Sindhu Balu_Pathways_ChemE magazine_Oct.11
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Anna University's Chemical Engineering Souvenir-2012

Anna University's Chemical Engineering Souvenir-2012



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    Sindhu Balu_Pathways_ChemE magazine_Oct.11 Sindhu Balu_Pathways_ChemE magazine_Oct.11 Document Transcript

    • A journey of thousand steps begins with a single step Pathways ‘12 Catalyzing creativity Department Of Chemical Engineering Anna University.
    • FROM THE EDITOR Dear Readers, We are proud and immensely gratified to present you our Pathways ‘12, the souvenir edition. All through the year, you have given us your complete support for the success of our magazine. On this momentous occasion, we are happy to release our souvenir which commemorates the technical carnival, Chemfluence ‘12!! With every issue we have tried our best to present you our best work to spark your mind and inspire you. And we wish this issue is the complete compilation for you to energize your grey cells! I thank all my friends for their relentless work and complete support. I extend my special thanks to my juniors for their complete involvement and for their yearn to take Pathways to greater heights. I am immensely pleased to thank my college for ushering me such a great opportunity to work for it and place my gratitude. We thank our faculty members for their support and guidance. We humbly believe that this Pathways will translate the poten- tials of our students into an indelible mark of creativity. Happy Reading!! Sindhu Balu Editor Pathways
    • Chemfluence’12 , the national level technical symposium of Depart- ment of Chemical Engineering, Anna University steps into the 17th successful year with inbound pride and innovation, aiming to the zenith to become the biggest technical arena for aspiring engineers of the discipline. The symposium with its agenda spread over three days from 29th February to 2nd March 2012 including technical events like paper and poster presentations, simulation and modeling, workshops, quizzes and lectures and even more, the management events like ChemIcon, Tattoo, we are making it even more bigger and better. I take this opportunity to thank our Vice-Chancellor, Dean, Chair- man of Technology, Head of Department for being a constant source of support and encouragement. I thank our staff advisors and faculty members of Department of Chemical Engineering for continuous guidance. I hereby express sincere thanks to all sponsors for their support and patronizing Chemfluence’12. I take pride in thanking the members of Association of Technologists for their effort towards a successful Chemfluence. I owe my thanks to my friends and juniors for their hardwork . Message from Secretary : - Nallasivam J General Secretary, Chemfluence ‘12.
    • Chemical Engineering Department Profile The Department of Chemical Engineering was established in 1944 in A.C.College of Technology under the University of Madras. In September 1978, the department was transferred to the newly established Anna University, a unitary type of univer- sity. The department, which started with an undergraduate course in Chemical Engi- neering, presently offers undergraduate and post graduate programs in Chemical Engineering and Petroleum Refining and Petrochemical Technology (PRPC), as well as post graduate course in Environmental Science and Technology. The department has well equipped undergraduate laboratories in the core areas of chemical engi- neering to impart practical knowledge to students. Apart from undergraduate labs, the department also has several research labs including a CFD lab and an ASPEN Research activities in the department were initiated as early as 1947 on several pioneering research works in all reaches of chemical engineering have been carried out. Initially, research work was carried out in the conventional areas such as ab- sorption, liquid extraction and multiphase flow. Over the years, the areas of research have moved in tandem with developments in the chemical process industry. Currently the department focuses on cutting-edge areas like CFD, nanofiltration, bio- engineering and environmental systems. The department has also been maintain- ing active interaction with the industry through research and consultancy pro- jects. The department boasts of its illustrious alumni, many of whom are well placed and hold positions in various commercial organizations and academic institutions both in India and abroad. From its modest beginnings in 1944, the Department of Chemical Engineering, A.C.College of Technology has attained a status of one of the leading centers of Chemical Engineering education in the country with an excellent interna- tional reputation.
    • Shankar P V Suganya B Vikram G President: Sasikumar G Vice President: Prasanna Venkatesh K General Secretary: Nallasivam J Treasurer: Abdulla A Lady Vice President: Sindhu B Joint Secretary: Nithya M Joint Treasurer: Divyamahalakshmi M Executive Members Final Year Amit George Mathews Elakkiya M Sangeetha K Varunkumar K B OFFICE BEARERS Patron: Chairman: Staff Advisor: Technical Advisor: Dr. P. Kaliraj Dean,A.C.Tech. Dr.N.Nagendra Gandhi, Professor and Head, Department of Chemical Engineering. Dr.K.Muthukumar Dr. S. Renganathan STUDENT OFFICE BEARERS Third Year Vijay Eraj K L Hemamalini D Madhava Prakash B Naganya P S Second Year Vigneshkumar S Swathi Priyadharshini V B Shriram K Narmadha R
    • Organizing committee Sponsors Dr.K.Muthukumar SasiKumar.G, Prasanna Venkatesh.K Amit George Mathews Adam, Kabila Narayen Jaganathan.S Sangeetha Shankar Annamalai Arun Prasad Vivekanand Rajesh.R Rajesh.K Rajesh Kannan Divya.R Karthik Srinivas Chaparala Sree Vidhya Souvenir,Printing,Banners Dr.G.Ravikumar Sindhu B Chaparala Sree Vidhya Purnima Manghnani Hemalatha G Nivethika S Prasanna Venkatesh K Nallasivam Chandrasekar R Manigandan Events Dr.T.R.Kubendran Dr.C.Jayakumar Arun Prasath Praveen Sindhu B Sandhya S Sangeetha Chandrasekar M Gokul Bouquet &Memento Dr.K.Narashiman Ms.Suganya Ms.Santhosini Priya Nallasivam Praveen Arun Narayen Satya Valedictory Function Dr.P.Gomathi Priya Prasanna Karthik Sindhu B Sangeetha K Varun Kumar Crowd Mangament Dr.V.Pandiyarajan Ms.Sivanarutselvi Reception & Rangoli Dr.C.Sharmeela Praveen Arun Rajesh K Chandrasekar M Technical Sessions Dr.Lima Rose Miranda Arularasi Divyamahalakshmi Kanimozhi Kanaga Sathya Sangeetha R Sundari Amit Sasikumar G Varun Kumar Sangeetha K Sindhu B Prasanna Venkatesh K Inauguration Dr.K.V.Radha Ms.J.Jayapriya Logistics Dr.N.Partha Hospitality Dr.N.Balasubramanium Devanand Vivekanand Arun Prasath Illamvazhuthy Arularasi Saranya Kanaga Suganya Sundari Amit Varun Kumar Prasanna Venkatesh K Rajesh K Food Dr.S.Renganathan Dr.V.Charles Augustin Varun Kumar Arun Prasath Amit Sasi N Vignesh Informals Dr.Rajamaniccam L Sai Sasi Kumar N Rajesh Kannan Raghunath Kaliarasn
    • 10:30AM-12:30pm Chemicon-Prelims Submit within one hour at Registration Desk 10:30AM-12:30PM Working Model Heat & Mass Transfer Lab 11:00AM-12:30PM Math Model &Simu Session-1 Aspen Lab 1:00PM-2:00PM Break 1:30PM-3:30PM CEFA Raman Auditorium 3:00PM-5:00PM What Went Wrong? Room No: 201 5:00PM-7:00PM Informals Raman Auditorium 7:00PM Grand Dinner Day Three (March 2) 9:00AM-10:30PM Lecture-4 Raman Auditorium 9:00AM-1:00PM Cross Word Submit by 1 at Reg Desk 9:00AM-4:00PM Chem Hunt Report by 4 10:30AM-12:30AM Paper Presentation Session-6 Conference Hall-1 10:30AM-12:30AM Paper Presentation Session-7 Room No:208 11:00AM-4:00PM Tattoo Conference Hall-2 11:00AM-12:30PM Math Model &Simu Session-2 Aspen Lab 1:00PM-2:00PM Break 2:00PM-4:30PM Chemicon-Finals Conference Hall-1 2:00PM-3:00PM CEFA – Finals 3:00PM-4:30PM Tech Quiz Raman Auditorium 5:00PM-6:00PM Valedictory Raman Auditorium Chemfluence’12-Schedule INTER-COLLEGE EVENTS Day One (Feb 29) 9:00AM-9:30AM Inauguration Vivekananda Auditorium 9:45AM-11:15AM Lecture-1 Vivekananda Auditorium 11:30AM-1:00PM Lecture-2 Vivekananda Auditorium 1:00PM-2:00PM Break 2:30PM-4:00PM Paper Presentation Session-1 Raman Auditorium 2:30PM-4:00PM Paper Presentation Session-2 Conference Hall-1 2:30PM-4:00PM Paper Presentation Session-3 Conference Hall-2 2:30PM-4:00PM Poster Presentation Session-1 Fluid Mechanics Lab 4:00PM-5:30PM Informals Raman auditorium Day Two (March 1) 9:00AM-10:30PM Lecture-3 Raman Auditorium 10:30AM-12:30AM Paper Presentation Session-4 Conference Hall-1 10:30AM-12:30AM Paper Presentation Session-5 Conference Hall-2 10:30AM-12:00AM Poster Presentation Session-2 Fluid Mechanics Lab 10:30AM-1:00PM Contraptions E G Hall 10:30AM-12:00PM CEFA-Prelims Submit before 12PM at Registration Desk
    • Campus Scan ‘12 A.C.Tech!! The fortress of Chemical Engineering! Has stood against the odds of time in producing in- numerous visionaries in chemical engineering for nearly seven decades!! As time swiftly pass, and we try to chase, the mind- set of the student community always is on a con- stant change. As an initiative to record the voices of the students and gauge their mood, a survey was conducted among the students to let us know ourselves. Gear up yourself to find what do your friends have in their mind!! I always wanted to be doctor, but in 11th grade I realized that wouldn’t be possible for me to do it. I wasn’t willing to sacrifice 7-8 yrs before I could start making money. Hence, I decided to take up Engineering. I was hell bent on taking up biotech- nology as my field of engineering because I wanted Biology. However, after some time I real- ized that it would be silly to do something spe- cific as my bachelors course. Eventually, I de- cided to take up Chemical so that I could so my masters in Biotechnology. My plan hasn’t really changed so far! - Purnima Manghnani Final Yr, ChemE I like to do my Masters in Management. I find management is the right option to hone my career . Management education will provide me with the right path to utilize my all round skills after my degree in engineering. ChemE + Mgmt?!! Who would refuse ?:) - Kabila Ravindran Final Yr, ChemE - Sindhu Balu Final Yr, ChemE
    • I find Private sector is the best op- tion for me. I think its important for each of us to decide whether private or public sector would work out for us. As the experiences that we ob- tain and the nature of work is differs in each , its better to decide before hand and work for it. -Preeti.D Third Yr, ChemE Satisfaction is the sole product. Once you get that you are able to achieve that you can get all the by products!! Money and fame automatically fol- lows satisfaction. And I find its too early to yearn for Power !!;) -Karthik Srinivas Final Yr, ChemE Dream Company of our A.C.Techians!!!!
