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JavaScript Puzzlers!

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Stay alert and try to solve these "simple" JavaScript puzzles, designed to demonstrate some of the more obscure "features" of the language. Try your best to answer them! But, be careful — the …

Stay alert and try to solve these "simple" JavaScript puzzles, designed to demonstrate some of the more obscure "features" of the language. Try your best to answer them! But, be careful — the solutions aren't as easy as they look.

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  • 1. JavaScript Puzzlers: Puzzles to Make You Think (and write fewer bugs) Charles Bihis | Computer Scientist© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 1
  • 2. Who am I?  Charles Bihis  Computer Scientist  Adobe Identity Team  Blog: blogs.adobe.com/charles  Twitter: @charlesbihis  GitHub: github.com/charlesbihis© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 2
  • 3. What can I expect?  What are we going to talk about?  What are we NOT going to talk about?  Puzzlers!  3rd- party libraries or frameworks  Maximus the Confused!  e.g. jQuery, Node.js, etc.  Block Party!  That’s Odd!  Bugs  Let’s Print Some ZIP-Codes!  Say What?!  Loopty Loop!  A Case of Mistaken Identity  Why Are We Bankrupt?!  Will deal with only pure JavaScript  (i.e. no libraries!)© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 3
  • 4. What is a Puzzler? A Puzzler is a very simple programming puzzle that demonstrates or exploits weird behaviours and quirky edge-cases of a given programming language.© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 4
  • 5. How does this work? 1. Code – I introduce the code. 2. Question – I pose a multiple-choice question and you guess what the answer is…think hard! 3. Walkthrough – I walk through a reasonable explanation. 4. Answer – I tell you the real answer. 5. Moral – How can you avoid making mistakes like this in your own code.© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 5
  • 6. JavaScript Puzzler – Maximus the Confused!var commodusRule = thumbsUp;alert(Maximus the + (commodusRule === thumbsUp) ? Gladiator : Merciful); What does this print? a) Maximus the Gladiator c) Error b) Maximus the Merciful d) None of the above  prints only "Gladiator"© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 6
  • 7. But why?  Order of operations dictates that the binary “+” operator takes precedence over the conditional “?” operator. Maximus the + (commodusRule === thumbsUp) ? Gladiator : Merciful; *Reference: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Reference/Operators/Operator_Precedence© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 7
  • 8. But why?  Order of operations dictates that the binary “+” operator takes precedence over the conditional “?” operator. Maximus the true ? Gladiator : Merciful; *Reference: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Reference/Operators/Operator_Precedence© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 8
  • 9. But why?  Order of operations dictates that the binary “+” operator takes precedence over the conditional “?” operator. Gladiator; *Reference: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Reference/Operators/Operator_Precedence© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 9
  • 10. But why?  Order of operations dictates that the binary “+” operator takes precedence over the conditional “?” operator. Gladiator;  According to the MDN (Mozilla Developer Network), the binary “+” operator has a precedence of 6 while the conditional “?” operator has a precedence of 15.  Note: This is below MOST commonly used operators (i.e. “*”, “/”, “%”, “<“, “>>” “!=”, “===“, etc). *Reference: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Reference/Operators/Operator_Precedence© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 10
  • 11. JavaScript Puzzler – Maximus the Confused…FIXED!var commodusRule = thumbsUp;alert(Maximus the + (commodusRule === thumbsUp) ? Gladiator : Merciful);© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 11
  • 12. JavaScript Puzzler – Maximus the Confused…FIXED!var commodusRule = thumbsUp;alert(Maximus the + (commodusRule === thumbsUp ? Gladiator : Merciful));© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 12
  • 13. Moral  Be aware of order-of-operations!  Be explicit and place parenthesis accordingly to ensure correct and predictable order of execution.© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 13
