating in discourse on race, racism and Whiteness? 2. What challenges have you experienced as an administrator (or faculty member) attempting to engage White (graduate) students around issues of race, racism and Whiteness? Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 12. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?12 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension Heather colorblindness to awareness Masters Student in Education “I’ve seen racism (i.e. White privilege) being perpetuated at [university]. I experience these moments where I’m sitting in other classes hearing White people make problematic statements, I can’t help but feel like I’m in the middle ... I understand that I’m a member of this [White] group, but I don’t think like them, so I’m trying to figure out my place in all of this.” “I got a look from a few people in the class who were people of color - I feel like I need that sometimes because it makes me check myself and I think this is an on going process for me, I’m still learning.” Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 13. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?13 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension Brian reflection and examination PhD Student in Education + Former Teacher “There’s this feeling in my gut that says that racism is a real problem and when people make arguments saying that racism isn’t a problem that they are wrong. But often times I’m not the most, I’m not the best debater or arguer and I don’t have things figured out very well for myself. So I can’t transmit that gut feeling to someone else and if I can’t engage them in a discussion in a convincing way it doesn’t help. It also doesn’t help me convince myself that my gut is right.” Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 14. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?14 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension Beth race and gender intersect Mid-Career Masters Student in Education + Former Teacher in Urban School District “... At the end of my first marking period I was making a wall of classroom stars and 8 of the 10 were female students ... I noticed the kids that were the poorest performing were my largest and loudest Black male students.” “To me that was absolutely not a coincidence ... I need[ed] to find a way to engage my Black male students. I actually am pretty sure I’ve internalized some really negative messages about large Black men and if I can see the evidence of this in their work, I can’t imagine how they’re feeling sitting in my classroom everyday.” Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 15. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?15 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension commonthemes 1. The import of course readings that critiqued Whiteness and racism 2. The necessity of educational safe spaces and peer support to discuss and process issues of race and racism 3. Tension around exploring one’s identity as an individual White person situated in the White(ness) collective 4. Willingness to be self-reflective and critically examine one’s own racial positionality Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 16. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?16 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension implications4practice 1. Educators must develop curricula and employ 4. It is essential that educators provide safe avenues pedagogical methods that facilitate White to support student exploration within classroom student racial identity contexts 2. Educators should demonstrate to White students 5. The necessity of personal reflection and critically that there is a role for them within the fight for examination as practices for managing and racial justice as anti-racist allies coping with being identified as a problem 3. Educators should critically examine their own racial biases and commit to developing anti-racist identities. Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 17. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?17 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension questionanswer ? HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension citation McGuire, K., Chang, C., Berhanu, J., & Davis III,C.H.F. (2011). How does it feel to be the problem? White students’ experiences with racial tension in higher education. In Harper, S.R. & Paton, L. (Eds.) Critical Race Theory in Education. [Forthcoming Book Chapter]. Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 18. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?18 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension our references Arminio, J. (2001). Exploring the nature of race-related guilt. Journal of Multicultural Counseling and Development, 29(4), 239-252. Baldwin, J. (1964). The fire next time. New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc. Barrett, J.E. and Roediger, D. (2005). How White people became White. In P. Rothenberg, P. (Ed.) White Privilege: Essential Readings on the Other Side of Racism, (pp 35-40. New York: Worth Publishers. Bell, D. (1992). Racial realism. Connecticut Law Review, 24(2), 363-379. Bonilla-Silva, E. (2010). Racism without racists: Color-blind racism and racial inequality in contemporary America (3rd ed.). Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield. Bowser, B. P., & Hunt, R. G. (1996). Impacts of racism on White Americans (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Carter, R. (1990). The relationship between racism and racial identity among White Americans: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Counseling & Development, 69, 46-50. Case, K. A. (2007). Raising White privilege awareness and reducing racial prejudice: Assessing diversity course effectiveness. Teaching of Psychology, 34(4), 231-235. Clark, K. B. (1965). Dark ghetto: Dilemmas of social power. New York: Harper Torchbooks. Cross, W.E. (1971). The Negro-to-Black conversion experience: Toward a psychology of Black liberation. Black World, 20, 13-27. Cuyjet, M. J. (2006). African American college men: Twenty-first century issues and concerns. In M. J. Cuyjet (Ed.), African American Men in College. Jossey-Bass, San Francisco. Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 19. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?19 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension our references DiAngelo, R. J. (2006). The production of whiteness in education: Asian international students in a college classroom. Teachers College Record, 108(10), 1983-2000. Delgado, R. (1995). Critical race theory: The cutting edge. Philadelphia: Temple University Press. Delgado, R., & Stefancic, J. (2001). Critical race theory: An introduction. New York: New York University Press. Doane, A. W., & Bonilla-Silva, E. (2003). Rethinking whiteness studies. White Out: The Continuing Significance of Racism (pp. 3 - 18). New York: Routledge. Du Bois, W. E. B. (1920). Souls of White folks. In W. E. B. Du Bois, Darkwater: The Givens Collection. New York: Washington Square Press. Du Bois, W. E. B. (1994). The Souls of Black folk. New York: Dover Publications. Ellison, R. (1953). Invisible man. New York: Vintage. Fernandez, J. P. (1996). The impact of racism on Whites in corporate America. In B. P. Browser & R. G. Hunt (Eds.), Impacts of racism on White Americans (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications, Inc. Foucault, M. (1976). The history of sexuality: An introduction. New York: Vintage. Frankenberg, R. (1993). White Women, Race Matters: The Social Construction of Whiteness. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press. Fries-Britt, S. L., & Turner, B. (2001). Facing stereotypes: A case study of Black students on a White campus. Journal of College Student Development, 42(5), 420-429. Gloria, A. M., & Rodriguez, E. R. (2000). Counseling Latino university students: Psychosociocultural issues for consideration. Journal of Counseling and Development, 78, 145-154. Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 20. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?20 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension our references Goff, P. A., Steele, C. M., & Davies, P. G. (2008). The space between us: Stereotype threat and distance in interracial contexts. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 94(1), 91-107. Green, D. O., & Trent, W. T. (2005). The Public Good and a Racially Diverse Democracy. In A. J. Kezar, T. C. Chambers, & J. C. Burkhardt (Eds.), Higher Education for the Public Good: Emerging Voices from a National Movement. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass. Gurin, P., Dey, E. L., Hurtado, S., & Gurin, G. (2002). Diversity and higher education: Theory and impact on educational outcomes. Harvard Educational Review, 72(3), 330-366. Harper, S. R. (2009). Niggers no more: a critical race counternarrative on Black male student achievement at predominantly White colleges and universities. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 22(6), 697-712. Harper, S. R. (2009). “Race, interest convergence, and transfer outcomes for Black male student athletes” New Directions for Community Colleges. Harper, S. R., Patton, L. D., & Wooden, O. S. (2009). Access and equity for African American students in higher education: A critical race historical analysis of policy efforts. Journal of Higher Education, 80(4), 389-414. Harris, C. I. (1993). Whiteness as property. Harvard Law Review, 106(8), 1709-1791 Helms, J. E. (1990). Black and White racial identity: Theory, research and practice. Westport Connecticut: Greenwood Press. Helms, J.E. (1992). A race is a nice thing to have. Topeka, KS: Content Communications. Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 21. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?21 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension our references Helms, J.E., & Cook, D.A. (1990). Development of the White racial identity attitude inventory. In Helms, J.E. (Ed.) Black and White racial identity: Theory, research and practice (pp. 67-80). Westport, CT: Greenwood. Hinderlie, H. H. & Kenny, M. (2002). Attachment, social support, and college adjustment among Black students at predominantly White universities. Journal of College Student Development, 43(3), 327-340. Hurtado, S. (2007). Linking diversity with the educational and civic missions of higher education. The Review of Higher Education, 30(2), 185-196. Iverson, S. V. (2007). Camouflaging power and privilege: A critical race analysis of university diversity policies. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 586-611. Iyer, A., Leach, C. W., & Crosby, F. J. (2003). White guilt and racial compensation: The benefits and limits of self-focus. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 29(1), 117-129. Katz, J. & Ivey, A. (1977). White awareness: The frontier of racism awareness training. Personnel and Guidance Journal, 55 (8), 485-489. Lawrence, S. M., & Bunche, T. (1996). Feeling and dealing: Teaching White students about racial privilege. Teaching and Teacher Education, 12(5), 531-542. Leonardo, Z. (2009). The myth of white ignorance. In Z. Leonardo, Race, whiteness, and education. New York: Routledge. Lepp, M., & Zorn, C. R. (2002). Life circle: Creating safe space for educational empowerment. Journal of Nursing Education, 41(9), 383-385. Lucal, B. (1996). Oppression and privilege: Toward a relational conceptualization of race. Teaching Sociology, 24(3), 245-255. McIntosh, P. (1990). White Privilege: Unpacking the Invisible Knapsack. Winter: Independent School Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 22. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?22 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension our references McWhorter, L. (2005). Where do white people come from? A Foucaultian critique of whiteness studies. Philosophy Social Criticism, 31(5), 533-556. Miller, J., Donner, S., & Fraser, E. (2004). Talking when talking is tough: Talking on conversations about race, sexual orientation, gender, class, and other aspects of social identity. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 74(2), 377-392. Morrison, T. (1992). Playing in the Dark . New York: Vintage Publishing. Nerburn, K., & Mengelkoch, L. (1991). Native American wisdom. Novato, CA: New World Library. Ortiz, A. M., & Rhoads, R. A. (2000). Deconstructing Whiteness as part of a multicultural educational framework: From theory to practice. Journal of College Student Development, 41(1), 81-93. Pollock, M. (2004). Colormute: Race talk dilemmas in an American school. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Ponterotto, J. G. (1990). Racial/ethnic minority and women students in higher education: A status report. New Directions for Student Services, 52, 45–59. Pratt, M. B. (1984). Identity: Skin, blood, heart. In E. Bulkin, M. B. Pratt, & B. Smith (Eds.), Yours in struggle: Three feminist perspectives on anti-Semitism and racism. Ithaca, NY: Firebrand Books. Reason, R. D., Roosa Millar, E. A., & Scales, T. C. (2005). Toward a model of racial justice ally development. Journal of College Student Development, 46(5), 530-546. Roediger, D. R. (1991). The Wages of Whiteness: Race and the Making of the American Working Class. New York: Verso. Simpson, J. S. (2007). “Can’t we focus on the good stuff?”: The pedagogical distance between comfort and critique. In L. M. Cooks & J. S. Simpson (Eds.), Whiteness, pedagogy, performance: Dis/placing race. New York: Lexington Books. Smedley, B. D., Myers, H. F., & Harrell, S. P. (1993). Minority-status stresses and the college adjustment of ethnic minority freshmen. Journal of Higher Education 64(4),434-452. Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 23. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?23 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension our references Smith, W. A., Allen, W. R., & Danley, L. L. (2007). Assume the position … you fit the description: Psychosocial experiences and racial battle fatigue among African American male college students. American Behavioral Scientist, 51(4), 551-578. Smith, W. A., Yosso, T. J., & Solórzano, D. G. (2007). Racial primes and Black misandry on historically White campuses: Toward critical race accountability in educational administration. Educational Administration Quarterly, 43(5), 559-585. Solórzano, D. G., Ceja, M., & Yosso, T. J. (2000). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate: The experiences of African American college students. Journal of Negro Education, 69(1), 60-73. Spanierman, L. B., Oh, E., Poteat, V. P., Hund, A. R., McClair, V. L., Beer, A. M., & Clarke, A. M. (2008). White university students’ responses to societal racism: A qualitative investigation. The Counseling Psychologist, 36(6), 839-870. Spanierman, L. B., Todd, N. R., & Anderson, C. J. (2009). Psychosocial cost of racism to Whites: Understanding patterns among university students. Journal of CounselingPsychology, 56(2), p. 239-252. Steele, S. (1990). White guilt. American Scholars, 59(4), 497-506. Swim, J. K., & Miller, D. L. (1999). White guilt: Its antecedents and consequences for attitudes toward affirmative action. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 25(4),500-514. Tatum, B. D. (1992). Talking about race, learning about racism: An application of racial identity development theory in the classroom. Harvard Educational Review, 62, 1-24. Tatum, B. D. (1994). Teaching White students about racism: The search for White allies and the restoration of hope. Teachers College Record, 95(4), 462-476. Tatum, B. D. (2003). "Why are all the Black kids sitting together in the cafeteria?": A psychologist explains the development of racial identity (5th Anniv., Revised ed.). New York: Basic Books. Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 24. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?24 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension our references Williams, D. G., & Evans-Winters, V. (2005). The burden of teaching teachers: Memoirs of race discourse in teacher education. The Urban Review, 37(3), 201-219. Yosso, T. J., Smith, W. A., Ceja, M., & Solórzano, D. G (2009). Critical race theory, racial microaggressions, and campus racial climate for Latina/o undergraduates. Harvard Educational Review, 79(4), 659-690. Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania
  • 25. HOW DOES IT FEEL TO BE THE PROBLEM?25 White graduate students’ experiences with racial tension thankyou contact email KeonMcGUIRE keon@gse.upenn.edu JonathanBERHANU berhanu@wisc.edu ConnieCHANG conniechang1@gmail.com CharlesHFDAVISIII cdavis@charlesdavisspeaks.com Keon M. Jonathan Connie Charles H.F. McGUIRE BERHANU CHANG DAVIS III University of Pennsylvania University of Wisconsin - Madison University of California San Diego University of Pennsylvania