    • Favorite Place for our A.C.Tech Students!!
    • Kinetic Reaction Modeling On Hydrotreatment (Hdt) Of Light Cycle Oil (Lco) Of Indian Refin- ery Feedstocks M.Aslam Abdullah*, S.Purushoth Kumar*, G.V.Akhil* *Department of Petrochemical Technology, Anna University Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu, India. Abstract: A theoretical investigation of the HDT of the dibenzothiophene (DBT) and substituted DBT in the LCO was studied out at temperatures between 280 and 350°C. To avoid having a deal with number of pa- rameters in the model, methodology based on structural contributions was applied. A rigorous kinetic model was formulated to investigate the HDT of LCO in presence of CoMo/Al2O3 catalyst. DENσ and DENτ are the denominators of the Hougen-Watson rate expressions for the HDS of DBT and methyl-substituted DBT’s contained in the LCO. Both denominators comprise the concentration of all adsorbing species of the diesel fuel multiplied by their adsorption equilibrium constants. Modeling based on Structural contributions results in significant reduction of parameters from 1132 to 40 in HDT of LCO. The multiplication factor which are products of structural contributions were obtained from Vanrysselberghe and Froment. The model reproduces very well the total conversion of DBT, conversion of DBT into biphenyl and conversion of DBT into cyclohexylbenzene as a function of temperature. The estimation is performed using Gauss Siedal Method and the results in terms of conversion for DBT, biphenyl and cyclohexylbenzene obtained in the HDT of the LCO. ABSTRACTS CATALYSIS, REACTION ENGINEERING, OPTIMIZATION, MODELLING & SIMULATION Generation of Bio Electricity in A Microbial Fuel Cell R.Suhashini*, N.Ragul Gandhi* * Sree Sastha Institute of Engineering and Technology, Sastha Nagar, Chembarambakkam,Chennai. Abstract: The microbial fuel cell (MFC) is a bioreactor used for the production of bioelectricity and the waste treatment. The process involves a bacterial metabolism, where paneer whey is degraded with various microorganisms without involvement of mediators in MFCs. Utilization of lactose (carbohydrate) in the whey by microorganisms is responsible for generation of current. The results of maximum voltage and open circuit potential, produced by various organisms were noted and it was found that Klebsiella Pneu- monae gives a maximum voltage of 453 mV which is the best organism for the production. Keywords: Microbial fuel cell (MFC), paneer whey, bioelectricity, lactose, Klebsiella Pneumonae. ENERGY ENGINEERING
    • ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ABSTRACTS Biosorption of Toxic Dye Materials R.Aishwarya*, V.Ajitha* *Department of Chemical Engineering, Sri Venkateshwara College Of Engineering, Sriperumbudur- 602105. Abstract: Industrial Screen-Printing dyes used will polymer substrates contain reasonable amount of toxic composition and hence require treatment before disposal. The present study aims at the moral of the fol- lowing commercial dyes-POLYPAN blue, yellow and pink by adsorption on to the plant extract powders. The extracts of the plants Oryza Sativa, Triticum, Aniba Rosaeodora, Tamrindus Indica are used as adsorb- ents. The Optical Density of these dyes at their wavelengths of maximum absorption (in the visible region) were measured before and after mixing with pre-determined quantities of the plant based adsorbents. The plant extract adsorbents used perform better in terms of the colour removal efficiency amongst the plant adsorbents used. Triticum adsorbent shows maximum colour removal efficiency and hence better removal capacity. The biosorption data were fitted into the Freundlich adsorption isotherm. Keywords: Adsorption, dyes, plant extracts. MATERIAL SCIENCE: Vibrational Spectroscopic and Optical Absorption Studies on PVA Based Polymer Electrolytes Pavithra Jayaprakash*, Suriya.S* *Department of Chemical Engineering, SSN College of Engineering, Kalavakkam, Chennai Abstract: The electrochemical methods of energy storage and conversion are of great interest for many practical applications. There has been an ever increasing demand for portable batteries used in electronic devices. This paper describes the work PVA based solid polymer electrolytes using dopants like MgSO4 at different weight percent ratios prepared by solution – cast technique. FTIR spectroscopic studies were car- ried out to verify the complexation of the dopants with polymer. Force constant measurement was also carried out to ensure the interactions of polymer with salt. Optical absorption studies were carried out. The Absorption edge as well as band gap values were evaluated. In order to ensure the ionic conduction of these electrolyte systems, transference number measurements were also carried out. The dominant con- ducting species were found to be ions rather than electrons. These studies will help in verification or in in- vestigating the feasibility of these electrolyte systems in polymer batteries, fuel cells, and other electro- chemical systems. Keywords: solid polymer electrolytes, FTIR, absorption edge, band gap, transference number.
    • Experimental Herbal Mosquito Larvae Destroyer Using Nano Technology R.Anandprakash*, M.Palanivel Murugan*, K.Santhosh* * Department of Chemical Engineering, Adhiparasakthi engineering college, Melmaruvathur. Abstract: The chemical based mosquito repellents available in the market contain some harmful chemi- cals which are likely to cause threat to human health. Our paper is aimed at preparing a herbal remedy to prevent the mosquito problem and also destruction of mosquito larvae at the place of their generation. The herbal raw material to be used by us is primarily based on neem seed whose medicinal effects are well known from ancient days. It allows for extraction and then further processes. Finally the fine product is obtained. Further using nano technology the final product will be converted to nano size which will be confirmed by SEM (scanning electron microscopy) analysis. The nano particles will then be formed into nano-balls using nano-dip coating. These balls can be used for destruction of mosquito larvae at the place of their generation. It is effective and cheaper than presently chemical based mosquito repellent. Keywords: Neem seed, Natural product, vacuum distillation, nano technology, nano ball. NANO TECHNOLOGY ABSTRACTS MISCELLANEOUS Production of eco-friendly dyes from native flowers Monica.C*, Aswathy.O.B*, Krishnaveni.K.V* *Department of Biotechnology, K. S. Rangasamy College of Technology, Tiruchengode. Abstract: The textile industries show a significant increase in the use of synthetic complex dyes as colour- ing material. Dyes, like other chemical substances, may be capable of producing adverse health effects to living organisms. There is an increase of environmental contamination caused by the large amount of dyes involved in the textile process that are discharged in the liquid effluents. Therefore, natural dyes are now given more importance. Our work is based on the novel thought of producing eco-friendly and efficient dyes from certain native flowers like Marigold, Hibiscus, Gomphrena, Dahlia and Oleander available in our surroundings. It was used for dyeing of cotton fabric along with mordants like Potassium dichromate, Cop- per Sulphate, Alum, Ferrous sulphate. The wash fastness, light fastness and abrasion fastness was checked. The remnants after dye extraction were used as bio-fertilizer. Future work will be based on using natural mordants for fixation, usage of these natural colorants in food. The ultimate objective is to stan- dardize optimum conditions for textile dye and food colorant production from the floral extracts of these native plant species Keywords: Natural dye, Boiling, Mordant, Wash fastness, Light fastness, Abrasion fastness
    • Eye riveting sci fi novels to eye reverting surgeries, mind bog- gling researches to mind reading techniques, air piercing trans- portation to hair transplantation, macro and mega structure to micro gravity agriculture, pleasant aesthetics to life giving pros- thetics, staggering stock market to inevitable internet, face- bookish love to peace trekking world these can possibly show some essence of scientific temper on the society. Science has obviously laid its hand with enticing fury leading to a whole new world of contending thoughts. Yes, Science is contagious and viral. Who can live a world lacking science? Even that very thought is suicidal. Science can be blamed and praised for being inceptive to repulsive and impulsive ideas in human kinds. World, thyself is a complex contraption; science comes in hands as the cipher key to unlock the simplest of the paths to live. Play it simple, play it cool; only if the technology is intact with you. Technology has modified Darwinian: "survival of the fittest" to” living the simplest". Life is important than just survival. You top the competitive web of the society if you live your life so simple. The materialistic approach of living mostly prevalent among people has made life way too far from simple and too selfish. For them life is not as simple as breathing thin air at all times ; its a race for encroachment of classified property example cars which make the denser and polluted making it tougher for others to live simply. People have often fallen for fascinations of science. While tending to acquire them they make their life complex and competitive. Till the ambience not gets nasty the competition is healthy. ESSENCE OF SCIENTIFIC TEMPER
    • This is a proven fact as we've witnessed apex of scientific developments in the early twentieth century only to end up ultimately in a world of wars. On the constructive side the war of currents can be mentioned. That war between actual sciences has contributed to light the whole world so far with ac and dc. Thanks to Tesla and Edison! The essence of scientific temper lies in the hands of people-US!! It becomes a nicely flavored aroma or a lethal toxin based only upon the society which handles science. So far so good! It has always led to a multidimensional competitive society. - Bharatvaj, Third year, ChemE CARBOHYDRATED CARS! Our Earth is getting older and older; and the more of mankind fills every piece of the planet, the quicker the whole aging process becomes. Technological advancement is all part of that as well. There’s no stopping the progress of technology. In the long run, it will benefit everything and everyone. Soon we will see automobiles that no longer run on petroleum. There will be no more pollution. Vehicles that travel into space will be more extensively conven- ient and easier to use on a more frequent basis. Non-emission releasing fuels such as Hydrogen will become the future of transportation and the saving grace of the Earth. But there is a problem to face! The obstacles, such as low-cost hydrogen production, lack of high-density hydrogen storage leads to costly infrastructure, and safety concerns in large-scale implementation. To address the above challenges, chemical engineers recommend the use of starch or cellulose (simply, carbohy- drate) from biomass as a hydrogen carrier. This new solution is based on the invention of complete conversion of glucans (starch and cellulose) and water to hydrogen and carbon dioxide as, C6H10O5 (aq) + 7H2O (l) → 12H2 (g) + 6CO2 (g) The production of hydrogen from carbohydrates is a nearly carbon-neutral process based on the whole carbon cy- cle. The use of low-cost renewable carbohydrate as a high hydrogen density carrier (14.8 H2 mass %) may solve problems such as hydrogen production, storage and distribution, as well as address safety concerns. Increasing hy- drogen generation rate (power density) and decreasing costs are two major tasks prior to this technology's wide implementation. Analysis based on past scientific knowledge and technical achievements suggests that carbohy- drated vehicles could become a reality in the future! -K.Shriram 2nd yr, ChemE
