Katakana Rules

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General Rules for Converting to Katakana

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Katakana Rules

  1. 1. Katakana Everything you’ve always wanted to know about Katakana… but were afraid to ask1 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  2. 2. Introduction How many Katakana characters are used in Japanese? How are Katakana Symbols used in Japanese? What is the History of Katakana Symbols? 2 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  3. 3. How many Katakana characters are there?3 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  4. 4. How are Katakana Symbols used? To write foreign words To write foreign names For emphasis For onomatopoeia 4 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  5. 5. What is the History of Katakana Symbols? Ural-Altic Family of Languages (Turkish, Mongolian, Manchu, Korean) Imported Writing System from China and Korea But, difficult to write Chinese characters! Developed to Kana (phonetic) 9th Century: Students of Buddhism wrote in shorthand to keep up with lecture notes 5 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  6. 6. Features1. Sounds are identical to what they were for Hiragana2. Since wo is only used as a particles and particles are in Hiragana, there is almost never a need to use ヲ3. The four characters shi (シ) and tsu (ツ), n (ン) and so (ソ) are fiendishly similar to each other4. Also: no (ノ), me (メ) and nu (ヌ); fu (フ), wa (ワ) and u (ウ)5. Observe correct stroke order and direction6. [・] is used to denote spaces7. All long sounds are denoted by a dash8. New combination for foreign sounds9. There is no /wu/ sound10. Foreign words that have become popular keep their original spelling11. Not all come from English words 6 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  7. 7. Sounds are identical to Hiragana7 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  8. 8. There is almost never a need to use ヲ8 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  9. 9. shi (シ) & tsu (ツ); n (ン) & so (ソ) look alike Horizontal Vertical9 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  10. 10. no (ノ), me (メ) and nu (ヌ);fu (フ), wa (ワ) and u (ウ)10 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  11. 11. Observe correct stroke order and direction11 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  12. 12. [・] is used to denote spaces マイク・ミラー12 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  13. 13. All long sounds are denoted by a dash キュート13 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  14. 14. New combination for foreign sounds(ヤ) (イ) (ユ) イェ (ヨ)(ワ) ウィ (ウ) ウェ ウォヴァ ヴィ ヴ ヴェ ヴォ ヴャ ヴュ ヴョクァ クィ クェ クォグァ グィ グェ グォ シェ ジェ チェツァ ツィ ツェ ツォ ティ トゥ テャ テュ テョファ フィ (フ) フェ フォ フャ フュ フョ14 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  15. 15. There is no /wu/ sound ウーマン ウッド15 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  16. 16. Popularized foreign words retain spelling ツール (トゥール) ツアー コーヒー (トゥア) (コーフィー) ビアガーデン (ビール)16 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  17. 17. Not all come from English words ガラス グラス17 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  18. 18. General Rules forConverting English Words to Katakana1. Plurals usually become singular2. Vowel sounds are generalized3. Most are based on pronunciation, sometimes spelling4. For words that contain the rhotic /r/ sound after a vowel, the Katakana words usually just extends the vowel sound5. The /v/ sound is generally replaced by the /b/6. When /d/ and /t/ do not have a vowel after them, they are usually replaced by /do/ and /to/7. When the /j/ sound doesn’t have a vowel after it, it is usually replaced with /j/8. The other single consonant sounds, when they do not have a vowel after them, are replaced with the corresponding consonant sounds followed by /u/9. /l/ and /r/ are both replaced with the characters from the ra-line10. The [see] sound is generally replaced with /shi/11. The /tu/ sound is generally replaced with /chu/12. The soft /th/ sound is replaced with characters from the sa-line13. The hard /th/ sound is replaced with characters from the za line14. Since the only /w/ sound is wa, all other /w/ sounds are generally replaced with /u/15. Words that have a short vowel followed by a consonant will often double the consonant (but not when it is n)16. The /y/ sound, except when followed by a, o, or u, is usually replaced with I17. In order to make foreign words sound more like their original, additional character combinations have been introduced18. Even with the new symbols, most Japanese would still pronounce it the old way 18 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  19. 19. Plurals usually become singular パジャマ スリパ バレンタイン・デー19 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  20. 20. Vowel sounds are generalized カーラー カット カー20 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  21. 21. Most are based on pronunciation, but… サラ モンキー Buggy ルーター ナオミ21 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  22. 22. For /r/sounds, the vowel is extended マーク フォーク22 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  23. 23. The /v/ sound is replaced by /b/ ビデオ23 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  24. 24. /d/&/t/ endings are replaced by /do/&/to/ コンテスト ドレス24 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  25. 25. /j/ endings are usually replaced by /ji/ オレンジ25 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  26. 26. In general, consonants are added with /u/クラスクラブ *ケーキ *ステーキ26 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  27. 27. /l/ and /r/ are replaced with the ra-line ミルク ルーム27 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  28. 28. The [see] sound is replaced by /shi/ シンク CD28 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  29. 29. The /tu/ sound is replaced by /chu/ チューブ29 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  30. 30. The soft /th/ is replaced by the sa-line サンキュー30 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  31. 31. The hard /th/ is replaced by the za line ウェザー31 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  32. 32. /w/ sounds are replaced by /u/ ウィスキー ウェートレス32 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  33. 33. short V+C doubles the consonant トラック *ペン ペット ベッド33 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  34. 34. The /y/ sound is replaced by /i/ *ユー イヤー34 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  35. 35. additional character combinations…(ヤ) (イ) (ユ) イェ (ヨ)(ワ) ウィ (ウ) ウェ ウォヴァ ヴィ ヴ ヴェ ヴォ ヴャ ヴュ ヴョクァ クィ クェ クォグァ グィ グェ グォ シェ ジェ チェツァ ツィ ツェ ツォ ティ トゥ テャ テュ テョファ フィ (フ) フェ フォ フャ フュ フョ35 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  36. 36. … but still pronounced the “old” way フォーク ホーク ベンダ ヴェンダー36 cpcoloma 5/7/2012
  37. 37. SW# : My Katakana name1. On 1/8 sheet of yellow pad2. Write your nickname and how it would be written in Katakana COLOMA 5月7日 FL102 Mae = メイ 37 cpcoloma 5/7/2012

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