RUNNING HEADER: BUSINESS 642 WEEK #2 ASSIGNMENT Business 642- Week #2 Charles M. Arena Jr. Business 642- Business Research Method and Tools Professor Alston Mason August 26th, 2012
2BUSINESS 642- WEEK #2 ASSIGNMENTWhat are the most prudent decisions she can make about her responsibilities to herself and others? Anytime that a person has to make a decision based on what is ethical or unethical thereis always a lot of gray area. What one person sees as ethical another person sees as unethical andvice versa. Unethical activities are pervasive and include violating nondisclosure agreements,breaking participant confidentiality, misrepresenting results, deceiving people, using invoicingirregularities, and avoiding legal liability (Cooper &Schindler, 2011). By taking the informationshe found in the folder she is violating the new code of ethics set by her company. Also themanager has to consider the fact that the information she has in her possession is a rough draftand the validity of the data. If the manager decided to use the information not only would she berisking her job but also her reputation. The manager runs the risk of having her staff andcoworkers turn against her. The most prudent decision she can make to herself and others in thissituation is to return the document to the airline. The manager should then inform her immediatesupervisor of the incidents along with the company’s ethicist officer. What are the implications of those decisions even if there is no violation of law or regulation? If the manager decides to not use the information and returns it to the airlines, she isacting ethically. The manager will know that she did the right thing and feel good about herself.Her company may reward her for behavior either through a monetary increase or award. If themanager decides to use the information for her benefit she is in clear violation of the company’scode of ethics. This violation could result in termination. If she is terminated for unethicalconduct she runs the risk of ruining her career and reputation.
3BUSINESS 642- WEEK #2 ASSIGNMENT Exploratory and Formal Studies The biggest differences between exploratory and formal studies are the degree ofstructure and the immediate objective of the study (Cooper &Schindler, 2011). Exploratorystudies tend toward less structure with the objective of discovering future research tasks.Exploratory studies purpose is to explore the proposed hypothesis and question the research.Where exploratory studies leave off, formal studies begin. Formals studies are important andnecessary to test the hypothesis and data the exploratory studies gathered (Cooper &Schindler,2011). Experimental and Ex Post Facto Research Designs When researchers conduct an experiment, they normally try to control and/or manipulatethe variables in the study. Researchers use variables to conduct changes, or as the controlkeeping with the research objectives in order to test their hypothesis. An experimental design isessential when trying to prove how one variable can affect the other variables or even theoutcome (Cooper & Schindler, 2011). Experimental designs are often used to provide supportfor hypothesis causation. An ex post facto design is when the researchers have no control overthe manipulation of the variables. An ex post facto design can only be successful if theresearcher does not influence the variables; this prevents a bias from being introduced. Theresearcher is limited to holding factors constant by judicious selection of subjects according tostrict sampling procedures and by statistical manipulation of findings (Cooper and Schindler,2011). Descriptive and Casual Studies In descriptive studies the researcher is trying to answer the question to the who, what,where, when and how much questions (Cooper and Schindler, 2011). In casual-explanatory
4BUSINESS 642- WEEK #2 ASSIGNMENTstudies the researcher is trying to understand and learn the why; why one variable produceschanges to another variable (Cooper and Schindler, 2011). Establishing causality is difficult, whether conclusions have been derived inductively or deductively. Explain and elaborate on the implications of this statement Causation is when an action or occurrence can cause another. For example, the essentialelement of causation can be explained by the following if A “produces” B or A “forces” B tooccur. This means that in order for B to occur A must also be present and if A is not present Bcannot occur (Cooper and Schindler, 2011). Why is ascribing causality more difficult when conclusions have been reached through induction? Induction is when you draw a conclusion based on one or more particular facts orpieces of evidence (Cooper and Schindler, 2011). When using induction the researcher comesto the conclusion that one variable or thing is tied to another variable or thing based on theevidence in front of you. When using induction it is hard to determine whether the informationin front of you is correct or whether the conclusion are accurate without looking at all theresearch available (Cooper and Schindler, 2011). Correlation does not imply Causation Correlation is when two or more variables share a relationship. Examples of correlationsare drugs and crime or how increased smoking can lead to cancer. An example of correlationsin business work; is dress down Fridays or employee incentives. With dress down Fridays,people can wear jeans and work is normally less stressful. Since most employees do not want tomiss dress down Fridays the rate of absenteeism is less. The same correlation can be tied to