    • Why does coke fizz on putting mentos in it..? The Curious mind!! The rate of fizz increases when we put mentos into the coke. Do you know the actual fact behind this…? Many think it is a chemical reaction between the coke and mentos. But it is actually a physical reaction. At the time of manufacture, CO2 is pumped at a high pressure into the coke to carbonate it. All the CO2 in the coke is squeezed into the liquid and looking for a way out. Bubbles are formed due to the CO2 gas. Water molecules strongly at- tracts each other linking together to form a light mesh around each bubble of CO2 in the coke. In order to form a new bubble or even to expand a bubble which has already formed, water molecules must push away each other. It takes extra energy to break their surface tension. When mentos is dropped, the gelatin and gum in it breaks the sur- face tension. This disrupts the water mesh. So that it takes less work to expand and forms new bubbles. New bubbles are formed on the nucleation sites on the surface of the mentos. Nucleation sites can be scratches on the glass, the ridges of our fingers or even specks of dust anywhere that there is high surface area in a very small volume. There are many microscopic nooks and crannies on the surface of the mentos that an incredible number of bubbles will form around the mentos when it is added. Since mentos is heavy enough to sink it react with coke all the way to the bottom. The escaping bubble quickly turns into raging foam with high pressure. When all this gas is released, it literally pushes all of the liquid up and out of the bottle in an incredible soda blast. All that pressure has got to go somewhere, and before you know it, you've got a big geyser happening! - M.Durgalakshmi. M.LakshmiPriya Second Year, ChemE
    • Bus Fare! Un Fair!! It’s been four yrs. And the most difficult part of my college life was travelling in bus. Why was it so?? 1. I don’t have a driving license 2. I don’t have frequent direct buses from my place 3. I should have resided somewhere else other than T. Nagar area The buses in Chennai at the peak hours are so crowded that it’s almost impossible to go happily without being tormented by the public. Irrespective of the gender, people just squeeze you when you try getting in and out of the bus. And the frequency of the bus which we need ut- most is always more on the opposite side of our stop. Bus goers like me would have experienced every- thing like, always mumbling for everything aunties, couple’s romance, uncles who keep pushing you with thei tummies, usual teases of the rouges, school-kids carrying a huge sack like bags (pity them), boys who think they are the tinsel town he- roes, showing-off on the footboard, conductors shouting for chillarai (change), girls/ladies who al- ways stand near the entrances whatsoever hap- pens. Though all the above stuff sounds funny, believe me, you will get frustrated when it’s your daily rou- tine, especially for girls with all the harassments that happen in the bus. But all these nonsensical things were adjusted for the fact that bus transport”was” economical for the mid- dle-class people like me. And now, all this is not just worth suffering, because of the hike in bus fare. That was really unfair of the government. But it had no other go, as we all know why. But this increase in fare has led to a lot of instability in major population of Chennai who rely on the bus transportation. A lot of compromises on our daily life activities are needed, to meet the ends of every month. Today going in car/bike has really become cheaper than bus transportation. Could I prove my point ? Let me explain: Normally there are 3 types of buses in Chennai 1. Normal fare buses-which itself is almost twice the prior amount 2. Deluxe buses-now almost twice the normal bus fare 3. AC buses-now almost 5 or 6 times the normal bus fare Naturally others may ask us to take normal buses which are cheap, comparatively. But the trick here is, only deluxe buses (those which are multi-colored ) are the ones (maximum )available. A simple calculation will yield you the result.
    • So people are forced to pay a lot for every day to-and-fro journey. Imagine people like me who take 2/3 buses for one way journey. And that’s how our own vehicle becomes cheaper compared to public transportation and also train journey is pre- ferred by many after the bus-fare-hike. And the train revenue has increased almost by 9% after one month of the hike. There is an increase in price of everything that we buy, but never the amount that we earn increases so rapidly like all these non-materialistic-but-important-things. I really don’t have any conclusion. May be, if you can, prefer cycling to nearby places, it at least helps in burning a few calories. And I escaped from this in this torment, at least in the last semester because of my friend sandhya, who lives near my place and takes me in her car these days. Thanks to her ;) - SRUTI SRIKANTHAN Chemical, 8th semester We are pleased to introduce ourselves as one of the leading Emergency Lighting Engineers and Consult- ants dealing in PROLITE Emergency Lighting Sys- tems, AUTOPRO Electronic Inverters and our latest novel entrant AUTOGLO Photoluminescent Emer- gency Wayfinding Systems &AUTOSAFE Signs & Sign- ing Systems. Our products are manufactured to the best Indian standard specifications and under strict technical supervision. They are subject to rigid quality control by expert technical staff. These products are widely patronised all over India by various Govern- ment Departments, Semi-Government Undertakings, Public and Private Sector Organisations and Establish- ments including almost all the important Banking In- stitutions and other Corporate Sectors. We have thorough experience of these products since fifteen years and our production and service staff are very well qualified to satisfy our customers, both in quality and service. These products have also been incorporated in the various important projects in India through reputed  Emergency lights  Conversion kits  Emergency exit signs  Photoluminiscent Safety products  Signs and Signing systems  Electronic inverters  Servo stabilizers  Online ups systems PROFESSIONAL LIGHTING PVT.LTD. 25, Singh Industrial Estate No 3, Ram Mandir Road, Goregaon (W), Mumbai - 400 104. INDIA Telefax : 91-22-2676 30 90, 91-22-6695 92 23 e-mail :
    • ENGINEERING + MANAGEMENT: THE MYTH AND THE TRUTH The idea of people pursuing an M.B.A. course after a successful engineering undergraduate programme has always been one of the heated discussions. Some believe that it’s like asking a professional cricketer to turn into a singer while some others say it’s more of a batsman learning to bowl a bit so that he can improve his overall value. Whether the difference is as stark as the former opinion or not is what I would like to unravel in this article. Engineering and management are without doubt two beautiful walks of life but I suspect if a person can master both. As the saying goes, it is better to be a master of one than a jack of everything. To be brutally honest, the intermingling of engineering and management is of great prospect since any product which reaches the con- sumer involves huge contributions of both but the limitation is that such career opportunities are scarce. Sig- nificant shares of people who pursue a degree in both fields get placed into companies where they can apply only one part of what they have learnt. We have to accept that we live in a world which looks for specialists in all tasks. There is one more aspect of this issue which often goes unnoticed. Only a few enrol into a M.B.A programme with the intention to use management skills to build their engineering base. Especially in countries like India where there is a huge cry for children to become engineers, this is a common sight. A child who secures decent marks in his higher secondary examinations is immediately pushed into the engineering field. During the course of study, he finds out that this isn’t his cup of tea and hence grinds out four tough years and then seeks a M.B.A. degree pri- marily to resurrect his career. The harsh reality is that we look at management and engineering as two distinct entities and live in an imagination that an engineer can’t be good at management and vice versa. It also goes without saying that the ultimate aim is to establish a good career circle and getting these two different degrees only increases the radius of that circle, thereby enhancing your chances. As I said at the beginning of this article, there’s nothing wrong in a batsman learning to bowl but never at the cost of batsmanship. A mixture of colours looks better than a single colour provided it is mixed in the right propor- tion. Similarly, only a person with high intellect in engineering and management must look to pursue both Else I feel its better off if you choose which suits you best and stick to it. - Manoj Ravi, Second yr,, ChemE
    • Was BP oil spill (Deepwater Horizon) a planned one? Incident occurred in 2010, but 2 years later everything seems suspicious about the spill and cleanup work! Let’s un- ravel the mystery! The Time line of the catastrophe: February 2012: “Capitalism is the legitimate racket of the ruling class”. The quote may be the reason for Deepwater Horizon spill. In 2010, we witnessed the greatest harassment of Mother Nature in the name of “Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill”. Yes 4.9 Million barrels of oil into sea. On April 20, 2010 the oil rig exploded due to methane leakage and it began to sink On April 22, 2010 oil spill started out from the im- mersed rig. The above stated sounds perfectly as dis- aster, but there lot undercover. Deepwater Horizon oil rig was owned by Transocean, world’s largest off-shore drilling company. It was leased to BP from 2008-13. After the oil spill, Halliburton (Oil-field Service Company) was allowed for ce- menting and clean-up work by BP. I hereby like to state few fishy facts which lead us to think whether BP oil spill was planned one. Shock Purchase & Profit Jump: Just 11 days before oil spill, Halliburton purchased Boot & Coots ( An oil clean up & Oil well control company). Why would it do in such hurry? This is 1st suspicion I had while I was doing online- investigation regarding the spill. Also according Jesse Ventura1 , he stated that during clean-up work, Halliburton profit rose to 83%2 .
