Japanese music

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Japanese music

  1. 1. JAPANESE MUSIC
  2. 2. <ul><li>Japanese music was influenced by the court music of China </li></ul><ul><li>It is based on the five tone scale or the pentatonic scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Other countries like India and Indonesia contributed to the development of the Japanese musical styles. </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Before the historical period, the Japanese traditional music ( Hogaku ) develop an accompaniment of ritual dances called Kagura. </li></ul><ul><li>In religion, Confucianism propagated the themes on loyalty and filial piety while Shintoism inculcated the idea that music is a gift from God. </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Japanese music is monophony in nature. It observes minute tones, free rhythm and delicate timbre. It is usually written in duple meter. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Tonal System
  6. 6. <ul><li>Japanese music has two basic types of scales, both pentatonic in nature, that are often used in playing the koto and shamisen. </li></ul><ul><li>These are the male scale called Yo – sen and the female scale known as In – sen. </li></ul><ul><li>The most important note important note in note in the pentatonic scale is the corner stone or the third note. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>This helps determine whether the scale is a male or a female scale. </li></ul><ul><li>Vocally, the Japanese tend to sing song in high, tight-throated and mellismatic manner. </li></ul><ul><li>In general, vocal music plays an important role than instrumental music in the history of Japanese music. </li></ul>
  8. 8. JAPANESE TRADITIONAL MUSIC
  9. 9. <ul><li>Much of the traditional music of Japan was brought by the Chinese and Korean musicians around the 8 th century. </li></ul><ul><li>For many years, music was mainly performed by court musicians, Buddhist priest, and scholars. </li></ul><ul><li>In the 17 th and 18 th centuries, it reached its peak when , by orders of the emperors, Japan closed its doors to influences from other countries. </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>There are two ancient foundations for Japanese traditional music. </li></ul><ul><li>a. SHOMYO </li></ul><ul><li>b. GAGAKU </li></ul><ul><li>SHOMYO: </li></ul><ul><li>> Is also called Buddhist chanting. </li></ul><ul><li>> The chants are based on sacred text and </li></ul><ul><li>hymns. They have flexible rhythm, where </li></ul><ul><li>the singers simply stops when there is no </li></ul><ul><li>more breath. </li></ul>
  11. 11. <ul><li>> They are sung acapella and are </li></ul><ul><li>monophonic texture. </li></ul><ul><li>> At present, the SHOMYO has lost its </li></ul><ul><li>real religious nature and has become </li></ul><ul><li>more and more of a formal ceremonial </li></ul><ul><li>music in the temple and at home. </li></ul><ul><li>GAGAKU: </li></ul><ul><li>> Literally means “ elegant and refined </li></ul><ul><li>music ”. </li></ul><ul><li>ga – refined gaku - music </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>> It is the only surviving music in Japan. </li></ul><ul><li>> This court music has been greatly </li></ul><ul><li>influenced by China. </li></ul><ul><li>MUSICAL STYLES </li></ul><ul><li>a. Togaku – highest musical style or </li></ul><ul><li>court music. </li></ul><ul><li>b. Komagaku – Korean origin and of </li></ul><ul><li>native composition associated with </li></ul><ul><li>rituals of the Shinto religion. </li></ul>
  13. 13. <ul><li>c. Saibara – Is a small number of regional </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese folk songs. </li></ul><ul><li>> Gagaku ensemble is grouped into four </li></ul><ul><li>cluster of musicians that perform </li></ul><ul><li>according to the function and use. </li></ul><ul><li>KANGEN: An instrumental music </li></ul><ul><li>consisting of an ensemble including </li></ul><ul><li>the hichiriki, ryuteki, sho, gakusou, </li></ul><ul><li>gakubiwa, and various percussion </li></ul><ul><li>instruments. </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>2. BUGAKU – A dance accompanied by a part or the entire gagaku ensemble. </li></ul><ul><li>3. SONGS – The songs of gagaku, rouie and saibara, have simple melodies that are mostly derived from ancient folk songs and accompanies by a scaled-down version of kangen ensemble. </li></ul><ul><li>4. RITUAL MUSIC for SHINTO CEREMONIES – The style of playing feel so depressing utilizing only a simple flute, zither, hichiriki and wooden clappers. </li></ul>
