The Renaissance Spirit• human destiny; secularization• printing, explorations• focus on human form in art• musicians in the court, church, civic life• little musical influence from the new world• Renaissance style:– a cappella– polyphonic– cantus firmus– word painting
TIMELINE• C. 1400-1474 Guiullaume Dufay– Master of the Burgundian school– Skilled in sacred and secular music• Dufay’s “L’homme arme” Mass– cantus-firmus Mass– based on a popular song from the 15th century– There were at least 31 Mass-settings based on the Lhomme armé melody in theRenaissance period.• Lhomme, lhomme, lhomme arme, lhomme arme,• Lhomme arme doibt on doubter, doibt on doubter.• On a fait par tout crier,• Que chascun se viegne armer, dun haubregon de fer.• Lhomme, lhomme, lhomme arme, lhomme arme,• Lhomme arme doibt on doubter, doibt on doubter.• Fear the armed man; word has gone out that everyone should arm himself with ahaubregon (a sleeveless coat of mail) of iron• 4-voice Missa L’homme armé Kyrie
Timeline• 1430-1495 Rule of the Medici family• C. 1450-1521 Josquin des Prez– Born in Hainault, Belgium– Flemish school– One of the greatest composers of all time– Most of his compositions were published during his lifetime– Sacred works are contrapuntal– Secular works are homophonic– 19 Masses, 100 Motets, 70 Chansons• Josquin: “Ave Maria. . .virgo serena”– cantus-firmus Mass– 5-note ostinato
Renaissance Sacred Music• 1452-1519 Leonardo da Vinci• 1483-1546 Martin Luther• Renaissance Motet– sacred– Latin– often dedicated to the Virgin• Josquin des Prez: Motet: De profundis clamavi ad te• 1545 Council of Trent and music:– Abolished tropes, sequences, secular canti firmi– Determined to stop the wave of secularization– Nearly banned all polyphonic settings of liturgicalmusic and return to plainsong
Giovanni Pierluigi Da Palestrina• The most famous composer ofhis day• Laid to rest in St. Peters• The “Prince of Music”• Born in 1525 near the town ofPalestrina– Musical training in Rome atSanta Maria Maggiore– Appointed organist at age 19 inthe cathedral of Palestrina– Married in 1547• Cardinal del Monte becamePope Julius III in 1550 andbrought Palestrina to Rome
Palestrina in Rome• 1550 - became the Maestro of the Cappella Giulia,one of the two musical units of St. Peters (the SistineChapel Choir was the other)• 1554 - Published compositions• 1555 - Admitted to the Cappella Sistina– Palestrina was married (forbidden to members)– Palestrina was appointed on the orders of the Pope withoutexamination and without the consent of the singers
Trouble for Palestrina• Three months later Pope Julius died and was• Succeeded by Pope Marcellus II, who died threeweeks later. He was• Succeeded by Pope Paul IV who defended theCounter-Reformation and forced Palestrina and someothers who were married to leave their positions• Pope Paul IV
Palestrina Moves on to• Other positions– Maestro di Cappella at St. John theLateran– Returned to Santa Maria Maggiore– Hired by Cardinal Ippolito II d’Este– Returned to Cappella Giulia– Finally returned to St. Peter’s
Personal• 1570s - plague caused the death of hisbrother, two sons, and his wife• 1581 - married Virginia Dormoli, a wealthywidow, and Palestrina was now free fromfinancial worries• Palestrina is considered to be one of threegreat masters of the late Renaissance– William Byrd– Orlandus Lassus– Palestrina
The Counter-Reformation• Decree on Church Music by the Councilof Trent on September 10, 1562• the elimination of all themes of reminiscent of, or resembling, secularmusic;• the rejection of musical formsand elaborations tending tomutilate or obscure theliturgical text.
Pope Gregory XIIIPope Gregory XIIIThe Gregorian Calendar
The Renaissance• C. 1525-1594 Giovanni Perluigi da Palestrina– Considered the greatest master of Renaissance Catholic music– Director of the Cappella Giulia at the Vatican– Noted for his perfection of a purely vocal style, known as thea cappella style– Palestrina’s Pope Marcellus Mass is the model of pure Catholicmusic• Palestrina: “Pope Marcellus Mass” - Gloria– Counter-reformation Mass– emphasizing text declamation
The Renaissance• C. 1557-1612Giovanni Gabrieli• C. 1557-1612 Giovanni Gabrieli– Nephew and pupil of AndreaGabrieli– Greatest composer of theVenetian school– St. Mark’s Cathedral– One of the first to write forcombined voices andinstruments– First to developorchestration– First to indicatevaried dynamics• Sonata Pian’ e Forte
The Renaissance• C. 1560-1613 Don Carlo Gesualdo– Italian madrigalist– Represents the extreme of chromaticism– Indicates a growing awareness of thestrength of musical expression– Carlo Gesualdo: Madrigal:“lo parto” e non piu dissi
Renaissance Secular Music• Rise of amateur music making• Burgundian chanson, fixed forms:– rondeau, ballade, virelai• 16th century chanson– freer texts and forms• Instrumental dance types– pavane, gilliard, allemande, ronde
Some Common Instruments• The Hurdy-Gurdy• The Crumhorn and Sackbut• The Anaconda• The Serpent
Renaissance Listening• The Italian madrigal– short, lyrical love poem, set with word painting– works for professional singers– Claudio Monteverdi: Madrigal: Cruda Amarilli• The English madrigal– adopted from Italy, preferred lighter forms– Farmer: Madrigal: Fair Phyllis
More Renaissance? Listening– PDQ Bach:The Queen to Me a Royal Pain Doth Give– PDQ Bach:My Bonnie Lass She Smelleth
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