    • The Toxic Killer: Here comes the interesting part of this article. During the cleanup of Oil Spill at Gulf of Mexico, A Toxic Chemi- cal solvent named COREXIT was used3 . USA’s Environment Pro- tection Agency (EPA) has warned about the toxic level to BP, but BP did not stop using the solvent. In actual scenario Corexit does not clean up oil, it just breaks the oil into tiny globules. So still now oil is present in that area sea water. The contents of COREXIT are arsenic, cyanide, lead etc, which are poisonous to life factor. The same solvent was used in Exxon Valdez oil spill of 1989, during that time EPA warned of toxicity in COREXIT. Why would BP use the same for clean-up? Because COREXIT was manufactured NALCO. The executive member of NALCO was a board member of BP, so in-order to sustain company’s profit, COREXIT was used. No Safety for Billion Dollar thing: A small gas-stove has a safety measure, but for billion dollar oil rig there was no safety controller. Sounds suspicious? Yes Deepwater Horizon Oil rig did not have safety controller named “Acoustic Switch (AE)”. The function of AE is triggering the blowout preventer(during emergency) deep under the ocean through acoustic pulses. This important remote trigger facility was not available in Deepwater Horizon. It is manda- tory to install AE in oil rig in other countries. But in USA, BP successfully lobbied for Non-AE oil rig4 . So according to my perception, BP had been planning it before. Crisis Capitalism: So why BP & Halliburton do spill? Simple, for profit. First you create the problem and provide a costlier solution while no one can solve it. This is called Crisis Capitalism. This was done by BP in regards Oil spill at Gulf of Mexico. The above stated facts in article have adequate proof, but no one is taking it serious, because it in- volves our big brother USA. Verdict: I wrote this article solely to create awareness about environment conspiracies which involves more than 6 months of intense online research. Wall Street players deploy our Mother Earth for profit which should be con- demned. Knowingly or Unknowingly BP & Halliburton are responsible for Deepwater Horizon spill!!But are they the only one?? No, even we are! We depend on oil for fuel, so in-order to meet demand and profit, companies like BP play with our Environment. Past is past, I request everyone who read this article to switch to Renewable Energy Consump- tion. Go Green. Let this “PATHWAYS” for going green start with Chemfluence 2012. References: - Shyam Sundar.K 3rd year MECH MNM Jain Engineering College Four Engineers and a Broken Car!!!! - Kavitha.T.S, First Yr, ChemE There are four engineers travelling in a car; a mechanical engineer, a chemical engineer, an electrical engineer and a computer engineer. The car breaks down. "Sounds to me as if the pistons have been seized. We'll have to strip down the engine before we can get the car working again", says the mechanical engineer. "Well", says the chemical engineer, "it sounded to me as if the fuel might be contaminated. I think we should clear out the fuel system." "I thought it might be a grounding problem", says the electrical engineer, "or maybe a faulty plug lead." They all turn to the computer engineer who has said nothing and say: "Well, what do you think?" "Ummm - perhaps if we all get out of the car and get back in again?"
    • Ode to ChemE Pipettes, burettes, flasks or petrol, diesel, kerosene come to the minds of majority in the world when someone says “Chemical engineering (ChemE) “. But one couldn’t have been more misinformed!! If that’s what chemical engineering was all about everyone studying it would be extremely glad. But, ChemE is a complex maze, an amalgam of different engineering branches whose roots go so deep into our life that we don’t realise the impor- tant role it plays in our daily activities. Chemical industries prepare basic raw materials used by other industries to prepare the technological miracles we use today. We couldn’t live without electricity or fuel, made possible by chemical engineers who judiciously convert earth’s elements to different types of fuel we use today. Paper used by us, to fertilizers that help in agriculture, to soaps and detergents used for cleansing, to cosmetics used by almost everyone, to preservatives for food, to leather for cloths and shoes, and even explosives were/are all possible due to chemical engineering design and process developments. Ever wonder how KFC gets its outer brown crispy layer? Why onions make you cry? Why food spoils? Chemistry is present in every aspect of our life and chemical engineers make innovations and advancement in technology and sciences possible. ChemE may seem complicated once you start it; someone may say “pumps” or “compressors” and pressure- temperature relationship. But if you relate ChemE to what you already know, the “gibberish” might actually be- come very exciting. For example, your heart is a pump which functions exactly the way pumps in industries do! Relate the functions of your body to ChemE; it may not seem Greek and Latin at all! PV=nRT tells us that pressure is proportional to temperature in most cases. Isn’t that true, say any hurdle regarding your loved ones, or your boss blasts you, their pressure builds on you, and your temperature goes up! You can always discover new or better methods of producing a product, or you can help improve the economy of your country by finding out what resources they have more and how to convert them to make up for the short- age of others. Being a chemical engineer you can go in any direction you aspire. If you are good with coding, hav- ing basic knowledge you can code a program to do problems of ChemE or even create software like ASPEN did. If you feel business is our thing, go for MBA, play with petroleum or other products. Who knows you may even beat Mukesh Ambani to it! Or good with literature, write articles like I do. Do what YOU desire and manipulate ChemE do so. It could be your best friend. KUDOS TO CHEME!! It’s not just a field, it is OUR playground that helps us excel! - Nivethika Sundararajan Third Yr, ChemE
    • MALLADI …a world class manufacturer of active pharmaceutical ingredients Products Offered by MALLADI Group Ephedrine and its salts Pseudo Ephedrine HCl and its salts Phenylephrine and its salts Alprazolam USP/BP/EP Selegiline HCl USP/BP/EP Triprolidine HCl BP/EP/USP Lorazepam BP/EP/USP Services Offered by MALLADI Group Strong R&D in Chiral Chemistry & Biotechnol- ogy Contract Research in Drug Development Custom manufacturing of cGMP Products Expertise in Cryogenic reactions, Biotransfor- mations. Malladi Drugs & Pharmaceuticals Limited 9, GST Road, St Thomas Mount Chennai 600 016, India Tel: +91-44-3987 6900 Fax: +91-44-3987 6914 E-mail: Website : TECHNOLOGY INNOVATION RESEARCH Kapil Agencies: +(91)-(40)-25225443 No. 72, New No. 30, Sembudoss Street, Chennai, Tamil Nadu - 600 001 (India)  National Level Exporters and Wholesale Manufacturers of High Quality Stainless Steel Boilers, Steel Compressor Items, Steel Elements and Iron.  AUTHORISED DEALERS: SAIL, JINDAL, ESSAR, VIZAG SARITA LLOYDS AND MAIN STOCKISTS OF H.R.COILS & SHEETS
    • "To develop scientific temper" is one of the fundamental duties of the Indian citizens, according to the Constitution of India. There is so much of confusion to the role of science itself, as we hear contrary views. Some say: "Science is a boon that justifies our living, guarantees our future and will save us from superstition and falsehood." Others declare: “Science is the greatest menace yet in- vented by man. It will destroy the human race.” Some blame all the evils of gross and brutal materialism on sci- ence. They claim science is responsible for the contami- nation of our planet by artificial increase of radiation, for the squandering of our earth's resources, for the destruc- tion of wild life, etc. Others worship at the shrine of sci- ence, and firmly believe science will free us from all evils and usher in an age of social justice, democracy and well- being for all. But whatever these arguments may be our sustenance in this competitive world is only because of the seven letter word “science”. We have understood science theoretically just a word, something virtual and nothing more. We have achieved brilliance without wis- dom, and power without conscience. Do you think just repetitive theories and age old facts are enough to survive in this competi- tive world?? Surely not... There is a need to culti- vate what is called the scientific temper. In fact this would not only make us realise what real knowledge is but also make us socially aware and enables us to eradicate the black marks on the so- ciety and on ourselves. The scientific temper blends modesty and humility with self-reliance. Scientific temper is one of the attributes that Pandit Nehru wanted all the Indians to culti- vate. Scientific temper describes an attitude that involves the application of logic and reasoning, and the avoidance of bias and preconceived notions in arriving at decisions, and becomes particularly valuable while deciding what is best for the com- munity or the nation. Discussion, argument and analysis are vital parts of scientific temper. Two eloquent phrases characterise a group that prac- tices scientific temper — internal pluralism and external receptivity. Let us consider an example. Ours is a world of nuclear giants and ethical infants. We know more about war than we know about peace, more about killing than we know about living. This is a consequence of lack of scientific temper. We need that moral perception which will enable us to resist the temptation to misuse power, in other words a scientific realisation. So, coming back to Nehru’s scientific tem- per, it should be inculcated among children, start- ing with kids at a very young age. There are cer- tainly small efforts here and there, by wonderful NGOs or other organizations, but most of the ef- forts are few and far between. With education in India itself, most of the effort appears to be for better colleges or research institutes or more IITs, but the biggest hole lies in our schools. It is a white elephant no one wants to touch. But only when such loopholes are plugged will terms like a nation with a scientific temper mean anything. If there is at least one good teacher or par- ent, with some knowledge of how the world should've been, along with every kid, then there wouldn't have been the need for an educational reform and the kids would have understood by then what they call textbooks are nothing but trash. Scientific Temper is not in the scene of study. Scientific Temper- A necessity in today’s competitive world
