Reading Strategy FLIP chart


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Reading strategies for Before, During, and After reading, geared toward 6th grade and higher students reading nonfiction works.

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Reading Strategy FLIP chart

  1. 1. READING STRATEGY METHODS- BEFORE, DURING, AND AFTER READING Charlene Roddy RED4348-Literacy Development K-12 April 4th, 2014
  2. 2. BEFORE READING  Before reading strategies activate student’s prior knowledge about the topic/theme.  Teachers can discuss critical information and vocabulary needed for effective reading of the text. Strategies:  Anticipation Guide  Think-alouds  Pre-teach Vocabulary  Listen-Read-Discuss  Concept Sorts
  3. 3. ANTICIPATION GUIDE  Anticipation guides set a purpose to the reading of a text by challenging students to think about what they already know of the topic  Can be completed individually or in small groups  Whole class discussions regarding student answers on the anticipation guide activate critical thinking before reading  Students keep the guide to refer to during reading to see if their thoughts were correct, or how they have rethought their original answers
  4. 4. THINK-ALOUDS  Teachers show students what reading comprehension looks like by describing their own thought process when reading text  Teacher modeling improves student’s abilities to use the same strategies while independently reading
  5. 5. PRE-TEACH VOCABULARY  The teacher creates a list of important, useful, and difficult vocabulary words found in the text that students will need to know to understand the text  Teachers should not introduce more than two vocabulary words at a time  Students will be taught the meaning(s) of the words through direct instruction and examples
  6. 6. LISTEN-READ-DISCUSS  Allows students to establish prior knowledge, and gain a basic understanding prior to reading  Students listen to a presentation of the content of the selected reading  Students read the text, comparing what they learned during the lecture to what information they read in the text  Students discuss their understanding based on the prior lecture combined with the reading in a small or whole group setting
  7. 7. CONCEPT SORTS  Vocabulary strategy where students sort words from new written text into pre-determined categories based on their meaning  Sorts allow teachers to see what words their students already understand and know, as well as how much background knowledge the students may have about the new content of written text  After sorting, students explain why they sorted the words the way they did to demonstrate their comprehension and thinking
  8. 8. DURING READING  During reading strategies ensure students are comprehending the material while interacting with it.  Allows time for fixing comprehension issues and applying comprehension strategies before students become too lost or confused. Strategies:  Self-Questioning  Graphic organizers  Reciprocal Teaching  Paired Reading  Text Structure
  9. 9. SELF-QUESTIONING  Students independently reflect on what they are reading by asking themselves questions  Teachers prompt students to ask questions at points in the text through the use of question words-who, what, where, when, why, how  Self-Questioning also aids in self-monitoring through students recognizing what they do not understand about a written text, and asking themselves questions about what to do to understand the text
  10. 10. GRAPHIC ORGANIZERS  Visual representations of information showing the relationships between ideas, facts, and vocabulary terms  Best suited for independent work  Organizers include tables, timelines, flowcharts, diagrams  Can also be used after or before reading, though student engagement is not as high during these times
  11. 11. RECIPROCAL TEACHING  Teaches students to find the important ideas from a written text  Use during reading to generate questions about the text  Students can keep track of words and phrases that confused them, or that they did not understand  After reading, students share their questions and thoughts within a small group setting, and create a discussion and summary of the reading
  12. 12. PAIRED READING  Peer teaching and learning  Students work in pairs to read together, or take turns reading out loud  Paired Reading helps students who may struggle with reading, as they receive assistance and encouragement throughout the reading from their peer  Students interact with one another during the reading, enabling the sharing of thoughts and asking of questions to increase comprehension
  13. 13. TEXT STRUCTURE  Ways certain types of text are organized to form a framework or pattern of information  Contain signal words to clue students in to type of structure being used, and the information being provided  Expository text structures:  Descriptive-describes something or where something is  Procedural-how to do or make something; sequence of events  Cause/effect-why something happens, and what might happen next  Problem/solution-states a problem and offers solutions to the problem  Comparison/contrast-how two things are the same or different  Enumerative-a list of things related to the topic
  14. 14. AFTER READING  Strategies will increase student comprehension of what has been read  Students can extend their new knowledge through applying it to future ideas, activities, and text Strategies:  Summarizing  Exit Slips  Question-Answer- Relationships  Question the Author  RAFT Writing
  15. 15. SUMMARIZING  A breakdown of the important ideas in a written text  Students identify the main ideas and supporting details of the text  Summarizing also allows students to evaluate their understanding of the text, tell important information, and recall what they have read  Students can use the graphic organizer strategy as a prompt to aid in summarizing the story
  16. 16. EXIT SLIPS  Students reflect on what they have learned, and state what they now think and believe after taking in the new text  Teacher provides a prompt for students after the reading to respond to using written responses  Prompts include:  Write one thing you learned today.  Write one question you have about today’s lesson.  I would like to learn more about…
  17. 17. QUESTION-ANSWER- RELATIONSHIPS  Students think critically and creatively about the written text, using information from the text as well as their own knowledge and thoughts to answer questions after reading  Four types:  Right There questions-the answer is directly written in the text.  Think and Search questions-individual answers are found by combining different parts of the text.  Author and You questions-the author provides information, and the reader must use their own experience paired with the text information to respond.  On My Own-students use background/prior knowledge to respond to the question.
  18. 18. QUESTION THE AUTHOR  Students can question and critique the author to enhance their comprehension of what they have read  Involves a student-led discussion with the questions presented; teachers facilitate the discussion and provide prompts to keep the students on track  The teacher prepares and models the strategy using questions designed to encourage critical thinking  What is the author trying to say?  Does this make sense to you?
  19. 19. RAFT WRITING  Written projects and assignments that enhance student comprehension of previously read texts  More imaginative, interpretive; allows for the processing of the ideas and information in different ways  Includes four dimensions:  Role-the person or people the student becomes (book character, historical figure, personality)  Audience-the person or people who will read or view this project (students, teachers, parents)  Format-genre or activity that students create (letter, brochure, cartoon, journal, essay, etc.)  Topic-the subject of the project (issue related to the text, a question, etc.)
  20. 20. REFERENCES  All about Adolescent Literacy-Classroom Strategies. (2014). Retrieved from  Bursuck, W.D., Damer, M. (2011). Teaching Reading to Students Who Are at Risk or Have Disabilities. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.  Tompkins, G. (2010). Literacy for the 21st Century: a balanced approach. Boston, MA: Pearson Education, Inc.