  15. 17. JAPANESE MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS
  16. 18. <ul><ul><li>The earliest forms of Japanese instrumental music were drums and flute accompanying the Kagura shrine dances. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>From the 6 th century onwards, music came from Korean and Chinese courts began to be performed at the Japanese court. </li></ul></ul>
  17. 19. <ul><li>Instruments were made similar to the Chinese instruments, distinctively Japanese in design, timbre and tone color. </li></ul><ul><li>Here are some of the well-known Japanese traditional instruments that are still being used in both the traditional and modern Japanese music. </li></ul>
  18. 20. STRINGED INSTRUMENTS
  19. 21. <ul><li>KOTO : a 13-string zither, made of Paulownia wood. It is played using picks on the thumb and first two fingers of the right hand. </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>SHAMIZEN : a long narrow three strings plucked lute. The square resonating box is covered with animal skin, and the strings are plucked with plectrum. </li></ul>
  21. 25. <ul><li>BIWA : a short neck lute, used from the 7 th century in gagaku to accompany the early puppet play and also by blind monk entertainers. </li></ul>
  22. 27. WIND INSTRUMENTS
  23. 28. <ul><li>SHO : a mouth piece organ, the equivalent of the Chinese Sheng. </li></ul>
  24. 30. <ul><li>SHAKUHACHI : a bamboo flute. It has four finger holes on the front and one thumb hole in back. </li></ul>
  25. 32. <ul><li>SHINOBUE : is a vertical flute made from the lower portion of the bamboo stem. The number of the finger holes is traditionally five. </li></ul>
  26. 33. <ul><li>HICHIRIKI : a short cylindrical oboe made of bamboo with seven front fingerholes, and rear thumbholes. </li></ul>
  27. 35. PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS
  28. 36. <ul><li>1. KAKKO : A gagaku instrument that is made up of deer skin. </li></ul>
  29. 37. <ul><li>2.TSURI DAIKO : A suspended drum used in the gagaku ensemble that has a lacquered body and tacked head. </li></ul>
  30. 38. <ul><li>3. DA-DAIKO : A huge gagaku drum suspended on an artistic frame and is struck with heavy lacquered beaters. </li></ul>
  31. 39. DAIKO
  32. 41. kotsuzumi <ul><li>It is an hour glass-shaped drum. It is played by striking the bare hands on the membrane of the instrument. </li></ul>
  33. 44. <ul><li>THE End !!!!!!!! </li></ul>
  34. 45. JAPANESE THEATRICAL FORM
  35. 46. <ul><li>Music is very important to Japanese theater. </li></ul><ul><li>JAPANESE THEATER : Is a form of drama developed in the 1300s that featured solo and choral singing accompanied by a small orchestra. </li></ul>
  36. 47. THREE KINDS OF JAPANESE THEATER <ul><li>Kabuki </li></ul><ul><li>Noh </li></ul><ul><li>Bunraku </li></ul>
  37. 48. <ul><li>1. KABUKI : </li></ul><ul><li>A theater for the common people. </li></ul><ul><li>2. NOH : </li></ul><ul><li>A classical theatrical form. </li></ul><ul><li>3. BUNRAKU : </li></ul><ul><li>A Japanese form of puppet theater. </li></ul>
  38. 49. KABUKI THEATER <ul><li>This production often described as more showy than the Noh. </li></ul><ul><li>It utilizes costumes, sceneries and stage actions and dances. </li></ul>
  39. 50. <ul><ul><li>This theatrical presentation is accompanied by bamboo flutes, drums and the Shamisen. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is often accompanied by the group of percussionist who play the sound effects off stage. </li></ul></ul>
  40. 52. NOH THEATER <ul><li>The usual plots for this kind of theatrical presentation include loyalty, tragedy and honor. </li></ul><ul><li>In the performance, all actors are males who also portray the female roles. </li></ul>
  41. 53. <ul><li>They wear elaborate costumes and masks. </li></ul><ul><li>The musical ensemble for this theatrical genre consists of a high pitch bamboo flute, three drums and a small male vocal ensemble. </li></ul>
  42. 55. BUNRAKU <ul><li>This is a unique puppet theater that is accompanied by music and dialogues. </li></ul><ul><li>The puppeteer sings and chants the dialogue as one shamisen player accompanies him. </li></ul>
  43. 56. <ul><li>Each puppet is a bit more than half life-size which is operated by a puppeteer clothed in black hood. </li></ul>

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