    • The system focus on learning without understanding or blind faith on authority. Children definitely by middle school should be taught the skill of thinking critically about everything. Everything from 'should I take my raincoat to school today' to 'do I really want to be an engineer'. Understanding the situation one is in, looking at is merits and demerits and then taking a decision is simply a form of scientific thinking and an essential life skill. Critical thinking is not just for scientists. Everyone needs to do so. I think it is high time that the entire education system should be restructured. The current belief among teachers is that if a topic is taught loudly, if students are asked to take notes and rewrite them again in “class work notebooks”, memorised all equations and theory, then a student has "learned" and he is "thorough" with the concept. All such education tests are our short term mem- ory. Further, the main aim of education here seems to be gaining marks and gaining employment, when it ought to be gaining knowledge. Here, education prevents you from the actual learning - the ultimate irony. Developing scientific temper is in fact the essence of being in this competitive world. This can be achieved only if there is a huge reform in the edu- cational system or each and every individual under- goes a self realisation. The latter may sound practi- cally impossible, given the present scenario and poli- ticians deciding what should be included in the school syllabus, the former seems to be never possi- ble. Our age is essentially an age of transition where all things are changing, and changing so rap- idly that many feel somewhat lost. There is much of bewilderment, a feeling of insecurity, and a sense of fear and anxiety, and this results in a kind of restless- ness. This need not be so if we understand what it is all about, and if we retain a true sense of direction. Old forms must die to make room for better ones. Progress means change and we all need greater flexibility of mind and preparedness to face all changes, while retaining our faith in that which do not change. Adaptability is essential to meet the challenge of our era, the era of science and technol- ogy, with both wisdom and courage. Perhaps nothing crystallizes the feel for scientific temper among Indians better than a poem from Tagore's Geetanjali: Where the clear stream of reason has not lost its way, into the dreary desert sand of dead habit, where the mind is led forward by thee into ever widening thought and action, into that heaven of freedom, my father, let my country awake. - Narmadha.R Second Yr, ChemE
    • Chemical Engineering Batch 2008-12
    • Petroleum Refining and Petro Chemicals Batch 2008-12
    • TO WRITE OR NOT TO WRITE Here we are, in the pre final year of our bachelors’ education in engi- neering. It is that time of our lives when we have to write letters of ap- plications and statements of purpose to various educational institutions and corporate organisations, requesting them to give us projects and internships. How many of us really know what we are doing? At this point of time, all we have is a general idea about chemical engi- neering-not enough to decide what exactly we wish to do after our chemical engineering. So where do we actually apply for an internship? What kind of projects do we take up? Now comes the time for some serious contemplation and introspection. We come up with a list of our favourite subjects; purely based on the grades we’ve scored in those subjects, and a set of reasons as to why we like those subjects. We put all of it together, along with a few sweet lines about the place we are applying to, in a mellifluous paragraph which we’d all like to call an SOP. Not to mention all the googling that takes place in the process of writ- ing an SOP. The end result is an essay which apparently spells out all that we are and all that we wish to be at any particular place which will be quoted as one of the best places in the whole world. How useful is that? Does the statement of purpose really serve its purpose or is it just something which we have to do so that we can apparently go places? I may be wrong. But well, this is just one of those weird thoughts that run across the mind of any regular third year student, whose solutions we hope to find by the end of another year. - Sai Prashanthi Ramesh Third yr, ChemE Company Profile Incorporated in 1981, as a public sector enterprise of the Government of India National Aluminium Com- pany Limited (Nalco) is Asia's largest integrated alu- minium complex, encompassing bauxite mining, alu- mina refining, aluminium smelting and casting, power generation, rail and port operations. Commissioned during 1985-87, Nalco has emerged to be a star per- former in production, export of alumina and alumin- ium, and more significantly, in propelling a self- sustained growth.
    • If you can keep your head when all about you Are losing theirs and blaming it on you; If you can trust yourself when all men doubt you, But make allowance for their doubting too; If you can wait and not be tired by waiting, Or, being lied about, don't deal in lies, Or, being hated, don't give way to hating, And yet don't look too good, nor talk too wise; If you can dream - and not make dreams your master; If you can think - and not make thoughts your aim; If you can meet with triumph and disaster And treat those two imposters just the same; If you can bear to hear the truth you've spoken Twisted by knaves to make a trap for fools, Or watch the things you gave your life to broken, And stoop and build 'em up with wornout tools; If you can make one heap of all your winnings And risk it on one turn of pitch-and-toss, And lose, and start again at your beginnings And never breath a word about your loss; If you can force your heart and nerve and sinew To serve your turn long after they are gone, And so hold on when there is nothing in you Except the Will which says to them: "Hold on"; If you can talk with crowds and keep your virtue, Or walk with kings - nor lose the common touch; If neither foes nor loving friends can hurt you; If all men count with you, but none too much; If you can fill the unforgiving minute With sixty seconds' worth of distance run - Yours is the Earth and everything that's in it, And - which is more - you'll be a Man my son! If…
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    • Chairman's Office Bharat Bhavan, 4 and 6 Currimbhoy Road, Ballard Estate, Mumbai 400001
    • We are in the midst of the GOOGLE world. Everything has become as simple as possible to learn. But are we going into the correct lane??? The logical conclusion of our relationship to computers: expectantly to type “what is the meaning of my life” into Google. You can do this, of course. Type “what is th” and faster than you can find the e Google is sending choices back at you: what is the cloud? What is the mean? What is the American dream? What is the illuminati? Google is trying to read your mind. Only it’s not your mind. It’s the World Brain. Google is where we go for answers. People used to go elsewhere or, more likely, stagger along not knowing. Nowadays you can’t have a long dinner-table argument about who won the Oscar for that Neil Simon movie where she plays an actress who doesn’t win an Oscar; at any moment someone will pull out a pocket device and Google it. “A hamadryad is a wood-nymph, also a poisonous snake in India, and an Abyssinian baboon,” says the narrator of John Banville’s 2009 novel, The Infinities. “It takes a god to know a thing like that.” Not anymore. Most of the time, Google does not actually have the answers. When peo- ple say, “I looked it up on Google,” they are committing a solecism. It is seldom right to say that anything is true “according to Google.” Google is the oracle of redirection. Go there for “hamadryad,” and it points you to Wikipedia or the Free Online Dictionary or the Official Hamadryad Web Site (it’s a rock band, too, wouldn’t you know). Google defines its mission as “to organize the world’s information,” not to possess it or accumulate it. In 2004, Google was still a private company, five years old, already worth $25 billion, and handling about 85 percent of Internet searches. Its single greatest innovation was the algorithm called PageRank, developed by Page and Brin when they were Stanford graduate students running their research project from a computer in a dorm room. The problem was that most Internet searches produced useless lists of low-quality results. The solution was a sim- ple idea: to harvest the implicit knowledge already embodied in the architecture of the World Wide Web, organi- cally evolving. The essence of the Web is the linking of individual “pages” on websites, one to another. Every link represents a rec- ommendation—a vote of interest, if not quality. So the algorithm assigns every page a rank, depending on how many other pages link to it. Furthermore, all links are not valued equally. A recommendation is worth more when it comes from a page that has a high rank itself. The math isn’t trivial—PageRank is a probability distribution, and the calculation is recursive, each page’s rank depending on the ranks of pages that depend and so on. Page and Brin patented PageRank and published the details even before starting the company they called Google.