5BUSINESS 642- WEEK #2 ASSIGNMENTemployee incentives. Employees work harder with the hope they can get free movie tickets, giftcards or paid time off. Using yourself as the subject, give an example of each of the following asymmetrical relationships Stimulus-Response A stimulus response is when an event or change results in a response from some subject(Cooper and Schindler, 2011). An example of stimulus-response that has happened to me is arecent change that has occurred in my company’s cell phone policy. The new policy bans cellphones from being in the building. Due to the new rules I have to now place all my orders priorto coming to work. Property-Disposition Property-disposition is when an existing property causes a disposition (Cooper andSchindler, 2011). An example of property-disposition is how my attitude toward savings haschanged since my divorce. I have refocused my 401k and saving plan to help pay off attorneyfees and debts. Disposition-Behavior Disposition-behavior is when a disposition causes a certain behavior (Cooper andSchindler, 2011). An example of disposition-behavior is my work ethic and my ability to goabove and beyond at work. I believe that hard work eventually pays off and gets you where youwant to go. It’s because of this that on my days off I often pick up the phone or even work fromhome. Property-Behavior
6BUSINESS 642- WEEK #2 ASSIGNMENT Property-behavior is when an existing property causes a specific behavior. An exampleof property-behavior is me wanting to get back into the gym and in better shape.Why not use more control variables rather than depend on randomization as the means of controlling extraneous variables? Randomization is a process that assigns participants or variables by chance, to either acontrol group or variable group. Using randomization allows for all variables to react with eachother giving the better and more effective search results (Cooper and Schindler, 2011). Bycontrolling each variable the researcher is able to manipulate how the experiment goes. Forexample, by controlling A and saying it can only react with B and C the researcher can only usethe results of A with B and C, while if you allow the variables to react with each other viarandomization A may react with D and E, providing different results which may change theresults of the study. Researchers seek casual relationships by either experimental or ex post facto research designs. In what ways are these two approaches similar? Both experimental and ex post facto researches are similar because both methods rely onhow one variable affects another variable (Cooper and Schindler, 2011). Both designs haveindependent and dependant variables. In both experimental and ex post facto research designs acontrol group is used. In what ways are they different? Experimental and ex post facto designs are different in a few ways. In experimentaldesign the researcher is able to manipulate the variables. Experimental design randomlyassigned group members. In ex post facto designs intact groups are used and the research is notmanipulated. With an ex post facto research design the variables are fixed, and the researcher
7BUSINESS 642- WEEK #2 ASSIGNMENThas no control over the variables. They are unable to manipulate the variables to make them reacthow they may like them to react, only to observe what happens. Sampling Sampling is used by researchers to get an idea of the entire population. Sampling hasmany benefits, since the researchers are targeting a smaller group; they have more control on thesampling group. Another benefit of sampling is statistical manipulations are much easier withsmaller data sets, and it is easier to avoid human error when inputting and analyzing the data. Inorder to conduct this experiment and get an unbiased outcome I would choose conveniencesampling. Convenience sampling is a method of drawing representative data by selecting thepeople because of the selecting units of their availability (Cooper and Schindler, 2011).Convenience sampling would work because we are sampling a small group of computertechnicians. After surveying the technicians I could analyze the results and determine what themoral of the computer technicians was. By choosing convenience sampling I could choosewhomever I would like to survey, among the computer technicians, without having to have all ofthe data required for the simple random sampling.
8BUSINESS 642- WEEK #2 ASSIGNMENT ReferencesReferences:Cooper, Donald & Schindler, Pamela, 2011, Business Research Methods 11th Ed., New York, N.Y., McGraw-Hill.