  • 14. JavaScript Puzzler – Block Party! // global var var name = "World!"; What does this print? (function() { // check if "name" defined a) “Hello, World!” if (typeof name === "undefined") { // local "shadow" var b) “Hello, Mr. Bond.” var name = "Mr. Bond."; alert("Hello, " + name); c) “Hello, ” } else { alert("Hello, " + name); } d) None of the above })();© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 14
  • 15. But why? 1. No block scope! for (var i = 0; i < MAX; i++) { // do something } alert(i); // Note: "i" exists here! 2. “Hoisting” alert(i); // Note: "i" exists here too! for (var i = 0; i < MAX; i++) { // do something }© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 15
  • 16. But why? 1. No block scope! for (var i = 0; i < MAX; i++) { // do something } alert(i); // Note: "i" exists here! 2. “Hoisting” var i; alert(i); // Note: "i" exists here too! for (i = 0; i < MAX; i++) { // do something }© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 16
  • 17. JavaScript Puzzler – Block Party…FIXED! // global var var name = "World!"; (function() { // check if "name" defined if (typeof name === "undefined") { // local "shadow" var var name = "Mr. Bond."; alert("Hello, " + name); } else { alert("Hello, " + name); } })();© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 17
  • 18. JavaScript Puzzler – Block Party…FIXED! // global var var name = "World!"; (function() { var name; // declaration hoisted here // check if "name" defined if (typeof name === "undefined") { // local "shadow" var name = "Mr. Bond."; // assignment remains here alert("Hello, " + name); } else { alert("Hello, " + name); } })();© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 18
  • 19. JavaScript Puzzler – Block Party…FIXED! // global var var name = "World!"; (function() { var name = "Mr. Bond."; // check if "name" defined if (typeof name === "undefined") { alert("Hello, " + name); } else { alert("Hello, " + name); } })();© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 19
  • 20. Moral  There is no block-level scoping in JavaScript  Declare ALL of your variables at the top of your function© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 20
  • 21. JavaScript Puzzler – That’s Odd! (function(){ var values = [7, 4, 13, Infinity, -9]; What does this print? for (var i = 0; i < values.length; i++) { if (isOdd(values[i])) { alert(values[i]); a) 7, 13 } } b) 7, 13, Infinity, -9 })(); c) 7, -9 function isOdd(num) { return num % 2 == 1; } d) 7, 13, -9© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 21
  • 22. But why?  Let’s take a closer look… 7 % 2 = 1 // displays 4 % 2 = 2 // does NOT display 13 % 2 = 1 // displays Infinity % 2 = NaN // does NOT display -9 % 2 = -1 // does NOT display© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 22
  • 23. But why?  -9 % 2 = -1? Really?  JavaScript shares the same behavior as the Java implementation of the modulus (%) operator. That is, it must satisfy the following identity function for all integer values a and non-zero integer values b. (a / b) * b + (a % b) == a  A side-implication of this behavior is that the result will have the same sign as the left operand!© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 23
  • 24. JavaScript Puzzler – That’s Odd…FIXED! (function(){ var values = [7, 4, 13, Infinity, -9]; for (var i = 0; i < values.length; i++) { if (isOdd(values[i])) { alert(values[i]); } } })(); function isOdd(num) { return num % 2 == 1; }© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 24
  • 25. JavaScript Puzzler – That’s Odd…FIXED! (function(){ var values = [7, 4, 13, Infinity, -9]; for (var i = 0; i < values.length; i++) { if (isOdd(values[i])) { alert(values[i]); } } })(); function isOdd(num) { return num % 2 != 0; }© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 25
  • 26. Moral  Be careful about the signs of operands when using the modulus operator.© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 26
  • 27. JavaScript Puzzler – Let’s Print Some ZIP Codes! // array of 5 valid zip-codes var zipCodes = new Array("93021", What does this print? "02392", "20341", a) 93021 "08163", 19  Firefox 20341 "32959"); 32959 // lets do something with each zip-code b) 93021 // for now, display them 2392 20341  Chrome for (var i = 0; i < zipCodes.length; i++) { 8163 32959 // sanity check if (!isNaN(parseInt(zipCodes[i])) && c) 93021 parseInt(zipCodes[i]) > 0) { 20341 alert(parseInt(zipCodes[i])); 32959 } d) It varies }© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 27