    • As they saw it from the first, their mission encompassed not just the Internet but all the world’s books and images, too. When Google created a free e-mail service—Gmail—its competitors were Microsoft, which offered users two megabytes of storage of their past and current e-mail, and Yahoo, which offered four megabytes. Google could have trumped that with six or eight; instead it provided 1,000—a gigabyte. It doubled that a year later and promised “to keep giving people more space forever.” They have been relentless in driving computer science forward. Google Translate has achieved more in machine translation than the rest of the world’s artificial intelligence experts combined. Google’s new mind-reading type-ahead feature, Google Instant, has “to date” (boasts the 2010 annual report) “saved our users over 100 billion keystrokes and counting.” (If you are seeking information about the Gobi Desert, for example, you receive re- sults well before you type the word “desert.”) It is just so embarrassing to admit that even to write this one, I had to Google. So, I think we are not off the point like when we Google. This is just to say, when using Search Engines we should be cautious not to let the thread what we are searching for. And also the results we find when using Search Engine are not 100% authenticated. - Hemalatha.J Third Yr, ChemE “Training in English - spoken, written and business communication. If you are looking for the ex- perts, welcome to Veta.” Formerly known as Vivekananda Institute, Veta today is the leader in spoken English training  Established in 1981.  250 centres, 140 cities.  Trained more than 33 lakh learners.  Well-equipped R & D and Training.  Strong logistic support Corporate office: Amoha Education (p) ltd., Balammal building, No:33,Burkit road, T nagar, Chennai-600 017. Email: Phone: +91 44 24341164/ 24363639/ 24342539 Fax: +91 44 24330169
    • Peer Pressure!!! So what do you think of peer pressure?? Peer pressure is the phenomenon wherein we tend to get influenced by the lifestyles and the ways of thinking of our peers. Peer pressure can prove beneficial, but it is most often observed to have negative effects on society. The term peer pressure is most commonly used when re- ferring to teenage children doing things that they would not normally do and it is often viewed as a negative influ- ence. The thoughts, behaviour and tastes of fashion, music, tele- vision and other walks of life of the masses are often seen to have a deep impact on the living of the society. We tend to get influenced by the lifestyles of our peer group. The changing ways of life of our peers often force us to change our ways of looking at life and leading it. It's a human ten- dency to do what the crowd does. Peer pressure is bound to affect most of us, both, positively and negatively. Do you really want to do it? When you do not like a particular idea or when you have no inclination towards a particular field, it is obvious that you won't like to go by it. In such cases, there are chances that you won't do well in those things. Things you do not enjoy doing cannot fetch you success. So, it is important that you do not lose happiness of life by succumbing to peer pressure. Peer pressure can lead to a loss of individuality. Extreme peer pressure may lead you to follow what your peers feel right. Is it always bad? Peer pressure is not always bad. It can help you analyze yourself and contemplate on your ways of life. Exposure to peer pressure gives you an opportunity to think about their tastes and their outlooks towards life. Peers can play a vital role in the shaping of your personality. Peer pressure can lead you to make the right choices in life. It gives you a chance to choose the best from what the masses do. A coin has two sides. So does peer pressure. The side to choose is always up to you! K.Priyanga, Second year, ChemE.
    • OUR CHEMICAL PLANT – OUR BODY!! “The human body is not a thing or a substance, given, but a continuous creation. The hu- man body is an energy system”-Norman. O. Brown Chemical Engineering is the branch of engineering in which the raw materials are converted into valuable and useful products. The conversion process involves various unit processes and unit operations. When we think about the chemical industries what are the things that comes to in our mind??? Of course the reactors ei- ther batch or continuous, the pumps, the valves, the heat ex- changers, the crushers, the grinders, the driers, the evaporators and so on... Does human body is concerned with those unit proc- esses and unit operations used in chemical engineering? Obvi- ously, Yes. The human body is built up with certain unit operators perform- ing the conversion process of the nutrients into energy. The hu- man body successfully satisfies the material balance “Input=Output + Accumulation” Also in comparison of human body with chemical engineering we can suggest that our mouth is a crusher which crushes the food we take and let it down through the food pipe. Then what about the reactor? Yes reactor is our stomach in which the process of digestion takes place in the presence of a chemical called hydro chloric acid. Talk- ing about blood circulation, the Heart is the pump which pumps the blood and the control valves are the heart valves which allow the blood to flow through the pipes i.e. through the veins. This clearly indicates the impact of fluid mechanics in human body. Heat and mass transfer are the main aspects of chemical engineering which is the part of action of the human body. Finally our body is a chemical plant and we are the chemical engineers. It is our responsibility to maintain and run our own chemical plant for achieving high efficiency. Be the best entrepreneur. - N. Little Nishani, Third year, ChemE.
    • A part of the renowned HC Kothari Group, they are the largest producer of premium quality Polybutene in In- dia. Since their founding in 1990, the company has enjoyed a strong market position in India with a rapidly growing brand across the globe that represents quality, customer responsiveness, dependability and a commit- ment to the environment.
    • - Harish.P , First year, ChemE
    • LIFE AFTER 20 YEARS… The Environment in a 20 Years: I actually think that the environment would be in a far better place than it is right now. I know it is hard to be opti- mistic about the environment, seeing how the developed and developing countries are at loggerheads on issues of climate change and how to tackle it. The UN Climate Change Conference in Copenhagen is case in point. However, 20 years in the future, I see countries utilizing clean energy (wind energy, solar energy, nuclear energy, perhaps a new, clean, as-of-now unknown energy source) -- as opposed to fossil fuels. The reason for my optimism is that there is just no option before humans other than to switch to cleaner energy sources!! Unlike the naysayers, I believe climate change is a FACT, and sooner or later, the naysayers would come around to this view, especially when they see undeniable proof of climate change in terms of very demonstrable, undeniable, drastically changed weather patterns. A hundred years into the future, therefore, I see vast expanses of land (all over the world), where wind farm- ing projects have come up providing sustainable renew- able energy. I see the vast majority of cars running on water (yes - water indeed), causing no harm at all to the environment. I believe the technology for this doesn't exist as of yet, although I've seen claims of cars running on water. The technology though, I believe, can be de- veloped in the future. I see that the thing called "plastics" is extinct - people are using biodegradable ma- terials instead thereby saving the Earth of the vast quan- tities of debris that just doesn't go away, whether in our oceans or on our land. I see that there is no such thing as "paper" anymore - people therefore don't cut trees any- more. Not even for building houses - composite, un- heard-as-of-yet materials have replaced wood. I see that air travel 20 years in the future is not via the same fuel-guzzling airplanes we have today. They have given way to alternate-fuelled airplanes, primarily powered by hydrogen-based fuel technology. I see that houses in the future have discarded the conventional heating systems employed by us now. Instead, passive houses have be- come the standard, which rely on the houses' own generated heat to heat the house, thereby being more environ- mentally friendly and being energy efficient. Human Society in a 20 Years: Things are not quite rosy here. I see that countries still exist (good thing I guess). Borders are still guarded zealously and fought for - via wars when required and when not required in equal measure. I see nations squabbling over water - that preciously scarce resource of the future. I see that terrorists still abound - the Osama Bin Laden types still roam the Earth terrorizing countries and peoples with newer weapons and newer methods of instilling terror. I see that the United States is no longer the sole superpower of the world -- the most powerful country on Earth. I see the most powerful countries dominating the world as being China, India, Brazil and Russia in that order. I see that China and India have become the equivalent of the US and the erstwhile Soviet Union - fighting another Cold War between them and competing for resources and influence around the world.Stil there's a long way to go,and new hurdles to be dealt with. - Pallav Kumar, Second Yr,
    • Madras Cements Ltd is the flagship company of the Ramco Group, a well-known business group of South India. It is headquartered at Chennai. The main prod- uct of the company is Portland cement, manufac- tured in five state-of-the art production facilities spread over South India, with a current total produc- tion capacity of 13.0 MTPA. The company is the fifth largest cement producer in the country. Ramco is the most popular cement brand in South India. The com- pany also produces Ready Mix Concrete and Dry Mor- tar products, and operates one of the largest wind farms in the country.
    • Call ME Fussy... One thing I probably hate the most is bad quality chocolate. What gives the bad chocolate away is the “crystally” unsmooth finish of the chocolate. Everyone who has tasted the cake that we actually buy for the cake fight will know what I am talking about. I felt compelled to find out why these “crystally” chocolates are well, unbearable. Whatis the process or operation that these people are compromising on?? The conche was invented by none other than Rodolphe Lindt in Berne, Switzerland. All the suckers for chocolate will know who he is. Like all other major discoveries, the conching op- eration was an accidental one. It’s said that Rodolphe once left the mixer containing chocolate running overnight by mistake. Next day, he ob- viously fussed over the fact that so much power went waste till he found the chocolate un-gritty like before. Till this major breakthrough occurred, chocolate was consumed mainly as a drink. To get to the technical side of the operation, conching is responsible for grinding the cocoa and sugar particles to the size that the tongue is unable to detect. The goal is somewhere around 20-30 microns since our tongue loses the ability to determine texture and grittiness at around 50 microns. Hence, we get that smooth texture. The conversion of the solid powdery chocolate to a liquid occurs using frictional heat from maybe metal balls (attrition) or a surface scraping mechanism. Apart from the phase conversion, there is continuous agitation in order to release volatiles and for oxidation At this point, I remember something that Dr. Azhagar had told us in our first year of Chemical Engineering. He said, “We all are chemists, everyday! I take two tumblers and keep transferring my coffee from one to another to get all that froth. I pour it from a higher point every time to convert the caffeine to caffeine oxide and believe it or not, it does make my coffee tastier.” It’s very similar. The agitation enhances the flavor of the chocolate. The cocoa solids and the cocoa butter are ob- tained as the chocolate liquor after the cocoa beans are subjected to operations like grinding and liquefaction. The conching mixes the cocoa solids with the butter once again and the process goes on till the smoothness desired is obtained. For high quality chocolate, conching is carried out for 72 hours and poor quality ones, for about 5-6 hours. The temperature of the operation also plays an important role, higher temperature will promote the phase conversion and hence the processing time will be reduced. T he process may be batch or continuous. What is inter- esting to note is that food scientists are STILL trying to figure out what exactly hap- pens (chemically) during this process!!! Purnima Manghnani Final Yr, ChemE
    • How will your digestion be when you are in space ? Have you ever wondered what happens when you drink a glass of water in outer space? Here I mean what hap- pens to the astronauts. Well it is the challenge to the digestive system. The digestive system is amazing: it takes the foods we eat and breaks them into smaller components that our bodies can use for energy, cell repair and growth. But how amazing it is with zero-G?? Actually speaking there is gravity everywhere. It is true that gravity de- creases with distance, so it is possible to be far away from a planet or star and feel less gravity. But that doesn't account for the weightless feeling that astronauts experience in space. The reason that astronauts feel weightless actually has to do with their position compared to their spaceship. We feel weight on Earth because gravity is pulling us down, while the floor or ground stop us from falling. We are pressed against it. Any ship in orbit around the Earth is falling slowly to Earth. Since the ship and the astronauts are falling at the same speed, the astronauts don't press against anything, so they feel weightless. Since everything is falling together it looks like they are floating. To be more clear,F=mg the ship falls at a faster rate (higher mass) and u seem to float when u are actu- ally falling. So, the problem is, if everything is falling together, how can food 'fall' through the digestive system?
    • The simple answer is that it dosen't! It dosen't in space and it dosen't on earth either. The food in your mouth is pushed to the stomach by muscles in the lining of the tube between mouth and your stomach. Then, in your stom- ach the digested food is pushed again into your intestines. While in the intestines it is pushed all the way to the, well, to the end. As a simple experiment, try drinking water while standing on your head. You will be amazed that you can indeed swallow the water. You could even eat a full meal on your head and you would have no problem getting your food where it belongs. You might want to get on your feet, though, before it all gets to. . . . the end! - S. Lavanya. Final Yr, ChemE
    • THE BORYON SHOWDOWN It was a chilly day outside the deserted Boryon Nuclear Plant, Kazan.The roads leading to this ancient relic has been shut off for quite a while.Not that there remained an aura of peace ,which was forcefully instilled due to an unfor- tunate tragedy.The scientists and other technical staff seemed to be in a jinx after the proposed 500 MW nuclear power station developed an erratic chemical reaction that slowly started impairing the entire objective of the ma- chinery.It all began when the U-235 began misbehaving by sending out the fusion products into the safety valve.Due to the pyrophric nature of thorium ,the alarm bells began to ring.They never wanted another Cherno- byl.On the other end of the country in Moscow Leondrov Posvoski, a chemical engineer formely serving Gazprom, wakes up to read the mystery unfolding the Boryon Nuclear Plant in the local daily. His mind only has prayers for the better for the people surrounding this nuclear fortess.Posvoski is no ordinary cheme freak.Sucked by the ever demanding nature of the corporate world, he never let his passion for energy con- servation ,which has only motivated him to research the various possibilties and safety aspects.He has been associ- ated formely in avoiding a disaster at small nuclear outfit in Beloyarsk.Though he may have never intended to be a part the Boryon officals got to know of his repute and suggested him to emancipate them of this catastrophe. Pos- voski is not the only hero whom they approached,another spearhead was roped in for this mission ----- Bohdan Re- pin , young exuberant chem-e genius well regarded for his PhD thesis at the Moscow State University. On their intial inspection they realize that the thorium is about expend its fury on the safety valves.As the fury may spread to the pipes carrying the molten material, they sensed a catacalysm. They had to somehow enroute the problematic thorium without affecting the fluids in the pipes.They decide to go for an indigenous solution. They connect the external exit point 23 of the valves to an external thorium collector tank.They successfully manage to remove the problematic villian.
    • However in the process they realize that the enrich- ment of U-238 has been mishandled to such an extent that the desired fusion reaction to U-235 has become corrupted. Another debacle awaiting them was the weakening of control rods. The scientists later inform Posvoski and Repin that the heat from the fusion reac- tor is not being redirected properly and if allowed to continue will result in its explosion. With time as their biggest enemy ,Posvoski and Repin decide first to fix the control rods by using high boron steel and hafnium assisted by ROBOCAD. As they proceed the heat evolved from the fusion reac- tor halts the process in between ,yet they manage to reinstate to rectify the control rods.At the very same moment the gadgets controlling the control rods are suitably rectified. With the control rods in position and the thorium blocks cleared ,Posvoski examines the damage to the 10 m thick wall. To his horror the volatile neutrons ,few in magnitude have been embedded in it.With the flow of the heat and fluid through the cracks not completely ruled out, he senses the biggest danger of all. Repin comes out with the solution of reconverting the possible U-238 to a lesser volatile lead using the extra of the newly dis- covered metal oxide of europium . As they sketch out that plan they find out that in pre- sent characteristics of the fluid matter ,it is impossible to definitely obtain a less harmful lead. Posvoski , with his experience at Beloyarsk ,decides to go for a transition compound of einsteinium ,which though volatile will decompose the existing to a more stable state. Posvoski’s plan gets executed. Moments after adding the metallic compound , a small fire erupts in the level 21 of the nuclear reactor, which is made to rest. They walls on the other hand develop a few more cracks. They immediately inform the emergency services ,whom the Kazan base ,redirect for their help. The crew at Boryon were left bewildered about how to stop these neu- trons ,when a fellow trainee came out with the idea of using an enriched version of Tyleerium( Z=123 ) transported through the rutherforium ligand wires. The embedded volatile neutrons are thus captured through wires and made to absorb on the Tyleerium surface. The cracks are finally filled with filler material. With factors against them devoid of its power, the scien- tists decide to reinstate the power plant with both Posvoski and Repin restarting its monotony. Thus with normalcy re-instored, the chief scientist proposes the question of whether nuclear power is needed or not,for which both Repin and Posvoski reply “ As long as Human welfare is centered ,it would never be an issue to ignite a chain reaction full of radioactive and toxic materials.” - AMIT KOIKKARAH AJI First Yr, ChemE
    • *Why man is so furious when it comes to time travel?* Well, time is something which can’t be brought back in life right?.... May be man is trying to recall his old memories or he is trying to visualize what the future is!!! We all don’t know what the future will bring and it is always a million dollar question??? Maybe that’s why we always knock the door when it comes to time travel. Coming to the fact, we all know there are 3-Dimensions (1D,2D,3D) or Directions(x,y,z) and we can travel in these directions pretty much easily. But according to Stephen William Hawking, time is a very minute particle (obviously invisible to human eyes) can be considered as a *FOURTH DI- MENSION*. If we can travel in the three directions, we could possibly *travel in Time also. Time Travel!! Our all time WONDER!!! *Can we really see or change our past? * We need a medium to travel to past. That medium is Wormhole. Worm- hole is something which we can travel through them to the past. But it is really a small thing of pico-size. We can see some large wormholes in the vast universe but it needs some extraordinary energy to enlarge those small ones to a size for a man to travel through it. This is a difficulty. It has some abnormalities too.
    • Consider a man from the future comes to see himself in the past using a wormhole. If that man from the future kills himself in the past, both will die. If the man from the future is dead in the past itself then who killed the man in the past? And also man from the future would not have come at all since he is dead in the past itself. Therefore it raises a lot of questions and leads us to an abnormal situation! Hence time travel to the past is *impossible. *What about travelling to future? * Yes, travelling to the future is possible. *Stephen William Hawking* says that we can actually go to the future by using the ideas of *Einstein*about travelling to the future. According to Einstein’s principle length, mass, time de- pends on the velocity of a body. Therefore when we travel with the velocity nearer to the velocity of light (3,00,000 km/hr), we can virtually travel in time (by universal law, no object can with the velocity of light so we should get near to that velocity maybe around 2,00,000 km/hr to travel in time). When someone travels at that speed in a ma- chine, time will automatically slow down inside that machine and he will feel only *fifteen seconds for a whole day *in the outside world*. *At the end of only one week of travel he would have travelled hundred years in future. And he can finally see a bright future with advanced science before his eyes!!!! - K.Shriram. Second year ChemE
    • CHEMICAL DELIGHT! The effervescence and the fumes of raging ingredients have mesmerized some of the best sophomores to have a safe play in their life and there we go…..Salaam! Chemical department of The commencement of life on the very first day of college in chemical department must have kept some of the op- tical clads well beyond their expectations, surprised to be going through graphics or physics while some of the forced youngsters trying their luck at canteen to tempt their palate. The “Reacting ” decision for life would have left some people repenting and the other lot calling themselves “Chemical reactors” or rather it put this way the chemical enthusiasts as they would react at jet speed to any query or problem from treybal to perry which leaves the former grudging over their grey cells. Fascinating world!!!!! What attracts some homosapiens would be right con- trary to the other lot, let us say, one might be at- tracted to the shimmy shimmy nail enamel a girl wears ,the other lot is attracted to know the ingredi- ents , the processes involved , either a batch or con- tinuous or equipment incorporated, say mixers and so on. That’s how it makes a difference. After, four years of rigorous study and knowledge with wisdom, it proves as a good eye opener and judge about one- self to which lot one pertains to. Chemical engineering has been an enormous, innova- tive and special world for some while it brings in nightmares for some. Lets us consider this, say, the notion of a heat exchanger where the fluids dance to each other’s mellifluous tunes and exchange their temperatures and the temperature drop and differ- ence stands up for their team work which requires team work and sophisticated skill of compromising without ego which is the very character absent in “Homosapiens’s”. Similarly, the design of a reactor with the stirrer for amalgamating casts light on the moral value ”be friendly” and world will be respect you as we are aware about Mr. Heart of an industry. Drier, on the other hand supports the “Let go the barking dogs” as synony- mous to driers as they are used to remove the upper layer of moisture and we say just forget what the world says, follow your heart. The study of various equipments in the similar way as above could be actually correlated to the real life and which if understood could act as an inspiration for peaceful and wonderful life. - Chaparala Sree Vidhya, Final Yr, ChemE