  • 28. But why?  Syntax var num = parseInt(string, radix); // "radix" is optional  When you omit the optional “radix” parameter, the following behavior takes place:  If the input string begins with “0x” or “0X”, radix of 16 is used (i.e. hexadecimal)  If the input string begins with “0”, radix 8 is used (i.e. octal) OR radix 10 is used (i.e. decimal)  If the input string begins with any other values, radix 10 is used (i.e. decimal)  Particularly when dealing with string values with leading 0’s, Mozilla had this to say… Exactly which radix is chosen is implementation-dependent. For this reason ALWAYS SPECIFY A RADIX WHEN USING parseInt. *Reference: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/parseInt© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 28
  • 29. But why?  Another important note about the parseInt() API… If parseInt encounters a character that is not a numeral in the specified radix, it ignores it and all succeeding characters and returns the integer value parsed up to that point.  A closer look… parseInt("93021") = 93021 // displays parseInt("02392") = (2 * 8) + (3 * 1) = 19 // displays parseInt("20341") = 20341 // displays parseInt("08163") = 0 // does NOT display parseInt("32959") = 32959 // displays *Reference: https://developer.mozilla.org/en-US/docs/JavaScript/Reference/Global_Objects/parseInt© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 29
  • 30. JavaScript Puzzler – Let’s Print Some ZIP Codes…FIXED! // array of 5 valid zip-codes var zipCodes = new Array("93021", "02392", "20341", "08163", "32959"); // lets do something with each zip-code // for now, display them for (var i = 0; i < zipCodes.length; i++) { // sanity check if (!isNaN(parseInt(zipCodes[i])) && parseInt(zipCodes[i]) > 0) { alert(parseInt(zipCodes[i])); } }© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 30
  • 31. JavaScript Puzzler – Let’s Print Some ZIP Codes…FIXED! // array of 5 valid zip-codes var zipCodes = new Array("93021", "02392", "20341", "08163", "32959"); // lets do something with each zip-code // for now, display them for (var i = 0; i < zipCodes.length; i++) { // sanity check if (!isNaN(parseInt(zipCodes[i], 10)) && // radix value added parseInt(zipCodes[i], 10) > 0) { // here too alert(parseInt(zipCodes[i], 10)); // and here too } }© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 31
  • 32. Moral  parseInt() takes an optional radix parameter.  Omitting this optional parameter will cause unpredictable behavior across browsers.  Be explicit and ALWAYS include the radix parameter.© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 32
  • 33. JavaScript Puzzler – Say What?! function sayHello(name) { alert(Hello, + name); } sayHello(</script><script>alert("BOOM!");</script>); What does this print? a) alert("BOOM!“); b) Hello, </script><script>alert("BOOM!");</script> c) BOOM! d) Error© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 33
  • 34. But why?  Let’s take a look at the code again… function sayHello(name) { alert(Hello, + name); } sayHello(</script><script>alert("BOOM!");</script>);© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 34
  • 35. But why?  Let’s take a look at the code again… <script> function sayHello(name) { alert(Hello, + name); } sayHello(</script><script>alert("BOOM!");</script>); </script>  When a browser renders a page, first the HTML parser will parse the page and tokenize out all of the tags.  Only after this is done, will it then allow the JavaScript parser to tokenize and execute whatever tokens the HTML parser believes are JavaScript scripts!© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 35
  • 36. But why?  Let’s take a look at the code again… <script> function sayHello(name) { alert(Hello, + name); } sayHello(</script><script>alert("BOOM!");</script>); </script>  Armed with this knowledge, we can see that the HTML parser will send 2 scripts to the JavaScript parser to tokenize and execute…  <script>function sayHello(name) { alert(Hello, + name); } sayHello(</script>  <script>alert("BOOM!");</script>© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 36
  • 37. A closer look  Again, the HTML parser will send these two script tags to the JavaScript parser…  <script>function sayHello(name) { alert(Hello, + name); } sayHello(</script>  <script>alert("BOOM!");</script>  If that name parameter is user-controlled, perhaps taken as input from the browser, or pulled from a datasource, whatever, then this is an open invitation for XSS attacks!  Errors like this can expose huge security holes which may allow an attacker to potentially take over a user’s browser!© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 37