    • Tracking Oil Spills - Spilled Oil Tracking Autonomous Buoy The incidences of ocean oil spills have increased drastically in the recent years, leading to any equivalent rise in the adverse effects on Marine life.Most of the times Oil spills take place in such a condition that immediate relief or pollution re- sponse becomes difficult to provide mainly due to adverse weather conditions or rough sea. In such situations it is important to monitor in which direc- tion oil is moving. SOTAB does exactly that.Spilled oil tracking autonomous buoy or sotab, is an oil spill tracking device that is used to monitor the direction of proliferation of the spilled oil incase of an oil spill. Often it is observed that in bad weather conditions, pollution prevention or oil recovery help takes a longer time to reach the accident place. Most of the times the damage is already been done till the time the necessary steps are taken.Satellite images or aerial surveys using aircrafts are common practices to track the oil spill movement. But these methods become unreliable in case of rough weather and heavy winds. For this reason, Spilled oil tracking autonomous buoy are deployed to this accident prone regions not only to monitor the oil movement but also to send real time data containing details back to the shore. Sotabs or spilled oil tracking autonomous buoy are Global Positioning System (GPS) enabled robotic buoys. The buoy weighs approximately 110 kg and has a height of 3 meters and a diameter of 27 centimeters. Most of the body part remains submerged in the water. Sensors are mounted on the submerged part of the buoy, which de- tects floating globs and density of oil. In case the layer of oil is thick, it automatically changes its buoyancy and dives further into the water to measure the exact quantity of oil. The sensors also detect depth, water tempera- ture, direction and speed of the wind. The design and construction of the body is made robust so as to withstand adverse weather conditions. In accidents involving oil spills, sotabs are dropped in the accident prone area after turning them on. They float in water just like the conventional bouys. The sensors collect the details and the GPS system with an antenna at- tached at the top of the buoy sends the real time data to the shore. Incase of a heavy oil spill, Sotab takes sample of water for quality assessment. The GPS system also sends real time data regarding geographical position and oceanographic data to the monitoring system on shore. Sotabs can operate for around 3-4 weeks without battery replacement. Sotabs are provided to all the oil and chemical tank- ers. In case of an oil spill, the tankers drop the sotabs in the accident prone areas. With the help of the four fins, Sotab steers itself through the oil, monitoring and procuring details and sending it to the shore. Sotab can also be dropped from the air in the accident prone region - R.PAVITHRA , Third Yr,ChemE
    • Which is better??? Solar energy or nuclear energy??!! Our world is still struggling into the energy crisis. Most people prefer nuclear energy as a main source of energy obviously because it is considered as viable and envi- ronmentally friendly alternative, and why is that? It’s because nuclear power can provide up to 20% of energy to billions of people around the world. However several questions still remain: Is the nuclear energy considered to be safe and clean? Is the Nuclear energy sustainable? What about Solar energy? Is Solar Energy also considered to be sustainable? Nuclear energy, which are derived from the fissions of uranium, plutonium or thorium, gives an infinite amount of energy. Hence it is considered to be sustainable because we have tons of uranium reserves on earth and it will last long for thousands of years. However these assumptions can be dropped since its consumption is slowly increasing year after year. Also Nuclear energy is a non-renewable source of energy. But like Nuclear Energy, Solar Energy is also another infinite source of energy. However, compared to Nuclear energy, solar energy does not contain any elements, because its source of energy is coming from the sun itself. Solar panels are needed in order to absorb solar radiation and directly convert it into current electricity. This method is photovoltaic. In contrast to the Nuclear energy, solar energy is a renewable source of energy. In terms of CO2 emission, nuclear energy is considered quite clean; they don’t emit greenhouse gases directly. How- ever, the nuclear fuel cycle (which is responsible for the burning process) produces them indirectly, but dramati- cally it reduces emissions compared to burning fossil fuels. Since solar energy does not contain any elements (except to the materials used to absorb the solar radiation) it is considered clean and environmental-friendly alter- native. 124, Nainiappa naicken street, Chennai—600003. Phone: 25353558/25356984 CONTACT US:  Manufacturers OF drill- ing fluid additives  Importers  Exporters  Logistic Services
    • However, the consumption of solar energy is just limited due to the fact that it cannot provide a greater amount of electricity for billions of people at once, and the materials needed to make the solar panels are very expensive. Nuclear power is considered a high risk to all because of the chemical it contains. It’s been told that nu- clear power can destroy the earth because of its high radiation. Solar power on the other hand is very dif- ferent; it does not contain any chemicals that could cause thermal radiation. It’s eco friendly and free from risks. The future of the world purely depends only on nuclear energy and solar energy. People need electricity for each and every work they do. The future price of electricity is going to be much higher!!!! And What do you think?? Solar energy or nuclear energy?? - Vinisha. N Second Yr, ChemE An oxymoron is a combination of words that contradict each other. Here are some of our favorites. 1. virtual reality 2. original copy 3. old news 4. act naturally 5. pretty ugly 6. living dead 7. jumbo shrimp 8. rolling stop 9. constant variable 10. exact estimate Oxymorons!!
    • Materialism in today’s society A society grows when it attains development in its thinking and perception. However our society seems to be taking a few steps backwards. 2012 has arrived yet basic social expectations remain unchanged. A boy is expected to earn high salary and look after his family not taking it into regard if he is interested in his job or not. In other words he is pushed into the engineering branch at the tender age of 17/18. He struggles to keep up with the family and society expectations and is unable to perform to his fullest capability. This in turn reflects on his emotional quotient. He is unable to maintain close relationships with his parents, sib- lings, friends and loved ones as he vents out his frus- tration at them. In this race against time, many do emerge triumphant excelling in their field. However the price they pay to achieve it is too high. They look down at others from the peak of success alone, without anyone to share their joy and tears with. Is it really worth it all? Is money, car, house, jewels, branded clothing and a luxurious life style really worth throwing away what you believe in? Many have sacrificed their dreams, moral values and relationships just to attain monetary success which will suffice the faceless critics of the society. Hundreds flock to IT industry every year regardless of their level of expertise in the field. Reason? It is the shortcut to luxury. Indian society is yet to achieve maturity in its social expectations. It should give ample opportunities to an individual to exhibit his individualism and his talent. It should not thrust its expectations upon a person at a young age and expect him to perform. The reformation should begin at homes. Parents should not just allow their child to dream but should give a chance for him to realize it. A person should be able to work towards his dreams void of any social pressure. This will not just lead to social development but also economical development. However it is a distant dream and will take a long time to be realized. - Anbuchelvan Anamicca First Yr, ChemE
    • THE PATHWAY AHEAD FOR CHEMICAL ENGINEERS Chemical engineering always takes a special stance in contrast to the other engineering disciplines by virtue of one big factor: dynamic versatility. Chemical engineers are crucial to understand molecular and macroscopic transformations in multiscale analysis and it is this embedded versatility which presents opportunities and challenges in the future. A close look at statistics from the 1960s will reveal that career opportunities were high in the 70s. However, since then, employment growth has become weak especially in traditional chemical engineering fields. In ac- cordance to an AIChE survey, there is no certainty in the growth of employment post 2005. The share of people employed in the U.S. in chemical and allied industries has come down significantly from 33% in 1996 to 25% in 2007. Also, industries have grown a disliking towards employing undergraduates over the years. In the 80s, nearly 60% of undergraduates were hired into the chemical sector in the U.S. But that number has dropped to 40 now. I have roped in these numbers not to create a panic wave or to frighten the budding chemical engineer in you. Instead, as future chemical engineers its imperative that we derive enthusiasm and inspiration. Chemical engineering has gone through the 2G phases successfully: Growth and Globalisation. Now is the time for consolidation. A phase which might not hog the limelight but is crucial. There are still vast opportuni- ties in terms of research and otherwise which could be exploited. A recent inclination of chemical engineers towards biology opens a new door and gives a different aroma to the so called traditional chemical engineer. Major changes are expected within the energy sector, and concepts of efficiency and resource management will be increasingly more important.
    • The public perception of chemical technologists has changed over the years. Initially being looked at as a person who can do the good and bad things, now the public is asking him to show his care for the society apart from accumulating money and knowledge. To conclude, being “universal” engineers, we must stand up and answer these questions and work for the betterment of mankind. Therein lays the opportunity and the challenge for the upcoming chemical engineer. - Manoj Ravi, Second Yr, ChemE
    • A Psalm of Life Tell me not in mournful numbers, Life is but an empty dream! For the soul is dead that slumbers, And things are not what they seem. Life is real! Life is earnest! And the grave is not its goal; Dust thou are, to dust thou returnest, Was not spoken of the soul. Not enjoyment, and not sorrow, Is our destined end or way; But to act, that each tomorrow Find us farther than today. Art is long, and Time is fleeting, And our hearts, though stout and brave, Still, like muffled drums, are beating Funeral marches to the grave. In the world's broad field of battle, In the bivouac of Life, Be not like dumb, driven cattle! Be a hero in the strife! Trust no Future, howe'er pleasant! Let the dead Past bury its dead! Act, - act in the living Present! Heart within, and God o'erhead! Lives of great men all remind us We can make our lives sublime, And, departing, leave behind us Footprints on the sand of time; Footprints, that perhaps another, Sailing o'er life's solenm main, A forlorn and shipwrecked brother, Seeing, shall take heart again. Let us then be up and doing, With a heart for any fate; Still achieving, still pursuing, Learn to labor and to wait.
    • PCRA ENERGY AUDITS reduced 1,832 Tonnes