  • 38. JavaScript Puzzler – Say What?!...FIXED!  In this particular case, the fix must be done on the server-side.  We want to eliminate the <script></script> tags from appearing in the source in the first place.  Suggested solution is to use the OWASP ESAPI APIs…  Stands for “The Open Web Application Security Project” “Enterprise Security API”  https://www.owasp.org/index.php/Category:OWASP_Enterprise_Security_API  Have API bindings in all major languages including…  Java  Dot NET  PHP  JavaScript  Python  PHP© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 38
  • 39. JavaScript Puzzler – Say What?!...FIXED!  For this particular Puzzler, we want to use ESAPI.encoder().encodeForJavaScript()  Doing this on the server to JavaScript-encode the user-inputted variable, name, we get what we expect…© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 39
  • 40. Moral  NEVER . TRUST . THE . USER  Validate your input.  Encode your output appropriately.  i.e. HTML-encode for HTML URL-encode for URLs JavaScript-encode for JavaScript etc.  Use standard libraries (i.e. don’t reinvent the wheel).© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 40
  • 41. JavaScript Puzzler – Loopty Loop! What does this print? var END = 9007199254740992; // Math.pow(2, 53) a) 0 var START = END - 100; var count = 0; b) 100 for (var i = START; i <= END; i++) { count++; c) 101 } alert(count); d) None of the above  enters infinite loop© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 41
  • 42. But why?  9007199254740992 is a special number. Particularly, it is 2^53.  Why is this special?  First, we need to know something about how JavaScript represents numbers. *Reference: http://ecma262-5.com/ELS5_HTML.htm#Section_8.5© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 42
  • 43. But why?  JavaScript numbers abide by the IEEE Standard for Floating-Point Arithmetic (IEEE 754).  As such, all numbers in JavaScript are represented by double-precision 64-bit floating point values… exponent -4 1.2345 = 12345 x 10 mantissa  In binary… 63 62 53 52 0 1 11...111 11111111111...111 sign exponent mantissa *Reference: http://ecma262-5.com/ELS5_HTML.htm#Section_8.5© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 43
  • 44. But why?  2^53 is the largest exact integral value that can be represented in JavaScript!  From the ECMA specification… Note that all the positive and negative integers whose magnitude is no greater than 2^53 are representable in the Number type.  What does this mean? var numA = Math.pow(2, 53); var numB = numA + 1; alert(numA === numB); // true! *Reference: http://ecma262-5.com/ELS5_HTML.htm#Section_8.5© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 44
  • 45. JavaScript Puzzler – Loopty Loop…FIXED! var END = 9007199254740992; // Math.pow(2, 53) var START = END - 100; var count = 0; for (var i = START; i <= END; i++) { count++; } alert(count);© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 45
  • 46. JavaScript Puzzler – Loopty Loop…FIXED! var START = 0; var END = 100; var count = 0; for (var i = START; i <= END; i++) { count++; } alert(count);© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 46
  • 47. Moral  Be aware of your number representations and number ranges!  There are REAL limitations imposed by your computer. When dealing with large (or important) numbers, know them!© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 47
  • 48. JavaScript Puzzler – A Case of Mistaken Identity! function showCase(value) { switch(value) { case "A": What does this print? alert("Case A was selected."); break; case "B": a) Case A was selected. alert("Case B here!"); break; case "C": b) This is Case C. alert("This is Case C."); break; default: c) Error alert("Dont know what happened."); break; } } d) Don’t know what happened. showCase(new String("A"));© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 48
  • 49. But why?  The switch statement in JavaScript internally uses the strict equality operator (i.e. ===) as opposed to the non-strict equality operator (i.e. ==).  The strict equality operator behaves exactly as the non-strict version, except that no type- conversions are done.  So, when the switch statement evaluates equality, it checks that the following are true…  Their types are equal  Their uncast values are equal  Notice, we invoked showCase() with a new String object. alert(typeof "A"); // "string" alert(typeof new String("A")); // "object"© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 49
  • 50. JavaScript Puzzler – A Case of Mistaken Identity…FIXED! function showCase(value) { switch(value) { case "A": alert("Case A was selected."); break; case "B": alert("Case B here!"); break; case "C": alert("This is Case C."); break; default: alert("Dont know what happened."); break; } } showCase(new String("A"));© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 50
  • 51. JavaScript Puzzler – A Case of Mistaken Identity…FIXED! function showCase(value) { switch(value) { case "A": alert("Case A was selected."); break; case "B": alert("Case B here!"); break; case "C": alert("This is Case C."); break; default: alert("Dont know what happened."); break; } } showCase("A");© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 51
  • 52. Moral  Get used to using the strict equality operator when possible. It will make you more aware of type conversions and true equalities.  From Douglas Crockford’s book “JavaScript: The Good Parts”… JavaScript has two sets of equality operators: === and !==, and their evil twins == and !=. The good ones work the way you would expect. The evil twins do the right thing when the operands are of the same type, but if they are of different types, they attempt to coerce the values, the rules by which they do that are complicated and unmemorable.© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 52
  • 53. JavaScript Puzzler – Why Are We Bankrupt?! What does this print? var costOfCandy = 0.60; // 60 cents a) 0 function calculateChange(cost, paid) { return paid - cost; b) 0.2 } c) 0.20 // pay for candy with 80 cents alert(calculateChange(costOfCandy, 0.80)); d) None of the above  0.20000000000000007© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 53
  • 54. But why?  As we learned from a previous Puzzler, all JavaScript numbers use the IEEE 754 floating-point arithmetic specification.  Because of this, values are not represented exactly, but rather as a fraction.  Some non-integer values simply CANNOT be expressed exactly in this way. They must be approximated. Example: 123.45 = 12345 * 10^-2 // exact 1 / 3 = 0.333333333333333 * 10^0 // approximation!© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 54
  • 55. JavaScript Puzzler – Why Are We Bankrupt?!...FIXED! var costOfCandy = 0.60; // 60 cents function calculateChange(cost, paid) { return paid - cost; } // pay for candy with 80 cents alert(calculateChange(costOfCandy, 0.80));© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 55
  • 56. JavaScript Puzzler – Why Are We Bankrupt?!...FIXED! // Use only integer math when dealing with money! To do this, // represent your money in terms of cents to begin with! // // e.g. use 1599 instead of 15.99 to represent $15.99 var costOfCandy = 60; // 60 cents function calculateChange(cost, paid) { return paid - cost; } // pay for candy with 80 cents alert(calculateChange(costOfCandy, 80));© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 56
  • 57. Moral  Floating-point arithmetic can be inaccurate when representing fractions.  When dealing with money, deal in terms of cents! This makes all of your calculations integer- calculations, which are exact!  Not completely exact, though…  Remember from our last Puzzler, it is exact only up until the largest representable integer value…  9007199254740992 (i.e. 2^52)  So, as long as you are dealing with less than $9 quintillion, you’re fine using integer arithmetic in JavaScript :) *Reference: http://docs.oracle.com/cd/E19957-01/806-3568/ncg_goldberg.html© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 57
  • 58. That’s it! Questions?© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 58
  • 59. Any favorites?  Puzzlers!  Maximus the Confused!  Block Party!  That’s Odd!  Let’s Print Some ZIP-Codes!  Say What?!  Loopty Loop!  A Case of Mistaken Identity  Why Are We Bankrupt?!© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 59
  • 60. Thanks for coming!  Charles Bihis  Computer Scientist  Adobe Identity Team  Blog: blogs.adobe.com/charles  Twitter: @charlesbihis  GitHub: github.com/charlesbihis© 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential. 60
  • 61. © 2013 Adobe Systems Incorporated. All Rights Reserved. Adobe Confidential.

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